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1.
Front Neurol ; 12: 741044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477845

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Our objective was to identify characteristics associated with having an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the subset of these patients with a neurologic symptom. Materials and Methods: Our derivation cohort consisted of COVID-19 patients admitted to Yale-New Haven Health between January 3, 2020 and August 28, 2020 with and without AIS. We also studied a sub-cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients demonstrating a neurologic symptom with and without an AIS. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory results were compared between AIS and non-AIS patients in the full COVID-19 cohort and in the sub-cohort of COVID-19 patients with a neurologic symptom. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict ischemic stroke risk in these two COVID-19 cohorts. These 2 models were externally validated in COVID-19 patients hospitalized at a major health system in New York. We then compared the distribution of the resulting predictors in a non-COVID ischemic stroke control cohort. Results: A total of 1,827 patients were included in the derivation cohort (AIS N = 44; no AIS N = 1,783). Among all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, history of prior stroke and platelet count ≥ 200 × 1,000/µL at hospital presentation were independent predictors of AIS (derivation AUC 0.89, validation AUC 0.82), irrespective of COVID-19 severity. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a neurologic symptom (N = 827), the risk of AIS was significantly higher among patients with a history of prior stroke and age <60 (derivation AUC 0.83, validation AUC 0.81). Notably, in a non-COVID ischemic stroke control cohort (N = 168), AIS patients were significantly older and less likely to have had a prior stroke, demonstrating the uniqueness of AIS patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who demonstrate a neurologic symptom and have either a history of prior stroke or are of younger age are at higher risk of ischemic stroke.

2.
Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 690383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344280

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives: Little is known regarding the prevalence and predictors of prolonged cognitive and psychological symptoms of COVID-19 among community-dwellers. We aimed to quantitatively measure self-reported metrics of fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep and identify factors associated with these metrics among United States residents with or without COVID-19. Methods: We solicited 1000 adult United States residents for an online survey conducted February 3-5, 2021 utilizing a commercial crowdsourcing community research platform. The platform curates eligible participants to approximate United States demographics by age, sex, and race proportions. COVID-19 was diagnosed by laboratory testing and/or by exposure to a known positive contact with subsequent typical symptoms. Prolonged COVID-19 was self-reported and coded for those with symptoms ≥ 1 month following initial diagnosis. The primary outcomes were NIH PROMIS/Neuro-QoL short-form T-scores for fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and sleep compared among those with prolonged COVID-19 symptoms, COVID-19 without prolonged symptoms and COVID-19 negative subjects. Multivariable backwards step-wise logistic regression models were constructed to predict abnormal Neuro-QoL metrics. Results: Among 999 respondents, the average age was 45 years (range 18-84), 49% were male, 76 (7.6%) had a history of COVID-19 and 19/76 (25%) COVID-19 positive participants reported prolonged symptoms lasting a median of 4 months (range 1-13). Prolonged COVID-19 participants were more often younger, female, Hispanic, and had a history of depression/mood/thought disorder (all P < 0.05). They experienced significantly higher rates of unemployment and financial insecurity, and their symptoms created greater interference with work and household activities compared to other COVID-19 status groups (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for demographics, past medical history and stressor covariates in multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 status was independently predictive of worse Neuro-QoL cognitive dysfunction scores (adjusted OR 11.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.28, P = 0.047), but there were no significant differences in quantitative measures of anxiety, depression, fatigue, or sleep. Conclusion: Prolonged symptoms occurred in 25% of COVID-19 positive participants, and NeuroQoL cognitive dysfunction scores were significantly worse among COVID-19 positive subjects, even after accounting for demographic and stressor covariates. Fatigue, anxiety, depression, and sleep scores did not differ between COVID-19 positive and negative respondents.

6.
Stroke ; 52(9): 3045-3053, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325217

ABSTRACT

In the spring of 2021, reports of rare and unusual venous thrombosis in association with the ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S adenovirus-based coronavirus vaccines led to a brief suspension of their use by several countries. Thromboses in the cerebral and splanchnic veins among patients vaccinated in the preceding 4 weeks were described in 17 patients out of 7.98 million recipients of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine (with 3 fatalities related to cerebral vein thrombosis) and 169 cases of cerebral vein thrombosis among 35 million ChAdOx1 recipients. Events were associated with thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 (antibodies directed against platelet factor 4), leading to the designation vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Unlike the related heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, with an estimated incidence of <1:1000 patients treated with heparin, and a mortality rate of 25%, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia has been reported in 1:150 000 ChAdOx1 recipients and 1:470 000 Ad26.COV.2 recipients, with a reported mortality rate of 20% to 30%. Early recognition of this complication should prompt testing for anti-PF4 antibodies and acute treatment targeting the autoimmune and prothrombotic processes. Intravenous immunoglobulin (1 g/kg for 2 days), consideration of plasma exchange, and nonheparin anticoagulation (argatroban, fondaparinux) are recommended. In cases of cerebral vein thrombosis, one should monitor for and treat the known complications of venous congestion as they would in patients without vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Now that the Ad26.COV2.S has been reapproved for use in several countries, it remains a critical component of our pharmacological armamentarium in stopping the spread of the human coronavirus and should be strongly recommended to patients. At this time, the patient and community-level benefits of these two adenoviral vaccines vastly outweigh the rare but serious risks of vaccination. Due to the relatively low risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in young women (<50 years), it is reasonable to recommend an alternative vaccine if one is available. Ongoing postmarketing observational studies are important for tracking new vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia cases and other rare side effects of these emergent interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Veins , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3826-3836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316884

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune-mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 to bridge the gap from bench to bedside and clinical practice during the most challenging global health crisis of the last decades.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
8.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110314, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230184

ABSTRACT

Importance: After the emergence of COVID-19, studies reported a decrease in hospitalizations of patients with ischemic stroke (IS), but there are little to no data regarding hospitalizations for the remainder of 2020, including outcome data from a large cohort of patients with IS and comorbid COVID-19. Objective: To assess hospital discharge rates, demographic factors, and outcomes of hospitalization associated with the COVID-19 pandemic among US patients with IS before vs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Vizient Clinical Data Base on 324 013 patients with IS at 478 nonfederal hospitals in 43 US states between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Patients were eligible if they were admitted to the hospital on a nonelective basis and were not receiving hospice care at the time of admission. A total of 41 166 discharged between January and March 2020 were excluded from the analysis because they had unreliable data on COVID-19 status, leaving 282 847 patients for the study. Exposure: Ischemic stroke and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly counts of discharges among patients with IS in 2020. Demographic characteristics and outcomes, including in-hospital death, among patients with IS who were discharged in 2019 (control group) were compared with those of patients with IS with or without comorbid COVID-19 (COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups, respectively) who were discharged between April and December 2020. Results: Of the 282 847 patients included in the study, 165 912 (50.7% male; 63.4% White; 26.3% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the control group; 111 418 of 116 935 patients (95.3%; 51.9% male; 62.8% White; 24.6% aged ≥80 years) were allocated to the non-COVID-19 group and 5517 of 116 935 patients (4.7%; 58.0% male; 42.5% White; 21.3% aged ≥80 years) to the COVID-19 group. A mean (SD) of 13 846 (553) discharges per month among patients with IS was reported in 2019. Discharges began decreasing in February 2020, reaching a low of 10 846 patients in April 2020 before returning to a prepandemic level of 13 639 patients by July 2020. A mean (SD) of 13 492 (554) discharges per month was recorded for the remainder of 2020. Black and Hispanic patients accounted for 21.4% and 7.0% of IS discharges in 2019, respectively, but accounted for 27.5% and 16.0% of those discharged with IS and comorbid COVID-19 in 2020. Compared with patients in the control and non-COVID-19 groups, those in the COVID-19 group were less likely to smoke (16.0% vs 17.2% vs 6.4%, respectively) and to have hypertension (73.0% vs 73.1% vs 68.2%) or dyslipidemia (61.2% vs 63.2% vs 56.6%) but were more likely to have diabetes (39.8% vs 40.5% vs 53.0%), obesity (16.2% vs 18.4% vs 24.5%), acute coronary syndrome (8.0% vs 9.2% vs 15.8%), or pulmonary embolus (1.9% vs 2.4% vs 6.8%) and to require intubation (11.3% vs 12.3% vs 37.6%). After adjusting for baseline factors, patients with IS and COVID-19 were more likely to die in the hospital than were patients with IS in 2019 (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 4.83-5.53; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale adjusted odds ratio, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.15-4.05). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, after the emergence of COVID-19, hospital discharges of patients with IS decreased in the US but returned to prepandemic levels by July 2020. Among patients with IS between April and December 2020, comorbid COVID-19 was relatively common, particularly among Black and Hispanic populations, and morbidity was high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Patients/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117486, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 6-month outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with new neurological complications during hospitalization who survived were propensity score-matched to COVID-19 survivors without neurological complications hospitalized during the same period. The primary 6-month outcome was multivariable ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale(mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (ADLs;Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep. RESULTS: Of 606 COVID-19 patients with neurological complications, 395 survived hospitalization and were matched to 395 controls; N = 196 neurological patients and N = 186 controls completed follow-up. Overall, 346/382 (91%) patients had at least one abnormal outcome: 56% had limited ADLs, 50% impaired cognition, 47% could not return to work and 62% scored worse than average on ≥1 Neuro-QoL scale (worse anxiety 46%, sleep 38%, fatigue 36%, and depression 25%). In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications had worse 6-month mRS (median 4 vs. 3 among controls, adjusted OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.23-3.48, P = 0.02), worse ADLs (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.29-0.74, P = 0.01) and were less likely to return to work than controls (41% versus 64%, P = 0.04). Cognitive and Neuro-QOL metrics were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in functional outcomes, ADLs, anxiety, depression and sleep occurred in over 90% of patients 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications during index hospitalization had significantly worse 6-month functional outcomes than those without.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcomes of adult patients with spontaneous intracranial and subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed with comorbid COVID-19 infection in a large, geographically diverse cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Vizient Clinical Data Base. We separately compared two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 admitted April 1-October 31, 2020-patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and those with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-with control patients with ICH or SAH who did not have COVID-19 admitted at the same hospitals in 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Favorable discharge and length of hospital and intensive-care stay were the secondary outcomes. We fit multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models to our outcomes. RESULTS: There were 559 ICH-COVID patients and 23,378 ICH controls from 194 hospitals. In the ICH-COVID cohort versus controls, there was a significantly higher proportion of Hispanic patients (24.5% vs. 8.9%), Black patients (23.3% vs. 20.9%), nonsmokers (11.5% vs. 3.2%), obesity (31.3% vs. 13.5%), and diabetes (43.4% vs. 28.5%), and patients had a longer hospital stay (21.6 vs. 10.5 days), a longer intensive-care stay (16.5 vs. 6.0 days), and a higher in-hospital death rate (46.5% vs. 18.0%). Patients with ICH-COVID had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.43 [1.96-3.00] for the outcome of death and an aOR of 0.55 [0.44-0.68] for favorable discharge. There were 212 SAH-COVID patients and 5,029 controls from 119 hospitals. The hospital (26.9 vs. 13.4 days) and intensive-care (21.9 vs. 9.6 days) length of stays and in-hospital death rate (42.9% vs. 14.8%) were higher in the SAH-COVID cohort compared with controls. Patients with SAH-COVID had an aOR of 1.81 [1.26-2.59] for an outcome of death and an aOR of 0.54 [0.37-0.78] for favorable discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spontaneous ICH or SAH and comorbid COVID infection were more likely to be a racial or ethnic minority, diabetic, and obese and to have higher rates of death and longer hospital length of stay when compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
13.
Int J Stroke ; 16(5): 573-584, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide. AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior). METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers. RESULTS: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
14.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
15.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Toxic metabolic encephalopathy (TME) has been reported in 7-31% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, some reports include sedation-related delirium and few data exist on the etiology of TME. We aimed to identify the prevalence, etiologies, and mortality rates associated with TME in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study among patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at four New York City hospitals in the same health network between March 1, 2020, and May 20, 2020. TME was diagnosed in patients with altered mental status off sedation or after an adequate sedation washout. Patients with structural brain disease, seizures, or primary neurological diagnoses were excluded. The coprimary outcomes were the prevalence of TME stratified by etiology and in-hospital mortality (excluding comfort care only patients) assessed by using a multivariable time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, race, sex, intubation, intensive care unit requirement, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, hospital location, and date of admission. RESULTS: Among 4491 patients with COVID-19, 559 (12%) were diagnosed with TME, of whom 435 of 559 (78%) developed encephalopathy immediately prior to hospital admission. The most common etiologies were septic encephalopathy (n = 247 of 559 [62%]), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (n = 331 of 559 [59%]), and uremia (n = 156 of 559 [28%]). Multiple etiologies were present in 435 (78%) patients. Compared with those without TME (n = 3932), patients with TME were older (76 vs. 62 years), had dementia (27% vs. 3%) or psychiatric history (20% vs. 10%), were more often intubated (37% vs. 20%), had a longer hospital length of stay (7.9 vs. 6.0 days), and were less often discharged home (25% vs. 66% [all P < 0.001]). Excluding comfort care patients (n = 267 of 4491 [6%]) and after adjustment for confounders, TME remained associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (n = 128 of 425 [30%] patients with TME died, compared with n = 600 of 3799 [16%] patients without TME; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.52, P = 0.031), and TME due to hypoxemia conferred the highest risk (n = 97 of 233 [42%] patients with HIE died, compared with n = 631 of 3991 [16%] patients without HIE; aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.00, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: TME occurred in one in eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was typically multifactorial, and was most often due to hypoxemia, sepsis, and uremia. After we adjustment for confounding factors, TME was associated with a 24% increased risk of in-hospital mortality.

16.
Neurology ; 96(4): e575-e586, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, p < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , New York City/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/etiology , Young Adult
18.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(4): 845-852, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we sought to better characterize the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) most at risk of severe, outpatient thrombosis by defining the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with arterial or venous thrombosis diagnosed at admission. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients. We found a shift in the proportions of thrombosis subtypes from 2019 to 2020, with declines in ST-segment myocardial infarction (from 22.0% to 10.1% of thrombotic events) and stroke (from 48.6% to 37.2%) and an increase in venous thromboembolism (from 29.4% to 52.7%). The patients with COVID-19-associated thrombosis were younger (age, 58 years vs 64 years; P = .043) and were less frequently women (31.3% vs 43.9%; P = .16). However, no differences were found in the body mass index or major comorbidities between those with and without COVID-19. COVID-19-associated thrombosis correlated with greater mortality (15.2% vs 4.3%; P = .016). The biometric profile of patients admitted with COVID-19-associated thrombosis compared with regular thrombosis showed significant changes in the complete blood count, liver function test results, D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and coagulation panels. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatients with COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization had increased mortality compared with outpatients without COVID-19 who developed thrombosis requiring hospitalization. Given the significantly higher inflammatory marker levels, it is possible this is related to different mechanisms of thrombotic disease in these patients. The inflammation could be a therapeutic target to reduce the risk, or aid in the treatment, of thrombosis. We call for more studies elucidating the role that immunothrombosis might be playing in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Aged , Arteries , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
19.
Ann Neurol ; 89(2): 380-388, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Emerging data indicate an increased risk of cerebrovascular events with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and highlight the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the management and outcomes of acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the aforementioned considerations. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of observational cohort studies reporting on the occurrence and/or outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular events in association with their SARS-CoV-2 infection status. We used a random-effects model. Summary estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We identified 18 cohort studies including 67,845 patients. Among patients with SARS-CoV-2, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9-1.6%, I2 = 87%) were hospitalized for cerebrovascular events, 1.1% (95% CI = 0.8-1.3%, I2 = 85%) for ischemic stroke, and 0.2% (95% CI = 0.1-0.3%, I2 = 64%) for hemorrhagic stroke. Compared to noninfected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.43-8.92, I2 = 43%) and cryptogenic stroke (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.62-9.77, I2 = 0%). Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected historical controls (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94, I2 = 0%). SARS-CoV-2 infection status was not associated with the likelihood of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.65-3.10, I2 = 0%) or endovascular thrombectomy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.35-1.74, I2 = 0%) among hospitalized ischemic stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Odds of in-hospital mortality were higher among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected contemporary or historical stroke patients (OR = 5.60, 95% CI = 3.19-9.80, I2 = 45%). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 appears to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, and potentially cryptogenic stroke in particular. It may also be related to an increased mortality risk. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:380-388.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
20.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 40(4): 457-462, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted concern for increased thromboembolic events in the setting of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a form of thromboembolism that has been observed as a neuro-ophthalmologic complication of COVID-19. METHODS: Review of the scientific literature. RESULTS: In this article, we report an overview of CVST epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, disease pathophysiology, and management in the setting of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: CVST is an uncommon thromboembolic event with variable phenotypes and multiple etiologies. Neurologic complications can be severe, including significant visual deficits and death. Current observations suggest that the risk of CVST may be profoundly impacted by this novel COVID-19 pandemic, thus prompting increased attention to disease presentation, pathogenesis, and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Cerebral Angiography , Humans , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
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