Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 805512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952702

ABSTRACT

Aims: To explore the public's preference for psychological interventions through a discrete choice experiment and to provide references for formulating psychological intervention policies and establishing psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies. Methods: This study is a discrete choice experiment. Attributes and levels were identified through literature reviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and expert consultations. Experimental design principles were applied to generate choice sets containing different attribute levels and develop a survey instrument. Convenience sampling was conducted nationwide, and 1,045 participants were investigated. A mixed logit model was used to evaluate the public's preferences. Results: All attributes in our study were found to have a significant influence on the public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The public's preferences for providers and duration were influenced by the public's levels of education and classifications. Furthermore, the most ideal scenario was found to be a one-on-one psychological intervention provided by family and friends through social network platforms, for which the frequency is twice per week, and the duration of each intervention is 0.5-1 h. Conclusions: The public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic are affected by the method, form, frequency, provider, and duration of interventions. Our findings provide references for the formulation of psychological intervention policies and the establishment of psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 198-202, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936863

ABSTRACT

Population-based measures and public health response to stem the spread of the coronavirus may have caused unintended isolation and increased the risk of psychiatric illnesses. The objective of this study is to assess psychological distress among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine whether these mental health outcomes differ by HIV status. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey on the impact of COVID-19 on users of Blued, the largest gay social networking app in July 2020. All active users on Blued were invited to complete a survey regarding sexual behaviors, HIV prevention and treatment service utilization, and various health and mental health outcomes. Among all participants (n = 1205), over half (53.2%) of the participants screened mild to severe psychological distress: 34.9% screened mild, 11.6% screened moderate, and 6.6% screened severe psychological distress. Of all participants, 20.9% met the criteria for anxiety and 19.6% for depression. Psychological distress was associated with younger age having a degree below college, being unemployed, and having lower income. MSM with HIV were more likely to report depression or anxiety compared to HIV negative/unknown status MSM after adjusting for study covariates (AOR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.01-3.26; AOR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.11-3.67, respectively). MSM in China experience a high burden of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrated HIV treatment and mental health services are needed to provide adequate and timely mental health support to MSM living with HIV.

3.
Heart ; 108(Suppl 1):A116, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1891872

ABSTRACT

150 Table 1Comparison of 31P-MRS and CMR findings between patients with Post-COVID-19 syndrome and healthy volunteersVariable Healthy volunteers (n=10) Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (n=19) p-value PCr/ATP ratio 2.11±0.5 2.24±0.4 0.49 LV end diastolic volume index (ml/m2) 87±20 81±10 0.43 LV ejection fraction (%) 64±4 61±4 0.07 RV end diastolic volume index (ml/m2) 93±23 83±13 0.24 RV ejection fraction (%) 55±8 57±6 0.49 Global longitudinal strain (%) -13.3±2.3 -11.9±3.7 0.21 Mean T1 (ms) 1206±64 1158±114 0.15 Extra-cellular volume (%) 25±2.3 22±4.5 0.03 T2 (ms) 39±2.4 40±2.9 0.46 MPR 3.1±0.9 3.0±0.8 0.89 Continuous variables are expressed as mean (SD) or median (IQR) and categorical variables as number (%). PCr/ATP=phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate ratio;LV=left ventricular;ml/m2=milliliters per square meter of body surface area;RV=right ventricular;ms=milliseconds;MPR=myocardial perfusion reserve. 150 Figure 1Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Post COVID-19 Syndrome[Figure omitted. See PDF]Conflict of InterestNone

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(10): 4211-4219, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading around the world. The COVID-19 vaccines may improve concerns about the pandemic. However, the roles of inactivated vaccines in older patients (aged ≥60 years) with infection of Delta variant were less studied. METHODS: We classified the older patients with infection of Delta variant into three groups based on the vaccination status: no vaccination (group A, n = 113), one dose of vaccination (group B, n = 46), and two doses of vaccination (group C, n = 22). Two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac) were evaluated in this study. The demographic data, laboratory parameters, and clinical severity were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 181 older patients with infection of Delta variant were enrolled. 111 (61.3%) patients had one or more co-morbidities. The days of "turn negative" and hospital stay in Group C were lower than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury, and cardiac injury in Group A were higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). The MV-free days and ICU-free days during 28 days in Group A were also lower than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). In patients with co-morbidities, vaccinated cases had lower incidences of MODS (P = 0.015), septic shock (P = 0.015), and ARDS (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were effective in improving the clinical severity of older patients with infection of Delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
5.
Arch Virol ; 167(2): 493-499, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712247

