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1.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 35(1):94-98, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2322018

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality gets reduced if antenatal care (ANC) is provided since it focuses on providing birth preparedness, good health maintenance measures, and awareness regarding pregnancy complications as well as danger signs.Methodology: The present study was conducted in the selected 10 villages in the Bahadarbad block of Haridwar (Uttarakhand). 479 out of 580 pregnant women (who had visited Antenatal Health Camps), responded to the questionnaire thus, leading to a response rate of 82.8%. Most respondents, i.e. 96% (n=461), were 21-30 years old. Result: Out of 461 pregnant women, only 45% visited Antenatal Health Camps and 58% were found anemic. The study also indicated that of the pregnant women who visited Antenatal Health Camps during this period, more than 72% of women gave their previous birth in less than two years. Only 15% of women obtained complete ANC (4 Visits) during the study period, just half of the previous year's coverage (31%) for the same duration. The study found that home deliveries increased significantly during the lockdown period. From April to June 2020, the percentage of home deliveries was 41% while from July to December 2020 it was 24%.Conclusion: The study suggested reduced utilization of ANC services during the pandemic and significant factors were women's age, residence, educational status, repurposing of maternity healthcare services, fear of COVID-19 transmission, and transportation disruptions. Thus, efforts should be taken to enhance maternal health services.

2.
Delineating Health and Health System: Mechanistic Insights into Covid 19 Complications ; : 1-40, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326383

ABSTRACT

Corona viruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect a broad array of avian and mammalian species, including humans. The existence of these viruses is believed to have occurred thousands of years ago as animal CoVs;bats, birds, rodents were reported to be natural reservoirs. They garnered scientific attention after their emergence as human pathogens, till date, seven corona viruses were reported to infect humans, with mild to moderate and/or severe respiratory illness. The ongoing pandemic COVID-19 is caused by one of such Corona viruses named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus -2 (SARS-CoV-2), which surprised all with its unprecedented transmission dynamics and etiology. This virus surged twice within a gap of a year all over the world and became a major health concern to many nations. Most of these Corona viruses transferred to humans through intermediate hosts. Here, in this chapter, we summarized the structural and genomic features of the Coronaviruses in general and emphasizing the SARS CoV-2 and added an account of the different vaccines and their production platforms in combating the pandemic. We briefly discussed the evolution of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and their role in the surge of COVID-19 infections. We tried to give a brief account of the historical aspects, cross-species transmission, mutations/recombinations scenarios of CoVs with a note on their emergence as human pathogens and future prospects of recurrence. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.

3.
Indian Journal of Neurosurgery ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2311676

ABSTRACT

Background Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFR) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and life-threatening infection involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Purpose of this study is to describe imaging features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated AIFR.Methods This was a retrospective observational study. Inclusion criteria: (1) post-COVID-19 patients with fungal rhinosinusitis detected on potassium hydroxide smear or histopathology;(2) onset of symptoms (facial pain, dental pain, facial swelling or discoloration, nasal bleed, periorbital swelling, ptosis, redness of eyes, vision loss) less than 4 weeks;and (3) magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography (MRI/CT) done within 5 days before surgery. Exclusion criteria: (1) cases of sinusitis without a history of previous COVID-19 infection;and (2) cases in whom fungal hyphae were not demonstrated on pathological examination. Noncontrast CT and dedicated MRI sequences were done initially. Site of involvement, unilateral/bilateral involvement, pattern of mucosal thickening, enhancement pattern, periantral invasion, orbital invasion, intracranial involvement, perineural spread, vascular involvement, and bony involvement were recorded. CT and MRI imaging features were compared.Results Analysis of 90 studies (CT and MRI) in 60 patients was done. Most common site of involvement was ethmoid followed by maxillary sinus. Bilateral disease was more common. Mucosal thickening with T2 hypointense septations was seen in 88.4% MRI studies. Periantral and orbital involvement was seen, respectively, in 84.6% and 55.7% cases of MRI. Intracranial involvement was noted in form of meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, infarct, hemorrhage, cavernous sinus, or perineural invasion. Vascular involvement was noted in form of vascular occlusion ( n = 3), vascular narrowing ( n = 3), and pseudoaneurysm ( n = 2). MRI was more sensitive in detecting periantral invasion, deep infratemporal fossa, cavernous sinus involvement, perineural invasion, optic nerve involvement, and vascular occlusion and narrowing, while CT was superior in identification of bony erosions.Conclusion Early recognition of AIFR in post-COVID-19 patients is important to prevent disease-related morbidity/mortality. Several rarely described findings are noted in our series of AIFR, like optic nerve involvement, pituitary fungal abscess, perineural spread, fungal aneurysms, and arteritis-related posterior circulation infarcts. MRI is superior for early detection of disease and in estimation of extent of disease, compared with CT. Imaging can help in early detection of AIFR, which has a significant impact on patient outcome.

