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1.
Autom Constr ; 150: 104846, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304603

ABSTRACT

Rapid design and construction of mobile cabin hospitals (MCHs) have become imperative in the COVID-19 response. However, due to unique design specifications (e.g., parallel design and model pre-revision), collaboration in emergency construction projects (ECPs) like MCHs presents data security vulnerabilities, including a lack of traceability and transparency. These hazards invariably reduce design effectiveness, leading to undesirable rework and project delay. Blockchain technology is a potential solution to address the aforementioned security issues in ECPs because it offers immutable and traceable data storage. Nevertheless, directly implementing blockchain in ECPs is impractical, for the blockchain has a complex deployment process and provides limited functions supporting BIM-based design. Therefore, this paper develops a lightweight blockchain-as-a-service (LBaaS) prototype to enhance the ECPs design efficiency by securing and automating information exchange while eliminating the difficulties of deploying and using blockchain. This paper contributes three elements: (1) Security vulnerabilities of design in ECP are identified. Taking an MCH in Hong Kong as an example, this paper investigates its design process and determines two design characteristics and associated security flaws. (2) Key technologies to support easy deployment and usage of blockchain in ECPs are developed. New technical elements, including a Multi-to-One mapping (MtOM) kit for easy blockchain registration, an integrated workflow retaining existing design practices, and smart contracts for secure interaction with blockchain, are developed to support LBaaS functionality. (3) An LBaaS prototype is validated and evaluated. The prototype is illustrated and evaluated using design examples based on actual MCH project data. Results show that the LBaaS is a feasible and secure approach for ECPs collaboration. This paper deepens the understanding of data security issues in ECPs and offers technical guidance in establishing blockchain solutions.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31052, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused great panic among the public, with many people suffering from adverse stress reactions. To control the spread of the pandemic, governments in many countries have imposed lockdown policies. In this unique pandemic context, people can obtain information about pandemic dynamics on the internet. However, searching for health-related information on the internet frequently increases the possibility of individuals being troubled by the information that they find, and consequently, experiencing symptoms of cyberchondria. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the relationships between people's perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and their depression, anxiety, and stress to explore the role of cyberchondria, which, in these relationship mechanisms, is closely related to using the internet. In addition, we also examined the moderating role of lockdown experiences. METHODS: In February 2020, a total of 486 participants were recruited through a web-based platform from areas in China with a large number of infections. We used questionnaires to measure participants' perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, to measure the severity of their cyberchondria, depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and to assess their lockdown experiences. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, common method bias, descriptive statistical analysis, and correlation analysis were performed, and moderated mediation models were examined. RESULTS: There was a positive association between perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and depression (ß=0.36, t=8.51, P<.001), anxiety (ß=0.41, t=9.84, P<.001), and stress (ß=0.46, t=11.45, P<.001), which were mediated by cyberchondria (ß=0.36, t=8.59, P<.001). The direct effects of perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety (ß=0.07, t=2.01, P=.045) and stress (ß=0.09, t=2.75, P=.006) and the indirect effects of cyberchondria on depression (ß=0.10, t=2.59, P=.009) and anxiety (ß=0.10, t=2.50, P=.01) were moderated by lockdown experience. CONCLUSIONS: The higher the perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, the more serious individuals' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. In addition, the associations were partially mediated by cyberchondria. Individuals with higher perceived severity of the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to develop cyberchondria, which aggravated individuals' depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Negative lockdown experiences exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/standards , Social Media/standards , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
Water Res ; 204: 117606, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373297

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of COVID-19 has aroused people's particular attention to biosafety. A growing number of disinfection products have been consumed during this period. However, the flaw of disinfection has not received enough attention, especially in water treatment processes. While cutting down the quantity of microorganisms, disinfection processes exert a considerable selection effect on bacteria and thus reshape the microbial community structure to a great extent, causing the problem of disinfection-residual-bacteria (DRB). These systematic and profound changes could lead to the shift in regrowth potential, bio fouling potential, as well as antibiotic resistance level and might cause a series of potential risks. In this review, we collected and summarized the data from the literature in recent 10 years about the microbial community structure shifting of natural water or wastewater in full-scale treatment plants caused by disinfection. Based on these data, typical DRB with the most reporting frequency after disinfection by chlorine-containing disinfectants, ozone disinfection, and ultraviolet disinfection were identified and summarized, which were the bacteria with a relative abundance of over 5% in the residual bacteria community and the bacteria with an increasing rate of relative abundance over 100% after disinfection. Furthermore, the phylogenic relationship and potential risks of these typical DRB were also analyzed. Twelve out of fifteen typical DRB genera contain pathogenic strains, and many were reported of great secretion ability. Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter possess multiple disinfection resistance and could be considered as model bacteria in future studies of disinfection. We also discussed the growth, secretion, and antibiotic resistance characteristics of DRB, as well as possible control strategies. The DRB phenomenon is not limited to water treatment but also exists in the air and solid disinfection processes, which need more attention and more profound research, especially in the period of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Bacteria , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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