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1.
J Drug Deliv Sci Technol ; 86: 104663, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237876

ABSTRACT

Deficiency of selenium (Se) has been described in a significant number of COVID-19 patients having a higher incidence of mortality, which makes it a pertinent issue to be addressed clinically for effective management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Se nanoparticles (SeNPs) provide a unique option for managing the havoc caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. SeNPs possess promising anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects by virtue of their nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-stimulator of activated B cells (NFκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) modulatory activity. In addition, SeNPs possess remarkable immunomodulatory effects, making them a suitable option for supplementation with a much lower risk of toxicity compared to their elemental counterpart. Further, SeNPs have been shown to curtail viral and microbial infections, thus, making it a novel means to halt viral growth. In addition, it can be administered in the form of aerosol spray, direct injection, or infused thin-film transdermal patches to reduce the spread of this highly contagious viral infection. Moreover, a considerable decrease in the expression of selenoprotein along with enhanced expression of IL-6 in COVID-19 suggests a potential association among selenoprotein expression and COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the unique antimicrobial and antiviral properties of SeNPs and the immunomodulatory potential of selenoproteins. We provide the rationale behind their potentially interesting properties and further exploration in the context of microbial and viral infections. Further, the importance of selenoproteins and their role in maintaining a successful immune response along with their association to Se status is summarized.

2.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was declared an emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization in 2020. This study assesses patients' awareness, perception, and mitigating measures taken during the COVID-19 outbreak visiting an apex tertiary health-care center in North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 15, 2020, and November 15, 2020, in a tertiary care public hospital, North India, using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The survey included 809 patients using a consecutive sampling strategy. The self-structured and prevalidated questionnaire was used to collect information on study variables. Chi-square test and independent samples t-test, followed by binary and multivariate logistic regression, was used to determine the factors associated with awareness toward COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.41 (±11.24) years. Multivariate logistic regression shows that married participants (OR: 0.660, 95 % CI: 0.440-0.989, P= 0.044), reading books/magazine or attended institutional lectures (OR: 2.241, 95% CI: 1.545-3.249, P = 0.001), and watching television and radio (OR: 1.824, 95% CI: 1.283-2.592, P = 0.001) are significantly more aware than their counterparts. Participants with higher income group (>20,000 Indian rupee) significantly had higher awareness than participants having salary <10,000 rupees (OR: 0.280, 95% CI: 0.178-0.440, P = 0.001) or 10,001-20,000 rupees (OR: 0.481, 95% CI: 0.297-0.777, P = 0.003). Patients avoiding traveling across or abroad had significantly much reasonably good awareness than their counterparts (OR: 0.357, 95% CI: 0.139-0.918, P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Participants demonstrated good awareness, encouraging perception, and complied with appropriate mitigating measures during the outbreak. Considering frequent waves and the pandemic's long duration, consistent reinforcement of government measures, including masks, maintaining social distance, and frequent handwashing, is much needed.

3.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(6): 2120-2125, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328186

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus named COVID-19 that emerged in late December from Wuhan affected almost the entire globe. Recent studies provided new insight into the high transmission of the disease. This review explores the current evidence of epidemiological and environmental factors associated with high transmission of COVID-19. Even transmission and symptoms found among cats, dogs, ferrets, and tiger suggested low species barrier of the virus. The airborne transmission was found even up to 4 m, and fecal transmission with virus particles and RNA in sewage and wastewater suggests rethinking containment strategies. However, temperature, humidity, and pollution were also associated with transmission and mortality trends of COVID-19. To better mitigate and contain the current pandemic, it is a need of hours to consider the recent shreds of evidence to prevent further spread and require detailed investigations of these evidences by extensive epidemiological and meteorological studies.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(8): 1089-1094, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293980

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 has hardly left any part of the world untouched. Two hundred thirteen countries have been affected by this disease, with 17,208,324 cases and 670,626 deaths as of July 30, 2020. If we look at the death toll caused by Malaria, this year, it is closely nearing COVID 19 deaths, 5, 68,700 deaths. Malaria mostly occurs in poor, tropical, and subtropical regions across the globe. In 2018, Malaria was most rampant in Africa, followed by Southeast Asian Regions (SEAR). SEAR is at the greatest risk of both COVID 19 and malaria. Strategies for essential commodities and antimalarial activities are affected by COVID 19 when the rainy season registers the maximum malaria load. We searched the literature to explore the evidence regarding efficacious antimalarial activities and the gap created by the COVID 19 pandemic, responsible barriers, and challenges, with the possible approaches towards accomplishing a target for malaria control.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Africa , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967246

ABSTRACT

With a death toll of over one million worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become the most devastating humanitarian catastrophe in recent decades. The fear of acquiring infection and spreading to vulnerable people has severely impacted society's socio-economic status. To put an end to this growing number of infections and deaths as well as to switch from restricted to everyday living, an effective vaccine is desperately needed. As a result, enormous efforts have been made globally to develop numerous vaccine candidates in a matter of months. Currently, over 30 vaccine candidates are under assessment in clinical trials, with several undergoing preclinical studies. Here, we reviewed the major vaccine candidates based on the specific vaccine platform utilized to develop them. We also discussed the immune responses generated by these candidates in humans and preclinical models to determine vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Finally, immune responses induced in recovered COVID-19 patients and their possible vaccine development implications were also briefly reviewed.

6.
Vaccines ; 8(4):649, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896368

ABSTRACT

With a death toll of over one million worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become the most devastating humanitarian catastrophe in recent decades. The fear of acquiring infection and spreading to vulnerable people has severely impacted society’s socio-economic status. To put an end to this growing number of infections and deaths as well as to switch from restricted to everyday living, an effective vaccine is desperately needed. As a result, enormous efforts have been made globally to develop numerous vaccine candidates in a matter of months. Currently, over 30 vaccine candidates are under assessment in clinical trials, with several undergoing preclinical studies. Here, we reviewed the major vaccine candidates based on the specific vaccine platform utilized to develop them. We also discussed the immune responses generated by these candidates in humans and preclinical models to determine vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Finally, immune responses induced in recovered COVID-19 patients and their possible vaccine development implications were also briefly reviewed.

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