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1.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009420, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154087

ABSTRACT

To simultaneously determine clinical and immunological responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in young and old females and males, 681 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 369 normal controls (NCs) were analyzed based on age and sex classifications using multiple linear regression analysis. Compared to the age-matched NCs, both young and old male and female non-comorbid COVID-19 patients had lower lymphocyte counts and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration, and only young male and female patients had lower neutrophil counts. Compared to young patients, both old males and females had significantly higher plasma ALT and AST concentrations. Compared to young and old females, age-matched males had higher plasma ALT and AST concentrations, but only young males had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. Compared to females, old males, but not young males, showed higher incidence of critical illness. Compared to young patients, old females had more leukocyte and neutrophil counts above the normal upper limit and B cell count below the normal lower limit (NLL), while old males had more lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell counts below the NLL. No sex or age associations with B cell and NK cell counts were observed. However, there were age-dependent decreases in CD8+ T-cell counts in both male and female COVID-19 patients. Age was negatively associated with CD8+ T cell counts but positively associated with neutrophil count, CRP, ALT, and AST concentrations, and sex (females) was negatively associated with neutrophil count, CRP, ALT, and AST concentrations. The present study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly induced 1) beneficial sex (female)-related differences regarding reduced COVID-19 disease severity and negative associations with inflammatory responses and liver damage, and 2) harmful age-related differences relating to negative associations with CD8+ T cell count and positive associations with inflammatory responses and liver damage. Thus, sex and age are biological variables that should be considered in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sex Characteristics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 7713-7722, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134586

ABSTRACT

If age boundaries are arbitrarily or roughly defined, age-related analyses can result in questionable findings. Here, we aimed to delineate the uniquely age-dependent immune features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a retrospective study of 447 patients, stratified according to age distributions of COVID-19 morbidity statistics into well-defined age-cohorts (2-25y, 26-38y, 39-57y, 58-68y, and 69-79y). Age-dependent susceptibilities and severities of the disease were observed in COVID-19 patients. A comparison of the lymphocyte counts among the five age-groups indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection led to age-dependent lymphopenia. Among the lymphocyte subsets, the CD8+ T cell count alone was significantly and age-dependently decreased (520, 385, 320, 172, and 139 n/µl in the five age-groups, respectively). In contrast, the CD4+ T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell counts did not differ among age-cohorts. Age and CD8+ T cell counts (r=‒0.435, p<0.0001) were negatively correlated in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection age-dependently increased the plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (2.0, 5.0, 9.0, 11.6, and 36.1 mg/L in the five age-groups, respectively). These findings can be used to elucidate the role of CD8+ T cells in age-related pathogenesis and to help develop therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Distribution , CD3 Complex/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Patient Admission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
4.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(23): 6016-6025, 2020 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered coronavirus that has generated a worldwide outbreak of infections. Many people with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have developed severe illness, and a significant number have died. However, little is known regarding infection by the novel virus in pregnant women. We herein present a case of COVID-19 confirmed in a woman delivering a neonate who was negative for SARS-CoV-2 and related it to a review of the literature on pregnant women and human coronavirus infections. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was a 36-year-old pregnant woman in her third trimester who had developed progressive clinical symptoms when she was confirmed as infected with SARS-CoV-2. Given the potential risks for both the pregnant woman and the fetus, an emergency cesarean section was performed, and the baby and his mother were separately quarantined and cared for. As a result, the baby currently shows no signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection (his lower respiratory tract samples were negative for the virus), while the mother completely recovered from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although we presented a single case, the successful result is of great significance for pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection and with respect to fully understanding novel coronavirus pneumonia.

5.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1492

ABSTRACT

Background: Timely and accurately identification of thrombotic complications seems to become an important issue in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2

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