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1.
Nat Immunol ; 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138183

ABSTRACT

Traditionally viewed as poorly plastic, neutrophils are now recognized as functionally diverse; however, the extent and determinants of neutrophil heterogeneity in humans remain unclear. We performed a comprehensive immunophenotypic and transcriptome analysis, at a bulk and single-cell level, of neutrophils from healthy donors and patients undergoing stress myelopoiesis upon exposure to growth factors, transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-T), development of pancreatic cancer and viral infection. We uncover an extreme diversity of human neutrophils in vivo, reflecting the rates of cell mobilization, differentiation and exposure to environmental signals. Integrated control of developmental and inducible transcriptional programs linked flexible granulopoietic outputs with elicitation of stimulus-specific functional responses. In this context, we detected an acute interferon (IFN) response in the blood of patients receiving HSC-T that was mirrored by marked upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Systematic characterization of human neutrophil plasticity may uncover clinically relevant biomarkers and support the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 933317, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785209

ABSTRACT

Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (SOS) is a life threatening HSCT complication and it can rapidly evolve in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, with a mortality exceeding 80%. Early treatment with defibrotide is the leading factor for efficacy. Its prophylactic use is recommended in the pediatric setting, but its value isn't validated for adults, although factors for individual risk assessment are debated. We here present a real-world experience of Defibrotide prophylaxis in adults at very high risk of SOS. We treated with prophylactic Defibrotide and Ursodeoxycholic Acid seven patients receiving allogeneic HSCT for high risk B-ALL, previously treated with single agent Inotuzomab-Ozogamicin. They all had other high risk factors for SOS such as previous hepatotoxicity, previous allo-HSCT, double alkylating conditioning. All patients received Treosulfan-Fludarabine conditioning, Thiotepa was added in 4 patients and 4GyTBI in 2 patients. GvHD prophylaxis included post-transplant cyclophosphamide, rapamycin and mycophenolate. Donor source was PBSC. Five patients received family MMRD transplant, 1 patient a MRD transplant and 1 patient a MUD transplant. Non-severe gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in two patients requiring defibrotide temporarily discontinuation. SOS occurred in 3/7 cases within 21 days after HSCT and no late-onset SOS were diagnosed. SOS caused death in all cases. All three patients were characterized by a common pattern of very high risk factors by prior HSCT, they all received a myeloablative conditioning with Treosulfan-Thiotepa and a MMRD transplant. Defibrotide prophylaxis apparently failed to protect against the development of SOS in those patients treated with a double alkylator-based conditioning regimen, while a possible efficacy for the other high-risk patients is debatable.

3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 57(9): 1389-1398, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680995

ABSTRACT

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a promising graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, no studies have reported the efficacy of a GvHD prophylaxis based on PTCy with sirolimus (Sir-PTCy) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this retrospective study, we analyze the use of sirolimus in combination with PTCy, with or without mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), on 242 consecutive adult patients with AML undergoing a myeloablative first allo-HSCT from different donor types, in three European centers between January 2017 and December 2020. Seventy-seven (32%) patients received allo-HSCT from HLA-matched sibling donor, 101 (42%) from HLA-matched and mismatched unrelated donor, and 64 (26%) from haploidentical donor. Except for neutrophil and platelet engraftment, which was slower in the haploidentical cohort, no significant differences were observed in major transplant outcomes according to donor type in univariate and multivariate analysis. GvHD prophylaxis with Sir-PTCy, with or without MMF, is safe and effective in patients with AML undergoing myeloablative allo-HSCT, resulting in low rates of transplant-related mortality, relapse/progression, and acute and chronic GvHD in all donor settings.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Adult , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Unrelated Donors
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207379