4.
Role of Microorganisms in Pathogenesis and Management of Autoimmune Diseases: Volume II: Kidney, Central Nervous System, Eye, Blood, Blood Vessels and Bowel ; 2:177-194, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287338

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system encompassing clinically heterogenous group of diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and others. Genetic aetiology of GBS remains unknown till today but in most cases is often triggered by a preceding microbial infection or vaccine in few instances. Recent studies have suggested an association of GBS with recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections;however, the underlying mechanism remains undetermined. Massive vaccination drives carried out in the world for COVID-19 disease have also raised few concerns on the overall risk-benefit ratio regarding the development of GBS following vaccination. Molecular mimicry is the most commonly accepted immunopathogenic mechanism in GBS for infections including SARS-CoV-2;however, they do not explain all the cases. Impairment in the gut-brain axis due to altered gut microbiota has been linked to various neurological disorders, and with the close connection of immune system with gut microbiome, the development of GBS following gastrointestinal infections can be explained. This can facilitate the development of microbiome-targeted therapies such as prebiotics and probiotics together with immunotherapy for GBS management. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2022.

5.
Journal of Emerging Market Finance ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287337

ABSTRACT

The growing number of consulting reports published globally show mixed evidence of higher returns for environmental, social, and governance (ESG) indices as compared to equity indices. The present study analyzes whether or not sustainability provided resilience, during turbulent times, to the US and India, who were worst hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study tests whether higher ESG scores led to higher stock returns during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings revealed little and negative associations of sustainability with stock returns for sample firms during the COVID-19 crisis. There is no empirical evidence indicating that sustainability guarantees resilience during crisis times. Investors have their own preference channels and taste for sustainability that are beyond their financial motives. JEL Codes: Q01, G120 © 2023 Institute of Financial Management and Research.

6.
3rd International Conference on Data Science and Applications, ICDSA 2022 ; 552:557-569, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2248166

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, with a zero-patient emerging to millions in few months, has spread across countries and is approaching nearly 280 million of cases worldwide. Billions of check kits are given to hospitals because of exploding cases of COVID-19. Hence, it becomes necessary to implement automatic detection system to restrain COVID-19 spreading. Here, we have demonstrated a convolutional neural network (CNN) model which is trained on X-ray, CT scan images of chest cavity collected from totally different sources to foretell COVID-19 patients and healthy persons. The model is thereby connected to a Web application, which is be made by using Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Cascaded Style Sheet (CSS), JavaScript (JS), jQuery, ECMA Script (ES6), and Flask (Python). The model will be providing us the probability so that huge numbers of tests can be done in few clicks with available medical scans. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

7.
Journal of Tourism Futures ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2237184

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to examine the impact of online reviews on behavioral intentions via perceived risk. Perceived risk is both analytical and emotional. Stimulus–organism–response (S–O–R) framework guided this study to explore the interaction between online reviews, perceived risk and behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual model proposed in this research has been validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling to assess the measurement model and the validity of the scale, based on primary responses collected from 473 travelers. Findings: Findings of this study suggest the role of online consumer reviews in reducing the perceived risk associated with experience dominant services like tourism. Process model test proves the mediating role of perceived risk between online reviews and behavioral intentions. Results indicate the significance of online review in lowering the perceived risk leading to positive behavioral intentions. Practical implications: Destination marketing organizations (DMOs) should understand the role of online reviews in effectively reducing risk and uncertainty, thereby influencing behavioral intentions. Originality/value: This paper is unique in attempting to empirically examine the mediating role of perceived risk between online reviews and behavioral intentions. The study is a forerunner in using S–O–R framework to test the interaction between online review, perceived risk and behavioral intention. © 2023, Neha Yadav, Sanjeev Verma and Rekha Chikhalkar.

