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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1040, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic, causing a lot of death. How to quickly screen risk population for severe patients is essential for decreasing the mortality. Many of the predictors might not be available in all hospitals, so it is necessary to develop a simpler screening tool with predictors which can be easily obtained for wide wise. METHODS: This retrospective study included all the 813 confirmed cases diagnosed with COVID-19 before March 2nd, 2020 in a city of Hubei Province in China. Data of the COVID-19 patients including clinical and epidemiological features were collected through Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System. Predictors were selected by logistic regression, and then categorized to four different level risk factors. A screening tool for severe patient with COVID-19 was developed and tested by ROC curve. RESULTS: Seven early predictors for severe patients with COVID-19 were selected, including chronic kidney disease (OR 14.7), age above 60 (OR 5.6), lymphocyte count less than < 0.8 × 109 per L (OR 2.5), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio larger than 4.7 (OR 2.2), high fever with temperature ≥ 38.5℃ (OR 2.2), male (OR 2.2), cardiovascular related diseases (OR 2.0). The Area Under the ROC Curve of the screening tool developed by above seven predictors was 0.798 (95% CI 0.747-0.849), and its best cut-off value is > 4.5, with sensitivity 72.0% and specificity 75.3%. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed screening tool can be a good choice for early prediction and alert for severe case especially in the condition of overload health service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25837, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are large knowledge gaps regarding how transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in different settings across the world. This study aims to summarize basic reproduction number (R0) data and provide clues for designing prevention and control measures. METHODS: Several databases and preprint platforms were retrieved for literature reporting R0 values of COVID-19. The analysis was stratified by the prespecified modeling method to make the R0 values comparable, and by country/region to explore whether R0 estimates differed across the world. The average R0 values were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 185 unique articles, yielding 43 articles for analysis. The selected studies covered 5 countries from Asia, 5 countries from Europe, 12 countries from Africa, and 1 from North America, South America, and Australia each. Exponential growth rate model was most favored by researchers. The pooled global R0 was 4.08 (95% CI, 3.09-5.39). The R0 estimates for new and shifting epicenters were comparable or even higher than that for the original epicenter Wuhan, China. CONCLUSIONS: The high R0 values suggest that an extraordinary combination of control measures is needed for halting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Environmental and Sustainability Indicators ; : 100118, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1202270

ABSTRACT

Water is essential for a sustainable economic prosperity, but rapid economic growth and intensive agricultural activities usually cause water pollution. The middle and lower reaches of China’s Yangtze River Basin were urbanized and industrialized much earlier than the upper reach and have been suffering from water pollution. In the past two decades, economic growth accelerated in the upper reach due to several national economic initiatives. Based on analyzing water quality changes from 2000 to 2019 and during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 for Chengdu in the upper reach, we hope to provide some water governance suggestions. In 2019, water at 66% of 93 sites in Chengdu did not achieve the national III standards using measurements of 23 water quality parameters. The top two pollutants were total nitrogen (TN) and fecal coliform (FC). From 2000 to 2019, water quality was not significantly improved at the non-background sites of Chengdu's Min Basin, and the pollution in this basin was mainly from local pollutants release. During the same period, water quality deteriorated in Chengdu’s Tuo Basin, where pollution was the result of pollutant discharges in Chengdu in addition to inter-city pollutant transport. During the COVID-19 lockdown, water quality generally improved in the Min Basin but not in the Tuo Basin. A further investigation on which pollution sources were shut down or not during the lockdown can help make pollution reduction targets. Based on the results, we provide suggestions to strengthen inter-jurisdictional and inter-institutional cooperation, water quality monitoring and evaluation, and ecological engineering application.

4.
Perfusion ; : 267659121995999, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119371

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already become a global pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Previous evidence from similar patient populations proved that carefully selected patients with severe ARDS who did not benefit from conventional treatment might be successfully supported with Veno-Venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). We now share the case reports of COVID-19 patients with ECMO combined prone position strategies.

5.
Friedlingstein, Pierre, O'Sullivan, Michael, Jones, Matthew W.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Hauck, Judith, Olsen, Are, Peters, Glen P.; Peters, Wouter, Pongratz, Julia, Sitch, Stephen, Corinne, Le Quéré, Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe, Jackson, Robert B.; Alin, Simone, Luiz E O , C. Aragão, Arneth, Almut, Arora, Vivek, Bates, Nicholas R.; Becker, Meike, Benoit-Cattin, Alice, Bittig, Henry C.; Bopp, Laurent, Bultan, Selma, Chandra, Naveen, Chevallier, Frédéric, Chini, Louise P.; Evans, Wiley, Florentie, Liesbeth, Forster, Piers M.; Gasser, Thomas, Gehlen, Marion, Gilfillan, Dennis, Gkritzalis, Thanos, Luke, Gregor, Gruber, Nicolas, Harris, Ian, Hartung, Kerstin, Haverd, Vanessa, Houghton, Richard A.; Ilyina, Tatiana, Jain, Atul K.; Joetzjer, Emilie, Kadono, Koji, Kato, Etsushi, Kitidis, Vassilis, Korsbakken, Jan Ivar, Landschützer, Peter, Lefèvre, Nathalie, Lenton, Andrew, Lienert, Sebastian, Liu, Zhu, Lombardozzi, Danica, Marland, Gregg, Metzl, Nicolas, Munro, David R.; Julia E M , S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro, Nakaoka, Niwa, Yosuke, O'Brien, Kevin, Ono, Tsuneo, Palmer, Paul I.; Pierrot, Denis, Poulter, Benjamin, Resplandy, Laure, Robertson, Eddy, Rödenbeck, Christian, Schwinger, Jörg, Séférian, Roland, Skjelvan, Ingunn, Smith, Adam J. P.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Toste, Tanhua, Tans, Pieter P.; Tian, Hanqin, Tilbrook, Bronte, van der Werf, Guido, Vuichard, Nicolas, Walker, Anthony P.; Wanninkhof, Rik, Watson, Andrew J.; Willis, David, Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Yuan, Wenping, Xu, Yue, Zaehle, Sönke.
Earth System Science Data ; 12(4):3269-3340, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-971932

ABSTRACT

Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2010–2019), EFOS was 9.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), andELUC was 1.6 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1. For the same decade, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.02 GtC yr-1 (2.4 ± 0.01 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN 2.5 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.4 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of -0.1 GtC yr-1 indicating a near balance between estimated sources and sinks over the last decade. For the year 2019 alone, the growth in EFOS was only about 0.1 % with fossil emissions increasing to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 when cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.8 ± 0.7 GtC yr-1, for total anthropogenic CO2 emissions of 11.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1 (42.2 ± 3.3 GtCO2). Also for 2019, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr-1), SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.6 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.1 ± 1.2 GtC yr-1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 409.85 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2019. Preliminary data for 2020, accounting for the COVID-19-induced changes in emissions, suggest a decrease in EFOS relative to 2019 of about -7 % (median estimate) based on individual estimates from four studies of -6 %, -7 %,-7 % (-3 % to -11 %), and -13 %. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2019, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr-1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from diverse approaches and observations shows (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions over the last decade, (2) a persistent low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent discrepancy between the different methods for the ocean sink outside the tropics, particularly in the Southern Ocean. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2019;Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at 10.18160/gcp-2020 (Friedlingstein et al., 2020).