ABSTRACT

Correlation between risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and CD3+ counts within the peripheral blood stem cell graft has recently been reported in the setting of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). We aimed to investigate the benefit of the addition of a single dose of anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG 5 mg/kg) to PT-Cy in this setting. Starting in 2019, all patients receiving PBSC transplant containing CD3+ counts above 300 × 106/kg (study group) received a post-transplant dose of ATLG in addition to standard PT-Cy. The study was designed as a real-life analysis and included all consecutive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) recipients according to the above-mentioned inclusion criterion (n = 21), excluding cord blood and bone marrow donors. Using a 1:2 matched-pair analysis, we compared the outcomes with a historical population who received PT-Cy only (control group). We found a delayed platelet engraftment (29% vs. 45% at 30 days, p = 0.03) and a non-significant trend toward higher risk of poor graft function (29% vs. 19%, p = 0.52). The addition of ATLG impacted long-term immune reconstitution on the CD4+ subsets, but this did not translate into higher rate of relapse or viral infection. Acute GvHD was not significantly impacted, but 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was significantly lower in the study group (15% vs. 41%, p = 0.04). Survival outcomes were comparable. In conclusion PT-Cy and ATLG was overall safe and translated into a low rate of chronic GvHD incidence.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 731478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568066

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reducing toxicities while preserving efficacy in allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) remains a particularly challenging problem. Different strategies to enhance the antitumor activity without increasing early and late adverse toxicities of the conditioning regimens have been investigated. METHODS: The aim of "AlloTreo" prospective phase 2 clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a conditioning regimen based on Treosulfan (42 g/m2) and fludarabine (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00598624). We enrolled 108 patients with hematological diseases who received a first allo-HCT between June 2005 and January 2011, inside the frame of this trial at our center. Median age at allo-HCT was 49 (21-69) years. Disease Risk Index was low in 14 (13%) patients, intermediate in 73 (67.7%), high in 17 (15.7%), and very high in 4 (3.7%). Donors were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related in 50 cases, 10/10-matched unrelated in 36, and 9/10-mismatched unrelated in 22. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine-A and methotrexate. Anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) was administered in patients receiving unrelated allo-HCT. Stem cell source was mainly peripheral blood stem cells (95%). RESULTS: Conditioning regimen was well tolerated. Full donor chimerism was documented for most patients (88%) at day +30. At 12 years, overall survival (OS) was 41.7% (32.2%-50.9%), progression-free survival (PFS) was 31.7% (23%-40.7%), GvHD-free/relapse-free survival was 20.9% (13.7%-29.1%), cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse was 44.5% (34.9%-53.6%), and transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 22.5% (15.1%-30.9%). CI of acute GvHD grades II-IV was 27.8% (19.7%-36.5%) at 100 days; 12-year CI of chronic GvHD was 40.7% (31.3%-49.9%). Relevant long-term adverse effects were 10 secondary malignancy, 3 fatal cardiovascular events, and 1 late-onset transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy. Ten successful pregnancies were reported after allo-HCT. In multivariate analysis, older age (≥60 years) at transplant [hazard ratio (HR), 2.157; p = 0.004] and a high/very high disease risk index (HR, 1.913; p = 0.026) were significantly associated with a lower OS. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data confirmed the myeloablative potential and safe toxicity profile of full dose Treo (42 g/m2) especially for the younger population.

10.
Leuk Res ; 109: 106642, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant that severely impacts quality of life and long-term survival. About 50-to-60 % of patients treated with steroids require a further line of therapy due to lack of sustained response. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, has recently been approved for the treatment of acute GvHD. METHODS: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate ruxolitinib efficacy and safety in a cohort of patients diagnosed with moderate (25 %) or severe (75 %) steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent chronic GvHD. Response evaluation was performed at three and six months. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients received ruxolitinib after a median of three previous lines (range, r 1-11) for a median of 8.6 months (r 1-51.6). Cutaneous GvHD was the most frequent presentation. We observed an overall response of 59 % (CR 9%, PR 50 %) at three months and 62 % (CR 15 %, PR 46 %) at six months. Two patients had hematologic disease recurrence and were censored at relapse; no other permanent discontinuation due to adverse events were documented. Cutaneous, oral, genital and ocular GvHD significantly improved after treatment. 2-year overall survival and 2-year transplant related mortality were 74 % and 19 % respectively. Ruxolitinib was associated with a significant reduction of steroid dose. CONCLUSION: Ruxolitinib was confirmed to be a safe and effective option as salvage treatment also for advanced stages of chronic GvHD. Longer follow up is needed to evaluate durability of response. Prospective analyses on larger cohorts are ongoing.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Salvage Therapy/methods , Steroids/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Young Adult
11.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(9): 776.e1-776.e13, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087452