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases in the global swine industry. A rapid and sensitive on-site detection method for PRRS virus (PRRSV) is critically important for diagnosing PRRS. In this study, we established a method that combines reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for detecting North American PRRSV (PRRSV-2). The primers and probe were designed based on the conserved region of all complete PRRSV-2 genomic sequences available in China (n = 512) from 1996 to 2020. The detection limit of the assay was 5.6 × 10-1 median tissue culture infection dose (TCID50) per reaction within 30 min at 42 °C, which was more sensitive than that of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (5.6 TCID50 per reaction). The assay was highly specific for the epidemic lineages of PRRSV-2 in China and did not cross-react with pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus 2, classical swine fever virus, or porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. The assay performance was evaluated by testing 179 samples and comparing the results with those of quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results showed that the detection coincidence rate of RT-RPA and RT-qPCR was 100% when the cycle threshold values of RT-qPCR were < 32. The assay provides a new alternative for simple and reliable detection of PRRSV-2 and has great potential for application in the field.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/metabolism , Recombinases , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324125

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To understand the mental health status and needs of the health care workers during the epidemic period of COVID-19, so as to provide scientific basis for the targeted intervention measures. Methods A total of 511 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui province. Results There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: female was higher than male;nurse was higher than doctor;middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles;junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above;isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). Loneliness scores: doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). Social support: doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness ( P < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness ( P < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. Conclusions The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious. We should focus on this population, and take targeted intervention measures.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307717

ABSTRACT

The worst-hit area of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China was Wuhan City and its affiliated Hubei Province, where the outbreak has been well controlled. The case fatality rate (CFR) is the most direct indicator to evaluate the hazards of an infectious disease. However, most reported CFR on COVID-19 represent a large deviation from reality. We aimed to establish a more accurate way to estimate the CFR of COVID-19 in Wuhan and Hubei and compare it to the reality. The daily case notification data of COVID-19 from December 8, 2019, to May 1, 2020, in Wuhan and Hubei were collected from the bulletin of the Chinese authorities. The instant CFR of COVID-19 was calculated from the numbers of deaths and the number of cured cases, the two numbers occurred on the same estimated diagnosis dates. The instant CFR of COVID-19 was 1.3%-9.4% in Wuhan and 1.2%-7.4% in Hubei from January 1 to May 1, 2020. It has stabilized at 7.69% in Wuhan and 6.62% in Hubei since early April. The cure rate was between 90.1% and 98.8% and finally stabilized at 92.3% in Wuhan and stabilized at 93.5% in Hubei. The mortality rates were 34.5/100 000 in Wuhan and 7.61/100 000 in Hubei. In conclusion, this approach reveals a way to accurately calculate the CFR, which may provide a basis for the prevention and control of infectious diseases.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 764599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598692

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute myocardial damage is common in severe COVID-19. Post-mortem studies have implicated microvascular thrombosis, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) demonstrating a high prevalence of myocardial infarction and myocarditis-like scar. The microcirculatory sequelae are incompletely characterized. Perfusion CMR can quantify the stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) and identify its association with infarction and myocarditis. Objectives: To determine the impact of the severe hospitalized COVID-19 on global and regional myocardial perfusion in recovered patients. Methods: A case-control study of previously hospitalized, troponin-positive COVID-19 patients was undertaken. The results were compared with a propensity-matched, pre-COVID chest pain cohort (referred for clinical CMR; angiography subsequently demonstrating unobstructed coronary arteries) and 27 healthy volunteers (HV). The analysis used visual assessment for the regional perfusion defects and AI-based segmentation to derive the global and regional stress and rest MBF. Results: Ninety recovered post-COVID patients {median age 64 [interquartile range (IQR) 54-71] years, 83% male, 44% requiring the intensive care unit (ICU)} underwent adenosine-stress perfusion CMR at a median of 61 (IQR 29-146) days post-discharge. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 67 ± 10%; 10 (11%) with impaired LVEF. Fifty patients (56%) had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE); 15 (17%) had infarct-pattern, 31 (34%) had non-ischemic, and 4 (4.4%) had mixed pattern LGE. Thirty-two patients (36%) had adenosine-induced regional perfusion defects, 26 out of 32 with at least one segment without prior infarction. The global stress MBF in post-COVID patients was similar to the age-, sex- and co-morbidities of the matched controls (2.53 ± 0.77 vs. 2.52 ± 0.79 ml/g/min, p = 0.10), though lower than HV (3.00 ± 0.76 ml/g/min, p< 0.01). Conclusions: After severe hospitalized COVID-19 infection, patients who attended clinical ischemia testing had little evidence of significant microvascular disease at 2 months post-discharge. The high prevalence of regional inducible ischemia and/or infarction (nearly 40%) may suggest that occult coronary disease is an important putative mechanism for troponin elevation in this cohort. This should be considered hypothesis-generating for future studies which combine ischemia and anatomical assessment.