8.
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2175624

ABSTRACT

SARS-nCoV was identified as corona virus had spread worldwide very quickly and affected more than million people worldwide. To halt this acceleration and for efficient control the knowledge on genomic information is of utmost importance. We attempted to determine the nature of variation i.e., insertion, deletion, substitution, among structural sequences required to code for membrane, spike, nucleocapsid, envelope protein and glycosylation variation between SARS CoV and SARS nCoV spike glycoproteins, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis was performed by using retrieved sequences from the NCBI database. The analyzed sequences revealed, that the sequences coding for envelope protein show minor substituting amino acids. SARS CoV showed 94.74 percent amino acid identities with SARS nCoV amino acid sequences coding for envelope protein. In comparison to SARS nCoV, distinct amino acid residues vary in SARS CoV sequences coding for membrane, nucleocapsid, and spike proteins, respectively. S protein coding sequences of SARS CoV exhibited one deletion, six insertion and six hundred three substitutions in SARS nCoV sequence. Insertion of valine was found in receptor binding domain of SARS nCoV at position 487, and NSPR amino acid residues at position 683-686. Deletions and substitutions were also found in nucleotide sequences of strain B.1.617.2 of SARS nCoV. Additionally, binding interaction pattern of ACE2 receptor protein with original wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain with the recently evolved Omicron variant was also evaluated. The docking results substantiated that the specific variation in binding residues is likely to impact virulence pattern of both variants.

9.
Computational Approaches for Novel Therapeutic and Diagnostic Designing to Mitigate SARS-CoV2 Infection: Revolutionary Strategies to Combat Pandemics ; : 489-505, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149126

ABSTRACT

Currently, various computational methods are being used for the purpose of therapeutic design. The advent of the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a lot of problems due to which the development of effective treatment options is urgently needed. Computational intelligence is used in the control, prevention, prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Several important drug targets have been identified in severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 using in silico methods. Computer-aided drug design includes a variety of theoretical and computational approaches that are part of modern drug discovery. Advances in machine learning methods and their applications speed up the drug discovery process. Exploration of nucleic acid-based therapeutics is playing an important role in healthcare also. But a lot of challenges have also been seen that complicate the therapeutic design. Therefore, investigation of challenges associated with therapeutic design is important, and the present chapter is aimed to cover various therapeutic design approaches and challenges associated with them. Moreover, the role of computational strategies in the exploration of potential therapeutics against COVID-19 has been investigated. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10.
International Journal of Academic Medicine and Pharmacy ; 4(4):47-50, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2091744

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (SARS-COV-2) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (Covid-19), which was first detected in clusters of pneumonia-like diseases in Wuhan City of china on December 31st, 2019. WHO already declared a global pandemic in April 2020 when this infection spread to more than 230 countries. Overall, 20-30 % of cases in the United States have required hospitalisation, resulting in a substantial burden on health care workers and the U.SHealth care system and other world economies including developed and developing countries like India. The Indian national expert group on vaccine administration for covid-19 (NEGVAC) will guide all aspects of covid-19 vaccine planning in India. In response to alleviate the severity of Covid-19 infection spread, our scientists have developed one vaccine with AstraZeneca collaboration, as Covishield and another Covaxin from serum institute. The aim is a prospective study on the effectiveness of the Covid-19 vaccine among health care providers. Aim(s): The study aims to describe the role of the vaccine in health care providers exposed to sars-cov-2 infection during the post-vaccination period of 6 months duration. The objective is to Primary To evaluate the efficacy of the Covid-19 vaccine among health care providers. Secondary - evaluation of the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccine among different age groups of health care providers, detected Covid-19 positive by RT-PCR Test before vaccination. Evaluation of the effectiveness of covid-19 vaccine among a subgroup of Health care providers in which RT-PCR tests were found negative before vaccination. Material(s) and Method(s): This project was completed after covid-19 vaccines among exposed health care providers with and without prior history of covid-19 infection and followed up for a post-vaccination period of 6 months to assess the incidences of Covid-19 cases. The covid-19 vaccine intelligence network(CO-WIN) systems digital platform will be utilised to track the enlisted health care and frontline workers for vaccination and administration of vaccine on a real time basis. Result(s): The total number of RT-PCR confirmed cases among participants was 126(11%) out of 1140;which comprises of;in fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated and non-vaccinated participitants were 39(5.5%), 77(19.25%) and 10(26.31%) respectively. Conclusion(s): The covishield vaccine provides significant protection against the covid-19 infection, hence rapid vaccination along with other social measures likes hand sanitization, use of mask and social distancing are the most important weapons of humanity to fight this horrible disease named covid-19 Infection. Copyright © Necati Ozpinar. All rights reserved.

11.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):2904-F0057, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058007

ABSTRACT

Purpose : OCTA is a non-invasive imaging technique for assessment of retino-choroidal vasculature. It allows for the quantitative assessment of retinal microvasculature. This study evaluates macular vessel density (VD), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and retinal layer metrics by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in COVID-19 recovered patients. Additionally we studied the correlation of OCTA parameters with severity and duration of COVID-19 disease, steroid administration, and vaccination status. Methods : It is a case-control study of 180 patients. OCTA parameters namely-superficial and deep VD in various sectors-total, superior, inferior, central, inner, superior-inner, inferior-inner, full;superficial and deep FAZ area;SFCT: central subfield thickness (CST) were measured. Additionally, retinal layer metrics, including nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform complex, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, and outer nuclear layer were compared between cases and controls. A correlation analysis of OCTA parameters was done with severity and duration of disease. Results : FAZ area (superficial and deep);retinal layer metrics including ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer, outer plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer showed significant reduction while there was a significant increase in SFCT in COVID-19 patients. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in significant decrease in VD. A positive correlation was elicited between FAZ area and disease duration;while VD correlated negatively with the duration of disease. Multivariate analysis showed significant relationship between superficial FAZ area, deep FAZ area and SFCT. Conclusions : OCTA showed alteration in retinal microvasculature and metrics in COVID-19 patients. Choroid being a highly vascular structure was also affected. There was a resultant alteration in FAZ area and SFCT. Moreover, thrombotic phenomenon associated with COVID could alter retinal layer metrics. Additionally, corticosteroids also appear to alter retinal microvasculature. This study could help understand the wide-spread thrombotic phenomenon often associated with COVID infection and predisposition for the same among specific patients.

12.
3rd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management, ICIEM 2022 ; : 81-88, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018835

ABSTRACT

Detection of COVID-19 disease and its unmasking, demands a certain level of proficiency. The Work exhibited in the paper proposes a novel Deep Learning based approach to recognize COVID-19 contagious infection using CT scans and X- Rays of lungs in Humans. So that labour and risk intensive task for radiotherapists of taking samples from the patients can be minimized and risk of community spread can be avoided. Our model takes into the CT scan chest images of the patient having a certainty of infection and returns the most significant disease category related to that patient. In our study, we demonstrated a Deep Learning framework model that follows the methodology of up-skilled feature extraction techniques along with Logistic Regression [LR] and other usable classifiers. This is used on images to detect and report the presence of infection that is being prevailed in an organ with a considerably pinpoint accuracy of 97.8%. Also after trying the model on spatial information real- time dataset of our Family members, who were infected by the disease, this model was able to detect 8 out of 10 images correctly. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):1320-1332, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006543

ABSTRACT

The process of modernization brought significant changes in societies as a result of growing industrialism and technological advancements. The rapid pace of modernity has led to plenty of sociological thinking owing to its growing impact on society. However, the focus of classical and contemporary or late modern theorists varied. Whereas the central issue in classical modernity was analysis and critique of a modern society, the late modern theorists were concerned with the extreme pace and dynamism of modernity. For the late modern theorists, the central issue is ‘risk’ and its ‘prevention’. Risk, then, is fundamental to the late modern society and is manufactured by modern technologies and distributed easily as a result of global interconnectedness and free and voluntaristic movement. Such movement has resulted in several functional and dysfunctional consequences;one of them being the dissipation of ecological barriers that resulted in close contact of human and animal worlds. Covid 19 pandemic that has led to massive health crisis at global level represents thisfeature of modernity. The present sociological work tries to establish a possible interface between Covid 19 and systems produced by modernity/ late modernity in the light of perspectives constructed by Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Beck.

14.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(7):UC15-UC19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969752

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rapid sequence induction requires quick and single attempt intubation to secure airway without any untoward complications. As the number of attempts increase, risk of desaturation and aspiration increase which is potentially life threatening. In such circumstances, miscalculation may cost loss of time which may prove fatal. Various adjuncts and techniques have been devised to prevent such calamities. Aim: To compare ease of intubation with angulated stylet versus distally preloaded bougie for rapid sequence intubation in elective general anaesthesia procedures. Materials and Methods: This randomised trial was conducted in 100 patients belonging to 18-60 years of age from November 2019 to October 2020. Patients were intubated using rapid sequence including cricoid pressure by either styletted endotracheal tube (Group S) or distally preloaded bougie (Group B), for surgeries performed under general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was to determine mean time to intubation (TTI) and number of attempts, while secondary outcomes were haemodynamic responses to intubation and complications. Data comparison between independent groups in this normally distributed data was done using student -t test while intragroup analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: A total of hundred patients were randomized into two groups- group S (mean age: 41.12 years) and group B (mean age: 37.34 years), of 50 patients each. Number of intubation attempts with stylet were single in 82%, two in 18% cases while with preloaded bougie, it was 80% and 14%, respectively (p-value=0.196). Time to intubation was 22.16 seconds (group S) versus 33.78 seconds (group B) (p-value <0.05). The haemodynamic assessments revealed that tachycardia, hypertension and increased End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) was seen for 10 minutes immediately post induction in both the groups, though the intergroup difference was non significant. The incidence of sore throat was higher with stylet than bougie, though non-significant (p-value=0.118). Conclusion: Stylet should be preferred for ease of intubation in rapid sequence inductions. However, the insertion and removal of stylet must be done cautiously to prevent postoperative sore throat.

15.
International Journal of Clinical Dentistry ; 15(2):347-356, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958501

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study aimed at evaluating orthodontics and dental emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: An online-questionnaire survey was developed using google form and sent to orthodontists and dental surgeons in Nepal, practicing during the pandemic. Responses were collected and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Result: It was seen that the most frequently encountered orthodontic emergencies were due to, loose brackets (60%) and poking wires (47.6%) followed by loose bands (31.4%) and debonded loose buccal tubes (30.5%). Most frequently reported dental emergencies were broken or loose removable prosthesis and broken or loose crowns and/or bridges (13.3%) followed by bleeding while brushing (41.9%), swelling due to periodontal origin (33.1%), and severe pain due to tooth decay (44.8%). Conclusion: Loosening of brackets and poking wires were the most frequently reported orthodontic emergencies while, broken or loose prosthesis were reported commonly during the pandemic. © 2022 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

16.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(5):128-131, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863544

ABSTRACT

Objective: An acute respiratory infection of unknown origin was first detected in Wuhan, China, and reported to the WHO on December 31, 2019, and within a month, this outbreak was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This study was carried out with an objective to assess the spectrum of clinical presentations and host-related factors in outcome of COVID-19 during the first wave. Methods: This study was a retrospective observational study on 427 laboratory conformed COVID-19 cases at tertiary care center in North India during 6 months of the first wave. The demographic data, clinical profiles, comorbid conditions, treatment given, duration of hospital stay, and outcome were collected on a predesigned pro forma by the investigator himself and entered a Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 48.70 years. Majority (34.89%) belonged to above 60 years. About 74% were male. Mean duration of symptoms before detection was 1.30 and mean duration of hospital stay was 11.98 days. Majority had fever (73.54%) followed by myalgia (49.88%). About 85.48% had more than 3 symptoms and 69.32 had symptoms for less than 3 days before getting detected. About 40.52% had comorbidities and only 14.05% had history of contact with COVID confirmed case. Only 8.2% were asymptomatic while 23.19% had severe symptoms. Majority 91.57% were admitted to hospital while only 8.43% were put under home isolation. About 74% were positive on rapid antigen test (RAT) while 29.51% needed RT PCR test to turn positive. About 28.1% had bilateral pneumonia on chest X-ray findings. About 6.3% of were pregnant ladies. The overall mortality rate of our hospital during that 6-month period was 4.69%. Out of all parameters, only age category was statistically significant associated with outcome on discharge while other variables such as comorbidity, symptom duration, and severity of disease during admission did not show any statistically significant association. Conclusion: This single-center study provided the spectrum of clinical presentations and host-related factors in outcome of COVID-19 during the first wave which may help in decrease the burden of disease, minimize social disruption, and reduce the economic impact associated with a pandemic. Early detection, admission, and treatment of individuals with comorbidities and elderly would increase the recovery from the disease, thereby reduce mortality.

17.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(5):10-14, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863543

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine is the utilization of electronic facts to correspond expertise for sustaining healthcare when physical distance part the users. Within the same time frame, patient-related data can be simultaneously get collected for large number of people using remote monitoring. However, there is always a disadvantage if any issue arises due to software and hardware. Thus, computer-based patient monitoring can be problematic at sometimes if we exclusively depend on computer system. There should always be a balance between computer dependency and human intelligence use. Each and every one's life difference can be made by maintaining the balance between the two. Here, in this review article, we discussed the historical perspectives, telemedicine system concepts, telemedicine centers infrastructure, role in diverse spheres, types of telemedicine technology, applications in public health, current initiatives, and finally the success and popularity of telemedicine during COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies ; 12(2):1-32, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831607

ABSTRACT

Learning outcomes: The learning outcomes are as follows: to understand and examine the strategies that help platforms fight competition and manage networks;to analyse the role of platform governance in the management of the networks and partners’ trust;and to evaluate the strategic risks of disintermediation and multi-homing firms face while trying to sustain profits and capture value. Case overview/synopsis: The case presents the dilemma faced by Deepinder Goyal, the young founder and CEO of Zomato in formulating the growth strategy for its food delivery platform, struggling to retain its market leadership position amid intensifying competition and other challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Zomato has become a public company with an IPO announced in mid of July 2021. Therefore, there is growing expectation for profitability among its shareholders and investors considering tailwinds of COVID-19 crisis, which have given the push towards adoption of food delivery among the customers. This has also resulted in increased competition in the industry. On other hand, there is growing dissatisfaction among its restaurant partners who have been hit hard by COVID-19 and struggling for survival. CEO Deepinder has to find how he will ensure the long-term growth for Zomato to tap the growing food delivery market in India and regain its restaurant partner’s trust. Complexity Academic Level: The case is intended for post-graduate courses (MBA, PGDM) on digital business strategy or strategic management of technology-oriented businesses. The case can be used to understand the nature of competition and different strategies for platform-based businesses in the digital world. The case can also be used to study the role governance can play in efficient value creation and capture on the platform by the partner entities. Finally, the case also highlights how are platform businesses are coping with the Covid challenge. There are no specific prerequisites but knowledge on basic strategy concepts and platform business concepts will be good for better understanding. Level of difficulty is medium. Supplementary materials: Teaching notes are available for educators only. Subject code: CSS 11: Strategy. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

19.
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine ; 43(2):163-167, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1771680

ABSTRACT

Anesthesiology is a specialty that delivers prompt and positive results in patient care. It is natural for the general population to expect the highest degree of care and services from anesthetist. In the present time, patients are much more aware of their rights and medical procedure-related negligence. If any catastrophe occurs, it grabs news headlines very quickly. Laypeople suspect negligence in such cases, and these cases land up in the court of law. In the courts, decisions are left to the judiciary, which can be potentially influenced by the opinion of the general public. There has been a rising trend in medical negligence cases registered in consumer courts after the decision of the Supreme Court, that the services provided by an anesthesiologist come under the word “service” of Consumer Protection Act (1986). So the apprehension amongst the anesthesiologists regarding the legal issues is rising. And it has more value in the present COVID-19 pandemic to deal with. This article highlights the importance of maintaining the standard of care and protocols by which anesthesiologists can avoid legal consequences. Doctors should have legal awareness so that they can defend their cases in courts properly. There is a need to maintain a healthy doctor-patient relationship, good record keeping, and to provide a reasonable standard of care. © 2021

20.
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science ; 9(3):855-865, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1614309

ABSTRACT

The present pandemic situation has increased the demand for plant-based functional foods that enhancing the immunity of all aged groups against COVID-19. This factor has led to innovation in confectionery market because healthy and good quality confectionery products are lacking. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop functional candy from various combinations of banana, ginger, skim milk powder, and honey at 2-10% and evaluated its sensory, nutraceutical, functional properties and microbial stability for 60 days. Among various combinations of banana and ginger pulp, candy prepared from 96:6 w/w (banana: ginger) ratio was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic and nutritional quality. Ginger and skim milk powder addition increased the contents of protein (4.54%), ash (2.82%), phenolic (8.59 mgGAE/g), flavonoid (2.43 mQ/g), and antioxidant activity (36.15% DPPH activity) of functional candy. Microbial studies of functional candy revealed that it could be stored up to 60 days without microbial contamination and acceptable by the consumer. The cost of functional candy was Rs.1.53 per candy, which was less than market candy. This study showed that candy manufactured from banana, ginger, skim milk powder, and honey was nutritionally and economical improved with acceptable sensory properties. Developed functional candy increases the market's revenue and enables confectionary market to develop a new candy type.

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