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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 516, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947507

ABSTRACT

The development of an in vitro cell model that can be used to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) research is expected. Here we conducted infection experiments in bronchial organoids (BO) and an BO-derived air-liquid interface model (BO-ALI) using 8 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The infection efficiency in BO-ALI was more than 1,000 times higher than that in BO. Among the bronchial epithelial cells, we found that ciliated cells were infected with the virus, but basal cells were not. Ciliated cells died 7 days after the viral infection, but basal cells survived after the viral infection and differentiated into ciliated cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 signaling was essential for this differentiation. These results indicate that BO and BO-ALI may be used not only to evaluate the cell response to SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic agents, but also for airway regeneration studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchi , Humans , Organoids
2.
Front Aging ; 2: 719342, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933922

ABSTRACT

Age is a major risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and T cells play a central role in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive T cells have been detected in unexposed individuals, we investigated the age-related differences in pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells from young and elderly individuals were mainly detected in the central memory fraction and exhibited similar functionalities and numbers. Naïve-phenotype SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cell populations decreased markedly in the elderly, while those with terminally differentiated and senescent phenotypes increased. Furthermore, senescent SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cell populations were higher in cytomegalovirus seropositive young individuals compared to seronegative ones. Our findings suggest that age-related differences in pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cells may explain the poor outcomes in elderly patients and that cytomegalovirus infection is a potential factor affecting CD8+ T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this study provides insights for developing effective therapeutic and vaccination strategies for the elderly.

3.
DEN Open ; 3(1):e137, 2023.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1881403

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is extensively used worldwide, and its safety has been proven. Herein, we report a case of an acute necrotic disorder in the small intestine post-COVID-19 vaccination. The patient developed severe abdominal pain the day after the first vaccination. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed extensive ileum wall thickening and ascites. Colonoscopy revealed a ring-shaped ulcer and stricture in the terminal ileum. Ileocecal resection was performed, and the patient did not have further episodes of a necrotic disorder in the small intestine. Although it is unknown if this event is associated with vaccination, and this occurrence also does not outweigh the efficacy and safety of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, gastroenterologists need to be aware of this rare case, given its noteworthy timing.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333006

ABSTRACT

Understanding the T-cell responses involved in inhibiting COVID-19 severity is crucial for developing new therapeutic and vaccine strategies. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells interacting with overlapping peptides on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute-phase COVID-19 patients. Relative to severe COVID-19, patients with mild COVID-19 had more frequent antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, and significantly increased SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously expressing granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin, suggesting that inducing highly cytotoxic CD8+ T cells during early infection suppresses COVID-19 severity. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induced these antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in healthy donors, although lesser than in infected patients, and the induced subpopulation was not maintained long-term after second vaccination. Importantly, these CD8+ T cells showed cross-reactivity with the Delta and Omicron strains of SARS-CoV-2. Incorporating factors that efficiently induce CD8+ T cells with polyfunctional cytotoxic activity may improve future vaccine efficacy against such variants.

5.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786459

ABSTRACT

Understanding the T-cell responses involved in inhibiting COVID-19 severity is crucial for developing new therapeutic and vaccine strategies. Here, we characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells interacting with overlapping peptides on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute-phase COVID-19 patients. Relative to severe COVID-19, patients with mild COVID-19 had more frequent antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, and significantly increased SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously expressing granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin, suggesting that inducing highly cytotoxic CD8+ T cells during early infection suppresses COVID-19 severity. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induced these antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in healthy donors, although lesser than in infected patients, and the induced subpopulation was not maintained long-term after second vaccination. Importantly, these CD8+ T cells showed cross-reactivity with the Delta and Omicron strains of SARS-CoV-2. Incorporating factors that efficiently induce CD8+ T cells with polyfunctional cytotoxic activity may improve future vaccine efficacy against such variants.

6.
iScience ; 24(5): 102428, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188663

ABSTRACT

Genetic differences are a primary reason for differences in the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. As induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells maintain the genetic information of the donor, they can be used to model individual differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. We found that human iPS cells expressing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (ACE2-iPS cells) can be infected w SARS-CoV-2. In infected ACE2-iPS cells, the expression of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, budding of viral particles, and production of progeny virus, double membrane spherules, and double-membrane vesicles were confirmed. We performed SARS-CoV-2 infection experiments on ACE2-iPS/ embryonic stem (ES) cells from eight individuals. Male iPS/ES cells were more capable of producing the virus compared with female iPS/ES cells. These findings suggest that ACE2-iPS cells can not only reproduce individual differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro but also are a useful resource to clarify the causes of individual differences in COVID-19 due to genetic differences.

7.
Virology ; 555: 71-77, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065648

ABSTRACT

This review summarizes the presentations given at the 22nd International conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Pacific Rim. The purpose of this annual meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important public health issues in the Asia-Pacific region. This meeting was held in Bangkok in February 2020 and focused on emerging virus infections. Unexpectedly, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was in the initial stages leading to a special session on COVID-19 in addition to talks on dengue, influenza, hepatitis, AIDS, Zika, chikungunya, rabies, cervical cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Global Health , International Cooperation , Asia , COVID-19 , Humans , Japan , Oceania , United States
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