9.
Nature ; 593(7859): 418-423, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137788

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the third outbreak this century of a zoonotic disease caused by a coronavirus, following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20031 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 20122. Treatment options for coronaviruses are limited. Here we show that clofazimine-an anti-leprosy drug with a favourable safety profile3-possesses inhibitory activity against several coronaviruses, and can antagonize the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in a range of in vitro systems. We found that this molecule, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, inhibits cell fusion mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein, as well as activity of the viral helicase. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis led to reduced viral loads in the lung and viral shedding in faeces, and also alleviated the inflammation associated with viral infection. Combinations of clofazimine and remdesivir exhibited antiviral synergy in vitro and in vivo, and restricted viral shedding from the upper respiratory tract. Clofazimine, which is orally bioavailable and comparatively cheap to manufacture, is an attractive clinical candidate for the treatment of outpatients and-when combined with remdesivir-in therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, particularly in contexts in which costs are an important factor or specialized medical facilities are limited. Our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic of COVID-19 and-possibly more importantly-in dealing with coronavirus diseases that may emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clofazimine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Clofazimine/pharmacokinetics , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cricetinae , DNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Synergism , Female , Humans , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Male , Mesocricetus , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
10.
Eur Heart J ; 42(19): 1866-1878, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Troponin elevation is common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We used multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess myocardial injury in recovered COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients (64 ± 12 years, 70% male) with severe COVID-19 infection [all requiring hospital admission, 48 (32%) requiring ventilatory support] and troponin elevation discharged from six hospitals underwent convalescent CMR (including adenosine stress perfusion if indicated) at median 68 days. Left ventricular (LV) function was normal in 89% (ejection fraction 67% ± 11%). Late gadolinium enhancement and/or ischaemia was found in 54% (80/148). This comprised myocarditis-like scar in 26% (39/148), infarction and/or ischaemia in 22% (32/148) and dual pathology in 6% (9/148). Myocarditis-like injury was limited to three or less myocardial segments in 88% (35/40) of cases with no associated LV dysfunction; of these, 30% had active myocarditis. Myocardial infarction was found in 19% (28/148) and inducible ischaemia in 26% (20/76) of those undergoing stress perfusion (including 7 with both infarction and ischaemia). Of patients with ischaemic injury pattern, 66% (27/41) had no past history of coronary disease. There was no evidence of diffuse fibrosis or oedema in the remote myocardium (T1: COVID-19 patients 1033 ± 41 ms vs. matched controls 1028 ± 35 ms; T2: COVID-19 46 ± 3 ms vs. matched controls 47 ± 3 ms). CONCLUSIONS: During convalescence after severe COVID-19 infection with troponin elevation, myocarditis-like injury can be encountered, with limited extent and minimal functional consequence. In a proportion of patients, there is evidence of possible ongoing localized inflammation. A quarter of patients had ischaemic heart disease, of which two-thirds had no previous history. Whether these observed findings represent pre-existing clinically silent disease or de novo COVID-19-related changes remain undetermined. Diffuse oedema or fibrosis was not detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Ventricular Function, Left
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 34, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly in China and other overseas areas, which has aroused widespread concern. The sharp increase in the number of patients has led to great psychological pressure on health care workers. The purpose of this study was to understand their mental health status and needs, so as to provide a scientific basis for alleviating the psychological pressure of health care workers. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 540 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui Province. The basic situation, perceived social support, depression level, loneliness and COVID-19 related knowledge were collected and analyzed by questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 511 valid questionnaires were finally retrieved. There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: People in isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were at the level of mild to moderate depression. Female was higher than male; nurse was higher than doctor; middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles; junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above; isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions (p < 0.05). Loneliness scores: Doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of other medical departments (p < 0.05). Social support: Doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of other departments (p < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (p < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness (p < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Anxiety , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 34, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly in China and other overseas areas, which has aroused widespread concern. The sharp increase in the number of patients has led to great psychological pressure on health care workers. The purpose of this study was to understand their mental health status and needs, so as to provide a scientific basis for alleviating the psychological pressure of health care workers. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 540 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui Province. The basic situation, perceived social support, depression level, loneliness and COVID-19 related knowledge were collected and analyzed by questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 511 valid questionnaires were finally retrieved. There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: People in isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were at the level of mild to moderate depression. Female was higher than male; nurse was higher than doctor; middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles; junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above; isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions (p < 0.05). Loneliness scores: Doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of other medical departments (p < 0.05). Social support: Doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of other departments (p < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness (p < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness (p < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Anxiety , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e80-e83, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000587