ABSTRACT

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a promising graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from haploidentical donors and more recently in matched donor transplants. Herein, we describe our real-life experience on 249 adult patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, from HLA-matched related (MRD), HLA-matched unrelated (MUD), or mismatched related donors (MMRD). Patients received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), using a GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and sirolimus. Mycophenolate mofetil was added in MUD or MMRD. In the HLA-matched donor group (MRD, n = 48, MUD, n = 50), the cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GvHD was 23% and 9% at 100 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 25% at 2 years, severe only for 5% of the patients. The cumulative incidences of relapse and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 31% and 9% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 72% and progression-free survival (PFS) 60%; the composite endpoint of GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 52% at 2 years. In the haploidentical donor group (n = 151), we documented a cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD of 35% and 20% at 100 days, respectively, and a cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD of 39% at 2 years. We observed severe chronic GVHD in 15% of the patients. The cumulative incidence of relapse and TRM was 32% and 25% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year OS was 48%, whereas PFS was 43%; GRFS was 28% at 2 years. However, more patients in the haploidentical group presented high/very high disease risk index (DRI) and higher HCT-comorbidity index. In patients classified in the low-intermediate DRI, 2-year GRFS was 53% in MRD, 65% in MUD, and 46% in haploidentical HSCT (P = .33). Sirolimus-PTCy platform deserves further investigation as an alternative to calcineurin-inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis for all donor sources. In patients presenting a low-intermediate DRI, this strategy translates in relevant survival independently from the transplant source.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Unrelated Donors
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(8): 1350-1357, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cord blood transplant (CBT) recipients have a high incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) in the context of short-term peritransplant antiviral prophylaxis. In 2009, international guidelines recommended HZ prophylaxis for at least 1 year after hematopoietic cell transplant. The impact of longer-term antiviral prophylaxis on HZ incidence after CBT is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed varicella zoster virus (VZV)-seropositive CBT recipients who were transplanted between 2006 and 2016. We abstracted HZ events and other variables for up to 5 years post-CBT. We calculated the cumulative incidence of HZ and used Cox proportional hazards regression to identify variables associated with HZ. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 227 patients. Among 1-year survivors, 91% were still receiving prophylaxis, for a median duration of 20.6 months. HZ occurred in 44 patients (19%) at a median of 23.6 months. The cumulative incidence of HZ by 1 year after CBT was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], .1%-4%), but increased to 26% (95% CI, 19%-33%) by 5 years. In a multivariable analysis, acute graft-vs-host disease was associated with increased risk, whereas antiviral prophylaxis was associated with reduced risk for HZ (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.19 [95% CI, .09-.4]). There was no association between CD4+ T-cell counts at 1 year post-CBT and subsequent risk for HZ. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of HZ after CBT despite antiviral prophylaxis for > 1 year. Based on these findings, we suggest longer duration of prophylaxis for HZ after CBT. Compliance with antiviral prophylaxis, VZV-specific immune monitoring, and vaccination to mitigate HZ after CBT also require further study.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Herpes Zoster , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Fetal Blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1179-1188, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004700

