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4.
J Infect Public Health ; 2020 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started from Wuhan, China has infected more than 6.7 million individuals and killed more than 390,000 individuals globally. Due to the higher transmissibility and infectiousness, asymptomatic infection, and lack of effective treatment options and vaccine, fatalities and morbidities are increasing day by day globally. Despite physical health consequences, COVID-19 pandemic has created stress and anxiety, as result there is an increased risk of mental illnesses both in the infected and normal individuals. To eradicate these risks, it is necessary to determine the COVID-19 zoonotic source of transmission to humans and clinical manifestations in infected individuals. Although, identification or development of the highly effective therapeutic agents is necessary, however, development of protective strategies against the COVID-19 by enhancing immune responses will be an asset in the current scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we discuss the transmission, health consequences, and potential management (therapeutic and preventive) options for COVID-19 disease.

5.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200609.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-615509

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading across the world to cause thousands of mortalities each day. Poor responses from the authorities to the spread of infection, lack of effective measures for prevention, unavailability of promising treatment options, and sufficient diagnostic options have created an alarming for the world. The transmission routes from human to human of SARS-CoV-2 can be the direct transmission, droplet inhalation transmission, contact transmission, transmission through saliva, and transmission via fecal–oral routes. Due to the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2's, developing control and prevention measures is challenging. Implementing proper strategies addressing the infection control and clinical supplies, understanding the mechanism associated with pathogenesis, advancing in preventive measures and effective treatment and diagnostic options are necessary to control the ongoing pandemic. In this article, we briefly discuss the features, entry mechanism, infectiousness, and health consequences related to the COVID-19 outbreak.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-2, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327128
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108853

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7146

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
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