6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e20487, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the Chinese government and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention have released COVID-19-related information to the public through various channels to raise their concern level of the pandemic, increase their knowledge of disease prevention, and ensure the uptake of proper preventive practices. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to determine Chinese netizens' concerns related to COVID-19 and the relationship between their concerns and information on the internet. We also aimed to elucidate the association between individuals' levels of concern, knowledge, and behaviors related to COVID-19. METHODS: The questionnaire, which consisted of 15 closed-ended questions, was designed to investigate Chinese netizens' knowledge about COVID-19. The self-selection online survey method of nonprobability sampling was used to recruit participants through Dingxiangyisheng WeChat (a public, medical, and health service platform in China) accounts. Standard descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. RESULTS: In total, 10,304 respondents were surveyed on the internet (response rate=1.75%; 10,304/590,000). Nearly all (n=9803, 95.30%) participants were concerned about "confirmed cases" of COVID-19, and 87.70% (n=9036) received information about the outbreak through social media websites. There were significant differences in participants' concerns by sex (P=.02), age (P<.001), educational attainment (P=.001), and occupation (P<.001). All knowledge questions and preventive practices were associated with concerns about COVID-19. The results of the multivariate logistic regression indicated that participants' sex, educational attainment, occupation and employment status, knowledge acquisition, and concern level were significantly associated with the practice of proper preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidated Chinese netizens' concerns, information sources, and preventive behaviors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Sex, educational attainment, occupation and employment status, knowledge acquisition, and level of concern were key factors associated with proper preventive behaviors. This offers a theoretical basis for the government to provide targeted disease prevention and control information to the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Media/standards , Adolescent , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Cell Discov ; 6(1): 80, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912895

ABSTRACT

The cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as an attractive drug repurposing target for COVID-19. Here we combine genetics and chemical perturbation to demonstrate that ACE2-mediated entry of SARS-Cov and CoV-2 requires the cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) as an assisting cofactor: ablation of genes involved in HS biosynthesis or incubating cells with a HS mimetic both inhibit Spike-mediated viral entry. We show that heparin/HS binds to Spike directly, and facilitates the attachment of Spike-bearing viral particles to the cell surface to promote viral entry. We screened approved drugs and identified two classes of inhibitors that act via distinct mechanisms to target this entry pathway. Among the drugs characterized, Mitoxantrone is a potent HS inhibitor, while Sunitinib and BNTX disrupt the actin network to indirectly abrogate HS-assisted viral entry. We further show that drugs of the two classes can be combined to generate a synergized activity against SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect. Altogether, our study establishes HS as an attachment factor that assists SARS coronavirus cell entry and reveals drugs capable of targeting this important step in the viral life cycle.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e18718, 2020 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, over 80,000 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were confirmed in China. Public prevention and control measures, along with efforts from all sectors of society, were undertaken to control and eliminate disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes Chinese citizens' response to the epidemic, the preventive measures they implemented to avoid being infected, and the public strategies that were carried out by the government, health workers, etc. We also discuss the efficacy of these measures in controlling the epidemic in China. METHODS: Information on the responses and behaviors of Chinese citizens were collected through a cross-sectional, internet-based survey using Dingxiang Doctor's public account on WeChat. Information on public strategies implemented by all sectors of society to control the epidemic and data on new COVID-19 cases were collected from the internet, mainly from government websites. Standard descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 10,304 participants responded to the survey, with 10,198 valid responses; 74.1% (n=7557) were female and 25.9% (n=2641) were male. Overall, 98.2% (n=10,013) of participants paid high or very high attention to the epidemic, with WeChat being their main information source (n=9400, 92.2%). Over half the participants (n=5878, 57.7%) were confident that the epidemic could be curbed in China; 92.4% (n=9427) opened windows for ventilation more frequently than usual; 97.9% (n=9986) used masks in public; 95.7% (n=9759) avoided large crowds and stayed at home as much as possible; and 97.9% (n=9988) washed their hands more often than usual. Women were more likely to practice these behaviors than men (P<.001). With a series of strict public control measures, like nationwide health education campaigns, holiday extensions, the Examine and Approve Policy on the resumption of work, close management of working and living quarters, a health QR (Quick Response) code system, community screening, and social distancing policies, the number of new cases have decreased dramatically since February 12, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The methods employed by Chinese citizens and authorities have effectively curtailed the spread of COVID-19, demonstrating that this pandemic can be brought under control as long as the right measures are taken.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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