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1.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 994743, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099105

ABSTRACT

The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS), a mature foreign protein expression platform, has been available for decades, and has been effectively used in vaccine production, gene therapy, and a host of other applications. To date, eleven BEVS-derived products have been approved for use, including four human vaccines [Cervarix against cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), Flublok and Flublok Quadrivalent against seasonal influenza, Nuvaxovid/Covovax against COVID-19], two human therapeutics [Provenge against prostate cancer and Glybera against hereditary lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD)] and five veterinary vaccines (Porcilis Pesti, BAYOVAC CSF E2, Circumvent PCV, Ingelvac CircoFLEX and Porcilis PCV). The BEVS has many advantages, including high safety, ease of operation and adaptable for serum-free culture. It also produces properly folded proteins with correct post-translational modifications, and can accommodate multi-gene- or large gene insertions. However, there remain some challenges with this system, including unstable expression and reduced levels of protein glycosylation. As the demand for biotechnology increases, there has been a concomitant effort into optimizing yield, stability and protein glycosylation through genetic engineering and the manipulation of baculovirus vector and host cells. In this review, we summarize the strategies and technological advances of BEVS in recent years and explore how this will be used to inform the further development and application of this system.

2.
Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045717

ABSTRACT

The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS), a mature foreign protein expression platform, has been available for decades, and has been effectively used in vaccine production, gene therapy, and a host of other applications. To date, eleven BEVS-derived products have been approved for use, including four human vaccines [Cervarix against cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), Flublok and Flublok Quadrivalent against seasonal influenza, Nuvaxovid/Covovax against COVID-19], two human therapeutics [Provenge against prostate cancer and Glybera against hereditary lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD)] and five veterinary vaccines (Porcilis Pesti, BAYOVAC CSF E2, Circumvent PCV, Ingelvac CircoFLEX and Porcilis PCV). The BEVS has many advantages, including high safety, ease of operation and adaptable for serum-free culture. It also produces properly folded proteins with correct post-translational modifications, and can accommodate multi-gene– or large gene insertions. However, there remain some challenges with this system, including unstable expression and reduced levels of protein glycosylation. As the demand for biotechnology increases, there has been a concomitant effort into optimizing yield, stability and protein glycosylation through genetic engineering and the manipulation of baculovirus vector and host cells. In this review, we summarize the strategies and technological advances of BEVS in recent years and explore how this will be used to inform the further development and application of this system.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 854630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952414

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented public health crisis worldwide. Although several vaccines are available, the global supply of vaccines, particularly within developing countries, is inadequate, and this necessitates a need for the development of less expensive, accessible vaccine options. To this end, here, we used the Escherichia coli expression system to produce a recombinant fusion protein comprising the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; residues 319-541) and the fragment A domain of Cross-Reacting Material 197 (CRM197); hereafter, CRMA-RBD. We show that this CRMA-RBD fusion protein has excellent physicochemical properties and strong reactivity with COVID-19 convalescent sera and representative neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Furthermore, compared with the use of a traditional aluminum adjuvant, we find that combining the CRMA-RBD protein with a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH-002C-Ac) leads to stronger humoral immune responses in mice, with 4-log neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, our study highlights the value of this E. coli-expressed fusion protein as an alternative vaccine candidate strategy against COVID-19.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5652, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440473

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses' receptor-binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Both antibodies confer good resistance to mutations in the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics. They can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/isolation & purification , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , CHO Cells , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sf9 Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2076-2090, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913103

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was the result of the rapid transmission of a highly pathogenic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for which there is no efficacious vaccine or therapeutic. Toward the development of a vaccine, here we expressed and evaluated as potential candidates four versions of the spike (S) protein using an insect cell expression system: receptor binding domain (RBD), S1 subunit, the wild-type S ectodomain (S-WT), and the prefusion trimer-stabilized form (S-2P). We showed that RBD appears as a monomer in solution, whereas S1, S-WT, and S-2P associate as homotrimers with substantial glycosylation. Cryo-electron microscopy analyses suggested that S-2P assumes an identical trimer conformation as the similarly engineered S protein expressed in 293 mammalian cells but with reduced glycosylation. Overall, the four proteins confer excellent antigenicity with convalescent COVID-19 patient sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), yet show distinct reactivities in immunoblotting. RBD, S-WT and S-2P, but not S1, induce high neutralization titres (>3-log) in mice after a three-round immunization regimen. The high immunogenicity of S-2P could be maintained at the lowest dose (1 µg) with the inclusion of an aluminium adjuvant. Higher doses (20 µg) of S-2P can elicit high neutralization titres in non-human primates that exceed 40-times the mean titres measured in convalescent COVID-19 subjects. Our results suggest that the prefusion trimer-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 S-protein from insect cells may offer a potential candidate strategy for the development of a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sf9 Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spodoptera , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
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