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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103739, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ChAdOx1-S (Covishield™/Vaxzervria, AstraZeneca) and BBV152 (Covaxin) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are proven to be safe and effective, but rare complications have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe reports of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination following ChAdOx1-S and BBV152 vaccinations. METHODS & RESULTS: We report 29 (17 female; mean 38 years) cases of CNS demyelination; twenty-seven occurred in temporal association with ChAdOx1-S vaccine; two in association with BBV152 vaccine. Eleven patients had presentation with myelitis, six patients developed optic neuritis, five had acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, three presented with brainstem demyelination, and four had multiaxial involvement. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies were positive in ten patients. One patient with ADEM and tumefactive demyelinating lesions died after a prolonged intensive care unit stay and superimposed infection. As compared to the control group (87); the postvaccinial cases were found to have a significantly higher mean age, presence of encephalopathy (p value:0.0007), CSF pleocytosis (p value: 0.0094) and raised CSF protein (p value: 0.0062). CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to establish a causal relationship between vaccination and neurological adverse events such as demyelination. The temporal association with the vaccination and the presence of MOG antibodies raises the possibility of an immunogenic process triggered by the vaccine in susceptible individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Female , Humans , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 127(6): e2022JD036628, 2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740402

ABSTRACT

The real-time Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) concentrations were measured in a metropolitan city of India during January to May of 2020 and 2014-2015-2018 to assess the impact of emission reduction during the COVID-19 lockdown. The total BTEX (∑BTEX) concentrations were 11.5 ± 9.0, 15.7 ± 16, 5.3 ± 5.0, 2.9 ± 2.0, and 0.93 ± 1.2 ppbv in January-May 2020, respectively. The evening rush hour peaks of BTEX during lockdown decreased by 4-5 times from the same period of years 2014-2015-2018. A significant decline in background concentrations suggests a regional-scale reduction in anthropogenic emissions. The contributions of ∑TEX compounds to ∑BTEX increased from 42% to 59% in winter to 64%-75% during the lockdown under hot summer conditions. While emission reductions dominated during the lockdown period, the meteorological and photochemical factors may also have contributed. Meteorological influence on actual observed BTEX data was removed by normalizing with ventilation coefficient (VC). The actual ambient air reductions of 85%-90% and VC-normalized reductions of 54%-88% of the BTEX concentrations during lockdown were estimated compared to those during the same period of 2014-2015-2018. The estimated changes using nighttime data, which take into account BTEX photooxidation removal, are ∼8% lower than the VC-normalized estimates using all data. These significant reductions in BTEX concentrations are consistent with the change in people's movement as inferred from mobility data during the lockdown. Although enforced, the significant decline in ambient BTEX levels during lockdown was a good change for the air quality. The study suggests a need for more effective science-based policies that consider local and regional factors.

3.
Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences ; 13(Suppl 2):S1414-S1417, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615432

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is badly affecting more than 2 million population of 213 countries and has caused 1,952,976 deaths till January 12, 2020. India has also suffered a great loss in terms of economy and people. Furthermore, owing to the complete lockdown enforced in India, restricting humanitarian movement also affected day-to-day life of Indians with a huge impact. Objectives: The present clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on private practitioners. Furthermore, changes in their practice pattern were evaluated along with the perspective of their health, role, and response to the pandemic. Materials and Methods: The study includes a total of 120 health-care professionals of either gender. The stress and mental health of the participants was assessed using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in English format, also included the questions related to the demographic characteristics, use of technologies for providing virtual health care, changes in the working during the pandemic, and an opinion of their experiences during that period. The data collected were subjected to the analysis and were kept confidential and anonymous. Results: 16.6% of participants preferred virtual consultation before the pandemic in contrast to 83.3% during the pandemic. The most preferred method remained the phone call by 15.8% (n = 19) patients. Depression was seen severely in 35% of study participants (n = 42) and 13.3% of participants extremely severe depression was seen (n = 16). Severe and extremely severe anxiety was noticed in 31.66% (=38) and 15% (18) study participants respectively, whereas severe and extremely severe stress was found in 30% (n = 36), and 12.5% (n = 15) private practitioners. The most common factor that can be considered responsible for compromised mental health in private practitioners was the possibility of infecting the society seen in 59.1% (n = 71) participants. Conclusion: During the pandemic breakout, private practitioners suffered a great challenge both financially and mentally, especially during the lockdown. Furthermore, a significant increase was seen in the virtual consultation methods during the pandemic breakout.

4.
Sleep Med ; 79: 29-39, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003074

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CoVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown have impacted the sleep quality and the overall wellbeing of mankind. The present epidemiological study measured various aspects of sleep disturbance such as sleep quality, daytime impairments, negative emotionality, sleep hygiene, and well-being associated with CoVID-19 pandemic among the Indian population. METHODS: This cross-sectional voluntary online survey (using Google form) was communicated across the country from 4th June to 3rd July 2020 through mail and social media applications. The responses received (N = 450) were categorized and validated using the latent class analysis and logistic regression tests respectively, and the classes and subclasses derived were profiled. These techniques are used for the first time in a CoVID-19 sleep study. RESULTS: Out of the three classes derived from the LCA, people with severe dyssomnia belonging to class 1 (33.3%) showed high daytime impairments, negative emotionality and high vulnerability towards CoVID-19 pandemic measures. In addition, the two subclasses derived from the severe dyssomnia group; one with negative emotionality predominance and the other with excessive daytime sleepiness, were similarly affected by CoVID-19 measures. People with moderate dyssomnia (class 2, 28.5%) showed frequent arousals with daytime impairments and the majority (38.2%) which fell in to class 3, the 'no dyssomnia' category, were not impacted by CoVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: People with existing sleep problems or those who were vulnerable to the same were the ones affected by CoVID-19 pandemic. Those with inadequate emotional coping styles have showed heightened vulnerability. Proper medical and cognitive interventions are highly recommended for this population. No or moderate dyssomnia categories (class 3 and 2 respectively) were less impacted by CoVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Urban Climate ; 34:100729, 2020.
Article | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-907194

ABSTRACT

A drastic decline in the sources of emissions of pollutants under COVID-19 induced lockdown resulted in an unprecedented trends in most hazardous pollutants PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 in India. To realize the impact of lockdown in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2, we compared the trend of lockdown period (20nd March to 15th April) with several (3–7) years of past data in four Indian mega cities (Delhi, Pune, Mumbai, and Ahmedabad) of different micro-climate and geography. The significant reduction in the concentrations of NO2 in the ranges of ~60–65% is noticed in four megacities within the lockdown period when compared with the averaged data of past years. However, relatively low reduction in PM2.5 (~25–50%) and PM10 (~36–50%) is observed and city to city variation is found to be significant. The prevailing secondary aerosol formation and enhancement of any natural source of emissions could be some factors preventing PM2.5 levels to go down significantly. Under near negligible fossil fuel emission, contrary to the expectation, an increase in the ratio as compared to normal scenario is observed in Delhi on some days whereas on some selected days, PM2.5/PM10 ratio is found to decline significantly.

6.
Neurol India ; 68(4): 792-795, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has compelled countries to impose lockdowns to curb the spread. As a result of the lockdown and need for health care services to cater to acute diseases on priority, patients with chronic illnesses such as Parkinson's disease (PD) may be facing several difficulties. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the effects of prolongation of lockdown on patients with PD by evaluating possible problems faced during a lockdown and worsening of symptoms if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with PD and their caregivers were contacted. RESULTS: We observed a significant increase in problems faced due to this pandemic, specifically, the inability to access health care, and difficulty procuring medication. Patients also reported worsening of motor symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings highlight the need for health care systems to consider a plan of action for chronic neurological diseases like PD, which are worsening in the absence of regular hospital visits.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Caregivers , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Mov Disord ; 13(3): 218-222, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and public health measures to control it have resulted in unique challenges in the management of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS). We report our experience with the management of acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion in 3 patients with DBS. METHODS: Patients with DBS for movement disorders who visited the emergency room due to battery exhaustion during the nationwide lockdown from April to May 2020 were included. RESULTS: Two patients with subthalamic nucleus-DBS for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one with globus pallidus interna-DBS for generalized dystonia presented with acute worsening of symptoms due to battery exhaustion. Urgent battery replacement was performed in both patients with PD. The patient with generalized dystonia was managed with medication adjustment as he chose to defer battery replacement. CONCLUSION: DBS battery replacement can be an emergency. Decisions regarding DBS battery replacement should be individualized during this COVID-19 pandemic.

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