ABSTRACT

Incidence and outcome of infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis are largely unknown. Study aims were to estimate the incidence of pre-engraftment bloodstream infections (PE-BSIs) and viral infections (VIs; cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus [ADV], human herpes virus 6 [HHV6], and BK-polyomavirus hemorrhagic-cystitis [BKPyV-HC]), their predictive factors, and infection-related mortality (IRM) after HSCT with PT-Cy. We analyzed 235 patients: 62%, 21%, and 17% received haploidentical (haplo), matched-unrelated donor (MUD), and matched-related donor, respectively. Overall, 72 patients had 77 PE-BSI episodes at a median time of 13 days after HSCT: cumulative incidence function (CIF) at 28 days was 32%, without differences among donor types (P = .988). By multivariate analysis, CIF of PE-BSI was higher in patients with severe neutropenia before HSCT (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.90) and in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria rectal carriers (AHR = 2.68). IRM at 30 days was 5%, without differences by donor type (P = .106). Overall, 208 patients experienced ≥1 VIs (first occurrence among CMV, HHV6, ADV, BKPyV-HC) at a median time of 20 days after HSCT: CIF at 90 days was 91%, significantly higher in MUD and haplo (P = .0089). By multivariate analysis, also acute GVHD grade ≥2 (AHR = 1.32) and host/donor CMV-serology mismatch (positive/positive versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.95, positive/negative versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.41, negative/positive versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.35) affected VIs occurrence. IRM at 180 days was 8%, without differences among donor types (P = .106). In conclusion, study results did not show a significant impact of donor type on PE-BSI incidence; conversely, MUD and haploidentical transplants retained a higher occurrence of VIs in the early phase after HSCT.


Subject(s)
Cystitis , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Unrelated Donors
15.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984133

ABSTRACT

Since the first hematopoietic stem cell transplant, over a million transplants have been performed worldwide. In the last decade, the transplant field has witnessed a progressive decline in bone marrow and cord blood utilization and a parallel increase in peripheral blood as a source of stem cells. Herein, we review the use of bone marrow and cord blood in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting, and we describe the recent advances made in different medical fields using cells derived from cord blood and bone marrow.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Fetal Blood/cytology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans
16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2319, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632401

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has dramatically improved in the past decade, it is still compromised by transplant-related mortality (TRM), mainly caused by Graft-vs. -Host Disease (GvHD). Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study to ascertain the potential of serum interleukin-6 (IL6) levels, measured before conditioning and 7 days after allo-HSCT, in predicting acute GvHD, TRM and survival after allo-HSCT with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) based GvHD prophylaxis. Results: Between April 2014 and June 2017, we collected samples from 166 consecutive allo-HSCT patients. By ROC analysis, we identified a threshold of 2.5 pg/ml for pre-transplant IL6 and 16.5 pg/ml for post-transplant IL6. Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of high baseline IL6 levels to predict worse OS (HR 4.3; p < 0.01) and grade II-IV acute GvHD (HR 1.8; p = 0.04), and of high post-transplant IL6 to identify patients with worse OS (HR 3.3; p < 0.01) and higher risk of grade II-IV (HR 5; p < 0.01) and grade III-IV acute GvHD (HR 10.2; p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, both baseline (HR 6.7; p < 0.01) and post-transplant high IL6 levels (HR 3.5; p = 0.02) predicted higher TRM. Conclusions: IL6 may contribute to the risk stratification of patients at major risk for aGvHD and TRM, potentially providing a window for additional prophylactic or preemptive strategies to improve the quality of life in the early post-transplant phase and the outcome of allo-HSCT.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Graft vs Host Disease/blood , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Female , Graft vs Host Disease/mortality , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Transplantation, Homologous , Young Adult
18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 386-392, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wpr-914563

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of infection-related-mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this prospective pilot study, we investigated the use of bedside lung ultrasound (US) in IFD management. Ten consecutive hematological patients, who developed pulmonary IFD after HSCT, were included in the study. Standard computed tomography scan and lung US were performed at IFD diagnosis and 10 days after antifungal treatment. The lung US demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of lung lesions at IFD diagnosis and in the follow-up examinations. It is of potential clinical relevance for IFD management in hematological patients.

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