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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 885482, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917202

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.777212.].

2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(5): 1607-1619, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777759

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is a highly infectious pathogen that promptly spread. Like other beta coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 encodes some non-structural proteins (NSPs), playing crucial roles in viral transcription and replication. NSPs likely have essential roles in viral pathogenesis by manipulating many cellular processes. We performed a sequence-based analysis of NSPs to get insights into their intrinsic disorders, and their functions in viral replication were annotated and discussed in detail. Here, we provide newer insights into the structurally disordered regions of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs. Our analysis reveals that the SARS-CoV-2 proteome has a chunk of the disordered region that might be responsible for increasing its virulence. In addition, mutations in these regions are presumably responsible for drug and vaccine resistance. These findings suggested that the structurally disordered regions of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs might be invulnerable in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7872-7882, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751769

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in hematopoietic cell survival, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and other cellular processes. It plays a significant role in cancer progression and viral infection. CK2 is considered a potential drug target in cancers and COVID-19 therapy. In this study, we have performed a virtual screening of phytoconstituents from the IMPPAT database to identify some potential inhibitors of CK2. The initial filter was the physicochemical properties of the molecules following the Lipinski rule of five. Then binding affinity calculation, PAINS filter, ADMET, and PASS analyses followed by interaction analysis were carried out to discover nontoxic and better hits. Finally, two compounds, stylopine and dehydroevodiamines with appreciable affinity and specific interaction towards CK2, were identified. Their time-evolution analyses were carried out using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, principal component analysis and free energy landscape. Altogether, we propose that stylopine and dehydroevodiamines can be further explored in in vitro and in vivo settings to develop anticancer and antiviral therapeutics.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324366

ABSTRACT

The crux of the paper is to present a detailed analysis of COVID-19 data which is available on global basis. This analysis is performed using some specific package of R software. It provides various insights from the data and help to understand the current status of this pandemic in India so that effective measures can be formulated by policymakers. These insights include global summary of this disease, growth rate of this pandemic and performance of SIR model for the given global data. The analysis has been presented in different tables and graphs to understand the outputs of the problem in a more detailed point of view.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 777212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598164

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants may cause resistance at the immunity level against current vaccines. Some emergent new variants have increased transmissibility, infectivity, hospitalization, and mortality. Since the administration of the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to a human in March 2020, there is an ongoing global race against SARS-CoV-2 to control the current pandemic situation. Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is the main target for current vaccine development, which can neutralize the infection. Companies and academic institutions have developed vaccines based on the S glycoprotein, as well as its antigenic domains and epitopes, which have been proven effective in generating neutralizing antibodies. The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other therapeutics developments are limited by the new emergent variants at the global level. We have discussed the emergent variants of SARS-CoV-2 on the efficacy of developed vaccines. Presently, most of the vaccines have been tremendously effective in severe diseases. However, there are still noteworthy challenges in certifying impartial vaccines; the stories of re-infections are generating more stressful conditions, and this needs further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261497, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581739

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of yellow fever in the Americas and the devastating 1918 influenza pandemic, biologists and clinicians have been drawn to human infecting viruses to understand their mechanisms of infection better and develop effective therapeutics against them. However, the complex molecular and cellular processes that these viruses use to infect and multiply in human cells have been a source of great concern for the scientific community since the discovery of the first human infecting virus. Viral disease outbreaks, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, have claimed millions of lives and caused significant economic damage worldwide. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of host-virus interaction and the molecular machinery involved in the pathogenesis of some common human viruses. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis of viral proteins involved in host-virus interaction to understand the changes in the sequence organization of these proteins during evolution for various strains of viruses to gain insights into the viral origin's evolutionary perspectives.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , HIV Envelope Protein gp160/genetics , Humans
7.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502360

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a serious threat to public health worldwide and, to date, no effective treatment is available. Thus, we herein review the pharmaceutical approaches to SARS-CoV-2 infection treatment. Numerous candidate medicines that can prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication have been proposed. These medicines include inhibitors of serine protease TMPRSS2 and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the receptor in host cells. ACE2 inhibitors block TMPRSS2 and S protein priming, thus preventing SARS-CoV-2 entry to host cells. Moreover, antiviral medicines (including the nucleotide analogue remdesivir, the HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and ritonavir, and wide-spectrum antiviral antibiotics arbidol and favipiravir) have been shown to reduce the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 as well as morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 765039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497027

ABSTRACT

A continual rise in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat. The main problem comes when SARS-CoV-2 gets mutated with the rising infection and becomes more lethal for humankind than ever. Mutations in the structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., the spike surface glycoprotein (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N), and replication machinery enzymes, i.e., main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) creating more complexities towards pathogenesis and the available COVID-19 therapeutic strategies. This study analyzes how a minimal variation in these enzymes, especially in S protein at the genomic/proteomic level, affects pathogenesis. The structural variations are discussed in light of the failure of small molecule development in COVID-19 therapeutic strategies. We have performed in-depth sequence- and structure-based analyses of these proteins to get deeper insights into the mechanism of pathogenesis, structure-function relationships, and development of modern therapeutic approaches. Structural and functional consequences of the selected mutations on these proteins and their association with SARS-CoV-2 virulency and human health are discussed in detail in the light of our comparative genomics analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Humans , Proteomics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 18: 3774-3787, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023519

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that are diversely found in humans and now declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. The population's susceptibility to these highly pathogenic coronaviruses has contributed to large outbreaks, evolved into public health events, and rapidly transmitted globally. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapies and vaccines against this disease. In the primary stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) infection, the signs and symptoms are nonspecific, and many more cases have been observed than initially expected. Genome sequencing is performed regularly to identify genetic changes to SARS-COV-2, and vaccine development is focused on manufacture, production, and based on specific problems, and very few are available on recent developments in the prevention of outbreaks. The aim of this review article to explore recent updates on SARS-COV-2 in the context of pathogenesis during disease progression, and innate acquired mechanisms of defense, This includes advances in diagnostics, susceptibility, and severity of host-virus genome interactions, modes of transmission, active compounds being used in pre-clinical and clinical trials for the treatment of patients, vaccine developments, and the effectiveness of SARS-COV-2 prevention and control measures. We have summarized the importance of pathophysiology immune response, Diagnostics, vaccine development currently approaches explored for SARS-COV-2.

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