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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(5): 471-480, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879649

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and is known to have thrombotic complications. Various-sized thrombosis occurs in the arteries and veins, especially in lung tissue. The prevention and treatment of thrombosis is an important issue that is directly linked to its prognosis. Additionally, the drastic fibrinolytic enhancement and lethal bleeding in some severe COVID-19 are important issues. The efficacy of antiplatelet for COVID-19 is controversial. Thus, warfarin or tranexamic acid alone should be avoided. Heparin is effective for mild to moderate COVID-19 but is ineffective in severe cases since the anticoagulant activity of heparin is insufficient or heparin increases major bleeding. In severe COVID-19 cases with drastic fibrinolytic enhancement, heparin and nafamostat combination therapy may avoid lethal bleeding. In COVID-19 clinical practice, not only the coagulation activation was evaluated but also the fibrinolytic activation to consider treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Heparin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is frequently complicated by thrombosis. In some cases of severe COVID-19, fibrinolysis may be markedly enhanced within a few days, resulting in fatal bleeding. In the treatment of COVID-19, attention should be paid to both coagulation activation and fibrinolytic activation. Various thromboses are known to occur after vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) can occur after adenovirus-vectored vaccination, and is characterized by the detection of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thrombosis in unusual locations such as cerebral venous sinuses and visceral veins. Treatment comprises high-dose immunoglobulin, argatroban, and fondaparinux. Some VITT cases show marked decreases in fibrinogen and platelets and marked increases in D-dimer, suggesting the presence of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation with a high risk of bleeding. In the treatment of VITT, evaluation of both coagulation activation and fibrinolytic activation is important, adjusting treatments accordingly to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
5.
mBio ; : e0304421, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662302

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide since December 2019, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although vaccines for this virus have been developed rapidly, repurposing drugs approved to treat other diseases remains an invaluable treatment strategy. Here, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of drugs on SARS-CoV-2 replication in a hamster infection model and in in vitro assays. Favipiravir significantly suppressed virus replication in hamster lungs. Remdesivir inhibited virus replication in vitro, but was not effective in the hamster model. However, GS-441524, a metabolite of remdesivir, effectively suppressed virus replication in hamsters. Co-administration of favipiravir and GS-441524 more efficiently reduced virus load in hamster lungs than did single administration of either drug for both the prophylactic and therapeutic regimens; prophylactic co-administration also efficiently inhibited lung inflammation in the infected animals. Furthermore, pretreatment of hamsters with favipiravir and GS-441524 effectively protected them from virus transmission via respiratory droplets upon exposure to infected hamsters. Repurposing and co-administration of antiviral drugs may help combat COVID-19. IMPORTANCE During a pandemic, repurposing drugs that are approved for other diseases is a quick and realistic treatment option. In this study, we found that co-administration of favipiravir and the remdesivir metabolite GS-441524 more effectively blocked SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lungs of Syrian hamsters than either favipiravir or GS-441524 alone as part of a prophylactic or therapeutic regimen. Prophylactic co-administration also reduced the severity of lung inflammation. Moreover, co-administration of these drugs to naive hamsters efficiently protected them from airborne transmission of the virus from infected animals. Since both drugs are nucleotide analogs that interfere with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of many RNA viruses, these findings may also help encourage co-administration of antivirals to combat future pandemics.

6.
Sci Adv ; 7(10)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119272

ABSTRACT

Limited knowledge exists on immune markers associated with disease severity or recovery in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we elucidated longitudinal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 antibody repertoire in patients with acute COVID-19. Differential kinetics was observed for immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding, and affinity maturation in "severe" versus "mild" COVID-19 patients. IgG profile demonstrated immunodominant antigenic sequences encompassing fusion peptide and receptor binding domain (RBD) in patients with mild COVID-19 who recovered early compared with "fatal" COVID-19 patients. In patients with severe COVID-19, high-titer IgA were observed, primarily against RBD, especially in patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients with mild COVID-19 showed marked increase in antibody affinity maturation to prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike that associated with faster recovery from COVID-19. This study revealed antibody markers associated with disease severity and resolution of clinical disease that could inform development and evaluation of effective immune-based countermeasures against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , HEK293 Cells , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Kinetics , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
8.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970091

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)-based tests are widely used to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a result that these tests cannot be done in local clinics where RT-qPCR testing capability is lacking, rapid antigen tests (RATs) for COVID-19 based on lateral flow immunoassays are used for rapid diagnosis. However, their sensitivity compared with each other and with RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation has not been examined. Here, we compared the sensitivity among four RATs by using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates and several types of COVID-19 patient specimens and compared their sensitivity with that of RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation. Although the RATs read the samples containing large amounts of virus as positive, even the most sensitive RAT read the samples containing small amounts of virus as negative. Moreover, all RATs tested failed to detect viral antigens in several specimens from which the virus was isolated. The current RATs will likely miss some COVID-19 patients who are shedding infectious SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Immunoassay , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16587-16595, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611003

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2) was detected in Wuhan, China, that spread rapidly around the world, with severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Here, we assessed the replicative ability and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Syrian hamsters. SARS-CoV-2 isolates replicated efficiently in the lungs of hamsters, causing severe pathological lung lesions following intranasal infection. In addition, microcomputed tomographic imaging revealed severe lung injury that shared characteristics with SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung, including severe, bilateral, peripherally distributed, multilobular ground glass opacity, and regions of lung consolidation. SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters mounted neutralizing antibody responses and were protected against subsequent rechallenge with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, passive transfer of convalescent serum to naïve hamsters efficiently suppressed the replication of the virus in the lungs even when the serum was administrated 2 d postinfection of the serum-treated hamsters. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that this Syrian hamster model will be useful for understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and testing vaccines and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Ribonucleoproteins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virus Replication
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