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1.
Journal of Learning for Development ; 9(2):340-350, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965231

ABSTRACT

The current study explores the impact of COVID-19 related distress factors on the mental well-being of college students. For the purpose of the study, mental well-being is measured through the depression symptoms and general anxiety levels of the students. The study used judgemental sampling to identify the respondents of the study. The final sample consisted of 147 respondents and the data was analysed on SPSS. The results suggested that while COVID-19 distress factors were not significant in predicting the level of depression symptoms experienced by the students, the general anxiety levels were significantly impacted by the distress factors. The findings are particularly useful for the teachers and institutions working to connect and teach through online platforms. © 2022, Commonwealth of Learning. All rights reserved.

2.
Current Bioactive Compounds ; 18(6):19-27, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928369

ABSTRACT

Phytosteroids are biologically active compounds found naturally in herb plasma mem-branes, with a chemical composition similar to animal plasma membrane cholesterol. It can be found in almost all fats abundant plant’s diets. One of the vital phytosterols is β-sitosterol which has several biological activities. It has been proved in various in-vivo and in-vitro research in which β-sitosterol stabilized several physiological activities like as antioxidant, CNS activity (like anti-alzheimer, anxiolytic and sedative effects, CNS depressant activity), lipid-lowering effects (like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory, protective effects in pulmonary fibrosis, wound healing effects and anti-viral and COVID-19 activity. The experimental research on β-sitosterol shows that it can be used as a nutritional supplement to combat variousexisting diseases. In this review, we are high-lighting the most significant pharmacological action of β-sitosterol on the basis of available litera-ture.

3.
Machine Learning Approaches for Convergence of IoT and Blockchain ; : 93-108, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919204

ABSTRACT

Healthcare plays a critical role in the nation development and its economy. Recent Covid-19 pandemic has witnessed the importance of shifting the conventional healthcare infrastructure toward an automated environment that leverages the emerging paradigms such as Blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning (ML), and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Further, through this chapter, we demonstrated several technologies which are effective and are essential step into future healthcare system. The amalgamation of these technologies will influence future course of healthcare environment which is pervasive and ubiquitous. This chapter explores such transition and opportunities that would bring the disruptive changes through emerging technologies providing connectivity and interaction among machines and humans for better clinical care irrespective of any ethnic or geographical boundaries. © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC.

4.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):5761-5768, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885215

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a highly contagious and deadly infection. Aim: To evaluate the epidemiological pattern and spectrum of the covid ocular morbidity and appraise the typical presentation of ocular manifestations in hospitalized covid patients. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on individuals, who were hospitalized for COVID treatment between May 2021 and June 2021. The Data on patient history, physical exam, thorough ocular examination, laboratory results, and hospital disposition were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 658 patients were included. Ocular signs and symptoms were noted in 162 (24.62%) patients. 51.6% patients wereof >50 years of age and 54.1% were males. 71.6% of them belonged to urban community.75.3% patients developed ocular discomfort with in acute (<1 week) period of covid infection. The most common ocular abnormality was watering with conjunctival irritation, followed by conjunctival injection and lid swelling. Among the 162 patients, 30 (79.0%) developed ocular involvement prior to day 30 of onset of their COVID symptoms. 56.7% patients relieved from ocular discomfort after treatment. 5.7% patients reported deterioration of visual acuity. 65.8% patients reported ocular discomfort associated with regular oxygen mask wearing. Most significant ocular morbidity was black discoloration of lids and peri ocular skin, lid swelling, and redness and purulent discharge of conjunctivitis needed emergency ophthalmic reference. Conclusion: spectrum of covid sore eyes extends from ocular irritation to mucormycosis and other long-term complications.

5.
Mausam ; 73(1):115-128, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880647

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the comparative results of surface and satellite measurements made during the Phase 1 (25 March to 14 April), Phase 2 (15 April to 3 May) and Phase 3 (3 May to 17 May) of Covid-19 imposed lockdown periods of 2020 and those of the same locations and periods during 2019 over India. These comparative analyses are performed for Indian states and Tier 1 megacities where economic activities have been severely affected with the nationwide lockdown. The focus is on changes in the surface concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), PM2.5 and PM10, Ozone (O-3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and retrieved columnar NO2 from TROPOMI and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MODIS satellite. Surface concentrations of PM2.5 were reduced by 30.59%, 31.64% and 37.06%, PM10 by 40.64%, 44.95% and 46.58%, SO2 by 16.73%, 12.13% and 6.71%, columnar NO2 by 46.34%, 45.82% and 39.58% and CO by 45.08%, 41.51% and 60.45% during lockdown periods of Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 respectively as compared to those of 2019 periods over India. During 1st phase of lockdown, model simulated PM2.5 shows overestimations to those of observed PM2.5 mass concentrations. The model underestimates the PM2.5 to those of without reduction before lockdown and 1st phase of lockdown periods. The reduction in emissions of PM2.5, PM10, CO and columnar NO2 are discussed with the surface transportation mobility maps during the study periods. Reduction in the emissions based on the observed reduction in the surface mobility data, the model showed excellent skills in capturing the observed PM2.5 concentrations. Nevertheless, during the 1st & 3rd phases of lockdown periods AOD reduced by 5 to 40%. Surface O-3 was increased by 1.52% and 5.91% during 1st and 3rd Phases of lockdown periods respectively, while decreased by-8.29% during 2nd Phase of lockdown period.

6.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(5):OD01-OD04, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863305

ABSTRACT

Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non Hodgkin lymphoma, involving multiple organ system including lymph node, bone marrow, spleen etc. Among overall cases of DLBCL, 40% are extranodal in origin and stomach being the most common site. While most of the (60%) are not diagnosed until the disease reach stage 3 or 4. While in the present case, patient had predominant involvement of neck lymph nodes. Following the final diagnosis, patient was given first line treatment in the form of Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride (doxorubicin hydrochloride), vincristine (Oncovin) and Prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen, to which patient didn’t respond and further the patient was given Rituximab, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide (R-ICE)regimen, to which patient responded quickly. With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the patient encountered infection with its associated complication. The following case report is all about the timely management of DLBCL and patient’s survival with COVID-19 and its related complication. Haematological malignancy such as lymphomas, leukaemias, myelomas cause severe myelosuppression and lymphodepletion increasing the risk for development of COVID-19. Studies have shown that patients with malignancy had an estimated two-fold increased risk of contracting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than the general population. The survival rates strongly depend on COVID-19 stage and other factors such as immune (neutropenia) status and systemic inflammation.

7.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337490

ABSTRACT

Background: India experienced the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2021, driven by the delta variant. Apprehensions around the usefulness of vaccines against delta variant posed a risk to the vaccination program. Therefore, we estimated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccine against COVID-19 infection among individuals ≥45 years in Chennai, India. Methods: A community-based cohort study was conducted from May to September 2021 in a selected geographic area in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The estimated sample size was 10,232. We enumerated individuals from all eligible households and periodically updated vaccination and COVID-19 infection data. We computed vaccine effectiveness with its 95% confidence interval for two doses of the Covishield vaccine against any COVID-19 infection. Results: We enrolled 69,435 individuals, of which 21,793 were above 45 years. Two dose coverage of Covishield in the 18+ and 45+ age group was 18% and 31%, respectively. The overall incidence of COVID-19 infection was 1099 per 100,000 population. The vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 disease in the ≥45 age group was 61.3% (95% CI: 43.6 - 73.4) at least two weeks after receiving the second dose of Covishield. Genomic analysis of 74 (28 with two doses, 15 with one dose, and 31 with zero dose) out of the 90 aliquots collected from the 303 COVID-19 positive individuals in the 45+ age group showed delta variants and their sub-lineages. Conclusion: We demonstrated the effectiveness of two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine against the delta variant in the general population of Chennai. We recommend similar future studies considering emerging variants and newer vaccines. Two-dose vaccine coverage could be ensured to protect against COVID-19 infection.

9.
10.
3rd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Control and Networking, ICAC3N 2021 ; : 128-132, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1774596

ABSTRACT

In this era of COVID-19 pandemic, as more people self-isolate themselves, psychological health issues like depression, anxiety, and stress is an increasing concern all over the world. The purpose of this study is to investigate the data from social forums, where we found communities of depressed people sharing their thoughts and emotions in the forums, these forums also receive advices and support. In this paper, we will analyse the "depressed"text;by manipulating the data, extracting features, categorising, and try to understand what are the attributes of "depressed"text, and how we can "predict"whether a text should be marked as depressed or not. Using text analysis and text data mining techniques, the text obtained from the social forums was analysed and three different machine learning algorithms were used to predict depression. After cross validation overall accuracy of 99.69% was obtained as the best score using the proposed system. This study definitively answers the question regarding using human basic language and communication of personal experiences, for the prediction of depression and can be reached easily. Furthermore, not only actions, habits and behaviour of a person, text too can be used for accurate diagnosis of depression. © 2021 IEEE.

11.
2021 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Applications, ICCICA 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759074

ABSTRACT

The world has been shook by a rigorous pandemic covid-19 additionally it has accentuated a consequentiality on automating the health sectors from manually reading the reports to utilizing machine learning as an implement to getting the results of findings of sundry reports in an automated manner. There are many studies which have proved that the persons suffering from corona virus had optically discerned its effect on heart health. In rigorous cases it lead to cardiac apprehend proving it to be fatal for the patients. ECG (Electro cardiogram) is undertaken on patients to monitor their heart health;the ECG reports are then manually checked by medicos to conclude about heart health of a person. Cardiology is a study of heart and includes a variety of intricate diseases to be studied. This paper presents an efficient way of arrhythmia detection utilizing dataset which would be subsidiary for implementation of machine learning in this disease detection. Neural network has been utilized in the proposed work and is found to be 99% efficient thereby exhibiting a precise and tested method to further facilitate automation in this sector. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
Demography India ; 50(2):75-86, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717524

ABSTRACT

Following the USA, India ranks the second position globally for COVID-19 cases in the pandemic year 2020. The study intends to explore the epidemiological stage of COVID-19 disease by estimating the most warranted features peak and size of COVID-19 cases in India. Data for this study was retrieved from a publicly available COVID19-India application programming interface (API). Exponential model was applied to estimate the growth rates of daily COVID-19 cases. Seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was developed for the growth rates to predict daily COVID-19 cases. The exponential model unravels a shift and a modest decline in the growth of daily COVID-19 cases. The study shows that the SARIMA model is suitable for projecting daily COVID-19 cases. The forecasted peak value of daily COVID-19 cases was approximately 104,000 COVID-19 cases on 19 September 2020, whereas the real-time peak value was 97,861 COVID-19 cases conspicuous on 16 September 2020. The projected size of COVID-19 disease was 105 lakhs versus 103 lakhs at the end of December 2020. The forecasts and projections is adjoining to the real-time peak value of daily COVID-19 cases in India and successfully explores the epidemiological stage of COVID-19 disease in India.

14.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327013

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the Variant of Concern, omicron (B.1.1.529), India has enhanced genomic surveillance in international travellers. The omicron variant was detected in 59 cases from different States;40 from Maharashtra, 17 from Rajasthan and one each from Gujrat and Tamil Nadu. The positive cases and their contacts were asymptomatic and genomic surveillance could identify two clusters, one from Maharashtra and another from Rajasthan.

15.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 14(1):12-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1668051

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The infection caused by COVID-19 ranges from mild to moderate infection, but it can also cause severe infection and death in some people mostly in people who are old, or immunocompromisedSARS-CoV-2 has shown evidence of having higher capacity of binding to human cells and can settle in upper and lower portion of the respiratory tract it being the two important hotspots. Symptoms localized to the upper respiratory tract are mild which usually includes anosmia/hyposmia, ageusia/ dysgeusia, rhinitis along with sore throat. Material and methods: This study included individuals who were diagnosed with COVID-19 having mild symptoms of the disease which could be managed at their homes.Random assignment (50/50 chance) of subjects was done into two groups (A and B) for this study. Participants in group A were asked to perform the nasal washing and gargling with salt water up to 10 times a day for 14 days or until they felt better.Results:The leading cause for hospitalization for 15 (53.57%) people was that the oxygen saturation fell to below 93. Some scores compared between the two groups showed significant results in parameters of headache, postnasal drip, anosmia, sinusitis, sore throat, body ache, dry cough by unpaired two tailed P test. The age groups of 26 to 35, and 56 to 65 had comparatively higher values of adherence as compared to different age groups.Conclusion:The study demonstrates the hypothesis that nasal irrigation and saline gargling can have promising results to reduce the severity of COVID-19 infection when initiated within 24 hours of a positive test.

16.
Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion ; 37(SUPPL 1):S54, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1638145

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) isvaried. Although, respiratory system is predominantly affected, AIHAboth warm and cold antibody types have also been reported in somepatients. We worked up 2 such patients who presented to us withCOVID symptoms along with unexplained hemolysis. The 1st patientpresented with mucormycosis and was on Amphotericin B. Bothpatients had history of blood transfusion. The 2nd patient on examination was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy. Peripheralsmear of 1st patient showed morphological features of hemolysis. Theother patient showed agglutination on peripheral smear that resolvedon preheating of sample before smear formation. On further workup,both showed Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) positivity with presence of autoantibodies as well as alloantibodies.Aims &Objectives: To workup and establish the cause of hemolysisin COVID positive patients.Materials &Methods: Routine complete blood count and peripheralsmear studies were performed for these patients along with relevantbiochemical tests. Samples were subjected to DAT and antibodyscreening. Both 3 cell and 11 cell panel testing was done by gel cardmethod (Bio Rad).Result: DAT was positive in both the cases, with IgG positivity in 1stcase, indicative of warm antibodies. 2nd case showed presence ofmixed antibodies with IgG, IgA, C3d, IgM and C3c positivity. Onextended antibody panel testing, 2-3 + reactivity was seen in bothcases in the whole panel with auto control positivity, indicative ofpresence of both auto and alloantibodies.Conclusions: Although immune mediated hemolysis in COVIDpatients is not uncommon, it should be labelled as the cause only afterall other common causes have been thoroughly looked into and ruledout.

17.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 12(12):449-451, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1614187

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic is presently wreaking havoc on general public health, food systems, human dignity, and labour around the world. The availability and potential delivery of a safe and effective vaccination to communities around the world is being viewed not only as a means of overcoming these obstacles, but also as a demonstration of human resilience in the face of hardship. Nations must mobilise their resources to ensure widespread access to vaccines, without which the true benefits of development will be lost. Despite its vast internal needs, our country is seen with both hope and anticipation for its ability to deliver at this critical moment in human civilization's progress, and India is more than willing to contribute. © The Authors.

18.
Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers ; 43(2):227-240, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589871

ABSTRACT

Big cities are highly complex spatial units and have diverse subpopulations and neighborhoods with different sociocultural needs and vulnerable groups concerning public health emergencies, such as COVID-19. When these cities face an epidemic that spreads rapidly within the urban community, then human density and the urban setting have proven to be a tremendous liability and a matter of concern. The present study in this context is a preliminary attempt to understand the COVID-19 pandemic in the Indian context. The paper presents a city-level study of 46 million-plus cities in India to identify major determining factors (demographic, economic, environmental, infrastructural, and institutional interventions) of the COVID-19 infection and related deaths in different lockdown and unlock phases. Using the multiple regression model we found that the impact of these factors does significantly explains the variation in the COVID-19 infections and related deaths. However, the role of individual indicators does seem to have a differential impact across phases of the lockdown strategy. Indicators, such as GDP, hospital-doctor ratio, public transport usage, and administrative status of the city have been found to be the most significant factors influencing COVID-19 cases and deaths. On the other hand, co-morbidities do not appear as consistent significant factors, while the much-debated density parameter plays an insignificant role in the Indian big cities. We would like to emphasize that the results are at best indicative in nature, and for an in-depth understanding of each of these factors and spatial complexity, we require further detailed analysis at a more disaggregated level. © 2021 Institute of Indian Geographers. All rights reserved.

19.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 13(3), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1573118

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused many infections with numerous deaths worldwide. Still, the number of infected cases with deaths is escalating day by day. Alternative medicine (AMs) viz., Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani, yoga, Herbal medicine, are being promoted for the prevention of COVID-19. Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are gaining rapid acceptance among individuals. Therefore, the aim was to study the pattern of CAM use for prophylaxis of COVID-19. Methods: A survey was conducted amongst 456 individuals to assess the use of various CAM modalities for the prevention of COVID-19. Respondents who gave consent were assessed by a pre-structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 456 respondents enrolled in the study, the use of CAM was almost equal in both males (49.34%) and Females (50.65%). Homeopathy (30.48%) was the most common type of CAM used, and Ayurveda was used by 22.80% of respondents. Social media was used by 44.51%, and Official govt. Web sites were least used (20.61%). The most common reason for using CAM was to buildup immunity (21.05%) . 92.98% and 91.22% of CAM users have shown improvement in overall well-being, and stress reduction respectively, but results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: High percentage of the participant’s demonstrated awareness towards most of the CAM modalities. They considered using multiple CAM modalities in the prevention of Covid-19 but consultation with qualified CAM health care professionals should be advocated.

20.
Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases ; 42(1):17-29, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1436320

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created serious public health issues claiming millions of human lives worldwide. Few vaccines for the control of COVID-19 are now available under emergency user authorization. However, many aspects of SARS-CoV-2 such as vaccine efficacy, pathogenesis, and transmission related to emerging variants still need to be explored. Various animal models have been studied for COVID-19 research. Of these, hamsters and nonhuman primates have been found to be the best models which share highest similarity with human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Both of these animals have been used effectively for testing of vaccines and drugs, and other basic research on this disease. Here, we have discussed the utilization of Syrian hamster and nonhuman primate in COVID-19 research with special focus on preclinical studies on vaccine and drug discovery.

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