ABSTRACT

AIM: The inconsistent effects of lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) on COVID-19 seem to be caused by the therapeutic window. In the present study, we aim to present the effects of early LPV/r treatment on patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: The demographics, characteristics, treatments, SARS-CoV-2 test results and outcomes of 19 patients with severe COVID-19 treated with LPV/r within 12 days of onset of symptoms were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: Within 3 days of admission, three (15.79%) patients received noninvasive ventilation, and 16 (84.21%) patients received high-flow oxygen support. The median duration between the onset of symptoms and initiating LPV/r therapy was 9 (range 2-12) days. The median course of LPV/r treatment was 11 (range 7-17) days. One of the 19 patients (5.26%) died. Of the 18 patients discharged, the median hospital stay was 17 (range 11-45) days. At day 6 after LPV/r therapy was initiated, 68.42% of patients were virologically cured, increasing to 84.22% at day 12. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 who were treated with LPV/r within 12 days of the onset of symptoms, clinical improvement was observed in 18/19 patients (94.74%). Randomised controlled trials are urgently needed to further evaluate this strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824860

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an important pathogen that affects the pig industry, is a highly genetically diverse RNA virus. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of this virus have not been completely elucidated. In this study, comparative analyses of all available genomic sequences of North American (NA)-type PRRSVs (n = 355, including 138 PRRSV genomes sequenced in this study) in China and the United States during 2014-2018 revealed a high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and the GP2 to GP3 regions. Lineage 1 (L1) PRRSV was found to be susceptible to recombination among PRRSVs both in China and the United States. The recombinant major parent between the 1991-2013 data and the 2014-2018 data showed a trend from complex to simple. The major recombination pattern changed from an L8 to L1 backbone during 2014-2018 for Chinese PRRSVs, whereas L1 was always the major backbone for US PRRSVs. Intralineage recombination hot spots were not as concentrated as interlineage recombination hot spots. In the two main clades with differential diversity in L1, NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, NADC34-like PRRSVs have been relatively stable in population genetic diversity for years. Systematic analyses of insertion and deletion (indel) polymorphisms of NSP2 divided PRRSVs into 25 patterns, which could generate novel references for the classification of PRRSVs. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the recombination of PRRSVs and indicate the need for coordinated epidemiological investigations among countries.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we systematically compared differences in the lineage distribution, recombination, NSP2 polymorphisms, and evolutionary dynamics between North American (NA)-type PRRSVs in China and in the United States. Strikingly, we found high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and in the GP2 to GP3 region. Also, intralineage recombination hot spots were scattered across the genome between Chinese and US strains. Furthermore, we proposed novel methods based on NSP2 indel patterns for the classification of PRRSVs. Evolutionary dynamics analysis revealed that NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, suggesting that a dominant population may occur and cause an outbreak. Our findings offer important insights into the recombination of PRRSVs and suggest the need for coordinated international epidemiological investigations.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Phylogeography , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Swine , United States/epidemiology
16.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1387

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients frequently have acute myocardial injury with elevated troponin levels. Underlying aetiologies are ill-defined. We use

17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-711

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China has been basically controlled. However, the worldwide COVID-19 cases are increasing

18.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 517-526, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671953

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a global threat to the human population. Identifying animal species susceptible to infection with the SARS-CoV-2/ HCoV-19 pathogen is essential for controlling the outbreak and for testing valid prophylactics or therapeutics based on animal model studies. Here, different aged Chinese tree shrews (adult group, 1 year old; old group, 5-6 years old), which are close relatives to primates, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. X-ray, viral shedding, laboratory, and histological analyses were performed on different days post-inoculation (dpi). Results showed that Chinese tree shrews could be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Lung infiltrates were visible in X-ray radiographs in most infected animals. Viral RNA was consistently detected in lung tissues from infected animals at 3, 5, and 7 dpi, along with alterations in related parameters from routine blood tests and serum biochemistry, including increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Histological analysis of lung tissues from animals at 3 dpi (adult group) and 7 dpi (old group) showed thickened alveolar septa and interstitial hemorrhage. Several differences were found between the two different aged groups in regard to viral shedding peak. Our results indicate that Chinese tree shrews have the potential to be used as animal models for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tupaiidae/physiology , Age Factors , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tupaiidae/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 1-6, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China has been basically controlled. However, the global epidemic of COVID-19 is worsening. We established a method to estimate the instant case fatality rate (CFR) and cure rate of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: A total of 82 735 confirmed cases released officially by the Chinese authorities from December 8, 2019 to April 18, 2020 were collected. The estimated diagnosis dates of deaths and cured cases were calculated based on the median cure time or median death time of individual cases. Following this, the instant CFR was calculated according to the number of deaths and cured cases on the same estimated diagnosis date. RESULTS: In China, the instant CFR of COVID-19 was 3.8-14.6% from January 1 to January 17; it then declined gradually and stabilized at 5.7% in April. The average CFR in China was 6.1±2.9%, while the CFR was 1.0±0.4% in China except Hubei Province. The cure rate of COVID-19 was 93.9±2.9% in China, and stabilized at 94.3%, while it was 99.0±0.4% in China except Hubei Province. CONCLUSIONS: The instant CFR of COVID-19 in China overall was much higher than that in China except Hubei Province. The CFR of COVID-19 in China was underestimated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL