Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm4908, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846321

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu) variant emerged in January 2021 and was categorized as a variant of interest by the World Health Organization in August 2021. This designation prompted us to study the sensitivity of this variant to antibody neutralization. In a live virus neutralization assay with serum samples from individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccines, we measured neutralization antibody titers against B.1.621, an early isolate (spike 614D), and a variant of concern (B.1.351, beta variant). We observed reduced neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.621 variant (3.4 to 7-fold reduction, depending on the serum sample and time after the second vaccination) compared to the early isolate and a similar reduction when compared to B.1.351. Likewise, convalescent serum from hamsters previously infected with an early isolate neutralized B.1.621 to a lower degree. Despite this antibody titer reduction, hamsters could not be efficiently re-challenged with the B.1.621 variant, suggesting the immune response to the first infection is adequate to provide protection against a subsequent infection with the B.1.621 variant.

2.
In Vivo ; 36(3): 1333-1336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 vaccination is now performed in most of the world to limit the spread of the disease. The first mRNA vaccine was approved in clinical settings and has specific side effects including axillary lymph node swelling, which can be misdiagnosed as breast cancer metastasis. The timing of axillary lymph node swelling and its duration are unclear. Here, we present a Japanese case and review of the existing literature. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with breast calcification. She had regular follow ups in our hospital for this calcification and received ultrasonography of the breast and axilla at every visit. She visited 6 months before having her COVID-19 vaccination, and 7 days and 6 months after the first COVID-19 vaccination. She had a swollen axillary lymph node 7 days after the first vaccination, which although it was improved, remained for 6 months. CONCLUSION: Axillary lymph node swelling occurred 7 days after vaccination and remained up to 6 months after it.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasms, Second Primary/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809937

ABSTRACT

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a highly tractable animal model to study various human diseases [...].


Subject(s)
Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drosophila/genetics , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Humans
4.
Cancer Diagn Progn ; 1(5): 423-425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786540

ABSTRACT

Background/Aim: Breast cancer treatment mainly involves interventional methods such as surgical resection and chemotherapy. How to best perform these treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic remains to be established. Patients and Methods: Patients with breast cancer who received SARS-CoV-2 PCR screening before cancer treatment from December 2020 to April 2021 were included. PCR screening was performed within 72 hours of the scheduled admission time and treatment. Results: A total of 19 tests in 15 patients were analysed. Fourteen cases displayed no symptoms, and five cases had some symptoms. COVID PCR tests were negative in all cases. Conclusion: COVID-19 screening can ensure that breast cancer patients do not miss scheduled treatments as a result of the pandemic. Diagnosis of patients with symptoms that are shared by COVID-19 infection, chemotherapy, and breast cancer recurrence must be performed carefully.

5.
Cancer Diagn Progn ; 1(1): 1-5, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786539

ABSTRACT

Aim: To reduce the frequency of the need for hospital visits for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) taking androgen-deprivation therapy during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, we switched them from gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist to a long-acting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist. Here, we confirmed the efficacy and safety profile of this switching. Patients and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 32 patients with PCa who received ADT and switched from GnRH antagonist to a long-acting LH-RH agonist during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating hematological and serological variables, including serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen. Results: Before and after the switching from GnRH antagonist to LH-RH agonist, the median serum testosterone levels were 0.22 and 0.18 ng/ml, respectively, and the median serum prostate-specific antigen levels were 0.18 and 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. No changes in the rates of flare-ups of conditions or adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Switching from GnRH antagonist to a long-acting LH-RH agonist appears to be a reasonable option that does not diminish efficacy or exacerbate adverse events.

6.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 1041-1046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: COVID-19 started to spread as a pandemic in December 2019 and COVID-19 vaccination has been initiated worldwide. The efficacy of vaccination has been scientifically proven, but it might cause axillary lymph node swelling. To diagnose patients with axillary lymph node swelling caused by COVID-19 vaccination, we herein reviewed existing literature on this symptom. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 70-year-old woman with a breast tumour. She had undergone cecum cancer surgery and regular computed tomography (CT). During breast tumour follow-up, she received scheduled CT that indicated severe axillary lymph node swelling mimicking breast cancer metastasis. We performed aspiration biopsy cytology of that lymph node, and determined this was not cancer metastasis but an effect of the COVID-19 vaccine. We confirmed this diagnosis at one month after computed tomography showed that the lymph node swelling had improved. CONCLUSION: Axillary lymph node swelling can occur after COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, it is important to consider the effect of the COVID-19 vaccination on axillary lymph node swelling when diagnosing breast tumours.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Aged , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Vaccination
7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human microbiotas are communities of microorganisms living in symbiosis with humans. They play an important role in the host immune response to respiratory viral infection. However, evidence on the human microbiome and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) relationship is insufficient. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate existing evidence on the association between the microbiome and COVID-19 in humans and summarize these data in the pandemic era. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on the association between the microbiome and COVID-19 in humans by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases for articles in English published up to October 31, 2020. The results were analyzed qualitatively. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020195982). RESULTS: Of the 543 articles identified by searching databases, 16 in line with the research objectives were eligible for qualitative review: eight sampled the microbiome using stool, four using nasopharyngeal or throat swab, three using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and one using lung tissue. Fecal microbiome dysbiosis and increased opportunistic pathogens were reported in COVID-19 patients. Several studies suggested the dysbiosis in the lung microbiome of COVID-19 patients with an abundance of opportunistic pathogens using lower respiratory tract samples. The association between COVID-19 severity and the human microbiome remains uncertain. CONCLUSION: The human fecal and respiratory tract microbiome changed in COVID-19 patients with opportunistic pathogen abundance. Further research to elucidate the effect of alternation of the human microbiome in disease pathogenesis is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Microbiota , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Dysbiosis/virology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276013

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/pathology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , X-Ray Microtomography
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134168

ABSTRACT

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to understand fundamental principles of genetics and biology for over a century. Drosophila is now also considered an essential tool to study mechanisms underlying numerous human genetic diseases. In this review, we will discuss how flies can be used to deepen our knowledge of infectious disease mechanisms in vivo. Flies make effective and applicable models for studying host-pathogen interactions thanks to their highly conserved innate immune systems and cellular processes commonly hijacked by pathogens. Drosophila researchers also possess the most powerful, rapid, and versatile tools for genetic manipulation in multicellular organisms. This allows for robust experiments in which specific pathogenic proteins can be expressed either one at a time or in conjunction with each other to dissect the molecular functions of each virulent factor in a cell-type-specific manner. Well documented phenotypes allow large genetic and pharmacological screens to be performed with relative ease using huge collections of mutant and transgenic strains that are publicly available. These factors combine to make Drosophila a powerful tool for dissecting out host-pathogen interactions as well as a tool to better understand how we can treat infectious diseases that pose risks to public health, including COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster/immunology , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism , Animals , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiology , Drosophila melanogaster/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunity, Innate , Signal Transduction , Virulence Factors/metabolism
12.
Hepatol Res ; 51(2): 227-232, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852324

ABSTRACT

AIM: Liver dysfunction is sometimes observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but most studies are from China, and the frequency in other countries is unclear. In addition, previous studies suggested several mechanisms of liver damage, but precise or additional mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. Therefore, we examined COVID-19 patients to explore the proportion of patients with liver dysfunction and also the factors associated with liver dysfunction. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 60 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Hospital affiliated with The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo (Tokyo, Japan). Patients who presented ≥40 U/L alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at least once during their hospitalization were defined as high-ALT patients, and the others as normal-ALT patients. The worst values of physical and laboratory findings during hospitalization for each patient were extracted for the analyses. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models with bootstrap (for 1000 times) were carried out. RESULTS: Among 60 patients, there were 31 (52%) high-ALT patients. The high-ALT patients were obese, and had significantly higher levels of D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, as well as white blood cell count, and levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Multivariable analysis showed D-dimer and white blood cells as independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that higher D-dimer level and white blood cell count were independently associated with ALT elevation, liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients might be induced by microvascular thrombosis in addition to systemic inflammation.

15.
Intern Med ; 59(19): 2443-2444, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713918
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(10): 2504-2506, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627531

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is reported to affect the cardiovascular system. We showed that relative bradycardia was a common characteristic for 54 patients with PCR-confirmed mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease in Japan. This clinical sign could help clinicians to diagnose this disease.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , Bradycardia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL