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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(3): e32694, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and stay-at-home orders announced internationally for COVID-19 have led to physical and social distancing, with reports of many individuals experiencing social isolation (SI) and loneliness. Although the emergency declaration in Japan was declared as a "mild" lockdown requested by the government without penalties for violations, the lockdown measures, including SI, had several influences on people's lives and mental health as in other countries. Furthermore, Japan declared a state of emergency multiple times; thus, it is necessary to examine the influence of the transition of SI caused by repeated emergency declarations and the deterioration of mental health associated with these changes. OBJECTIVE: This study longitudinally investigated the transition of SI and its related factors during the mild lockdown under 2 declared states of emergency in Japan and analyzed psychosocial characteristics by extracting clusters where people with specific transition patterns of SI predominated. METHODS: We collected data on 7893 inhabitants (3694 [46.8%] women, 49.6 [SD 13.7] years old) living in the 7 prefectures where the initial emergency declaration was applied. The investigations took place online in the final phase of the first and second states of emergency: phase 1 (between May 11 and 12, 2020) and phase 2 (between February 24 and 28, 2021). Nonparametric Bayesian coclustering was used to visualize the exhaustive interaction structure between the transition pattern of SI and the psychosocial variables. RESULTS: There were no improvements in social networks and loneliness between the 2 phases, although psychological distress significantly improved and depression slightly decreased. Overall, 3868 (49%) of the 7893 participants remained socially isolated through phases 1 and 2, and 947 (12%) were socially isolated in phase 2, even though they were not socially isolated in phase 1. More participants experienced persistent SI in unmarried, childless, and low-household-income groups. The persistent-SI group had fewer cohabitants than other transition pattern groups. The nonparametric Bayesian coclustering results showed that most clusters, including participants without SI throughout phases 1 and 2, had healthy behaviors, more interactions, good relationships, and less loneliness and psychological stress. Furthermore, the cluster in which relationships deteriorated in phase 1 recovered in phase 2. Comparatively, the clusters with SI throughout phases 1 and 2 were divided into clusters with increased loneliness and psychological stress; clusters were close to participants' average scores in this study. The clusters with increased loneliness and psychological stress were notable for deteriorating relationships and less online interaction. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the actual state of transition of SI and related psychological, social, and behavioral factors under repeated declarations of a state of emergency. These results should help construct intervention methods that fit individual characteristics of people in SI during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
2.
J Hosp Infect ; 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health problem. Dental procedures that generate aerosols are considered to impose a high risk of infection; therefore, dental professionals, such as dentists and dental hygienists, are considered to be at high risk of viral transmission. However, few studies have reported COVID-19 clusters in dental care settings. AIM: This study aimed to investigate whether dental and oral/maxillofacial procedures are associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 clusters and measures taken to prevent nosocomial infection in dental clinics. METHODS: An online questionnaire survey on clinical activities (administrative control), infection control measures (environmental/engineering control, personal protective equipment [PPE], etc.), and confirmed or probable COVID-19 cases among patients and clinical staff was administered to the faculties of the dental and oral/maxillofacial surgical departments of university hospitals. FINDINGS: Fifty-one faculty members completed the questionnaire. All members were engaged in the treatment of dental and oral surgical outpatients and actively implemented standard precautions. Fourteen faculty members treated patients with COVID-19, but no infections transmitted from the patients to the medical staff were observed. In seven facilities, patients were found to have the infection after treatment (medical staff came in close contact), but there was no transmission from patients to medical staff. Four facilities had medical staff with infections, but none of them exhibited disease transmission from staff to patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 clusters are unlikely to occur in dental and oral surgical care settings if appropriate protective measures are implemented.

3.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 22: 100448, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757145

ABSTRACT

Evidence regarding coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination indicates that some people hesitate to be vaccinated, and previous studies demonstrate the variables that influence hesitancy to vaccinate. However, they have not limited the target population to areas where infection is prominent. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of people living in these areas who hesitate to be vaccinated and recommend effective approaches to encourage vaccination. The survey was conducted online between February 24 and March 1, 2021, during which the 2nd state of emergency was declared in Japan. The analytic sample comprised 17,582 unvaccinated individuals (mean age â€‹= â€‹48.6 â€‹± â€‹13.8, range â€‹= â€‹18-90 years). The t-test results indicate that current or past treatment for physical illness exerted a strong influence on vaccine hesitancy (ds â€‹= â€‹0.30). Similarly, multiple regression analyses revealed that understanding the importance and necessity for preventive behaviors had the greatest influence on the intention to vaccinate (ߠ​= â€‹0.48). Regarding recommendations to promote willingness to be vaccinated, our findings indicated that clear explanation of the reasons for the necessity for these behaviors and collaboration between representatives of various communities would effectively encourage vaccination.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317164

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with COVID-19 symptoms are suspected of disease. Computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected COVID-19 may be reasonable for triaging, and CT-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a CT-first triage protocol is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a CT-first triage strategy in patients with suspected COVID-19. Methods: : This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with suspected COVID-19 who underwent a medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital and who were prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated patients according to the CT-first triage protocol. CT findings were classified into five categories according to the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS). With the CT-first triage protocol, patients with a suspicious clinical history, symptoms, or suspicious findings on chest CT were allocated to the COVID-19 suspected group. The primary outcome was efficacy of the CT-first triage protocol for outpatients with suspected COVID-19. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of outpatients with suspected COVID-19 and reached final diagnoses. Results: : In total, 108 outpatients with suspected COVID-19 were examined at our hospital. Forty-eight patients (44.9%) were categorized as CO-RADS 1, 26 patients (24.3%) as CO-RADS 2, 14 patients (13.1%) as CO-RADS 3, 6 patients (5.6%) as CO-RADS 4, and 13 patients (12.1%) as CO-RADS 5. One patient was excluded because of pregnancy. Using the CT-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were suspected of having COVID-19. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction;no patients in the group not suspected of having COVID-19 were diagnosed with COVID-19 during follow up. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs. 1037.0 minutes, P < .001). Conclusions: : Our CT-first triage protocol was acceptable for triaging outpatients with suspected COVID-19. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is limited.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317163

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) is useful for the early detection and treatment of many diseases;however, GIE is considered a high-risk procedure in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era. This study aimed to explore the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in saliva and gastric and intestinal fluids to which endoscopy medical staff are exposed.Methods: The study was a single-center cross-sectional study. From June 1 to July 31, 2020, all patients who underwent GIE at Yokohama City University Hospital endoscopy center were registered. All patients provided 3 ml of saliva. For upper GIE, 10 ml of gastric fluid was collected through the endoscope. For lower GIE, 10 ml of intestinal fluid was collected through the endoscope. The primary outcome was the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva and gastric and intestinal fluids. We also analyzed serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and patients’ background information.Findings: A total of 783 samples (560 upper GIE and 223 lower GIE samples) were analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on saliva samples did not show any positive results in either upper or lower GIE samples. However, 2.0% (16/783) of gastrointestinal fluid samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. No significant differences in age, sex, purpose of endoscopy, medication, or rate of antibody test positivity were found between PCR positive and PCR negative cases.Interpretation: Asymptomatic patients, even those with no detectable virus in their saliva, had SARS-CoV-2 in their gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy medical staff should be aware of infection when performing procedures.Trial Registration: The study was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000040587. Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The institutional review board at YCU Hospital approved this prospective study on May 17, 2020 (approval number: B200500054). Written consent for participation in the study was obtained from all patients.

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686556

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological contact tracing is a powerful tool to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with a close contact history with COVID-19-affected patients. However, it remains unclear whom and when should be PCR tested among the close contact subjects. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 817 close contact subjects, including 144 potentially SARS-CoV-2-infected persons. The patient characteristics and contact type, duration between the date of the close contact and specimen sampling, and PCR test results in PCR positive and negative persons were compared. Results: We found that male gender {adjusted odds ratio 1.747 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.180-2.608]}, age ≥ 60 [1.749 (95% CI 1.07-2.812)], and household contact [2.14 (95% CI 1.388-3.371)] are independent risk factors for close contact SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were predicted 6.179 (95% CI 3.985-9.61) times more likely to be infected compared to asymptomatic ones. We could observe PCR test positivity between days 1 and 17 after close contact. However, no subject could be found with a Ct-value <30, considered less infective, after day 14 of close contact. Conclusions: Based on our results, we suggest that contact tracing should be performed on the high-risk subjects between days 3 and 13 after close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580728

ABSTRACT

We conducted a large-scale survey in the Japanese population, about one year after the initial declaration of the state of emergency, to investigate alcohol use under the prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its related psychosocial and demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted online between 15 and 20 June 2021. A total of 11,427 participants were included in the analysis (48.5% female, 48.82 ± 13.30 years, range = 20-90 years). Compared with females, males were more prevalent in the hazardous user and the potential alcoholism group and were less prevalent in the no alcohol-related problem group. However, the prevalence of potential alcoholism among the participants in our study was higher than that previously reported. This trend was particularly pronounced in women. The presence of potential alcoholism was related to a deteriorated psychological status, particularly depression and anxiety, and various difficulties in their daily lives due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In the future, intervention methods and systems should be developed to provide optimal assistance to people with psychological problems who are vulnerable to alcohol-related problems during the COVID-19 pandemic, while conducting further long-term follow-up studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Intern Med ; 60(21): 3421-3426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572226

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Twenty-six days after admission, he experienced hematemesis despite improvement in his respiratory symptoms. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed edematous stomach wall thickening with neither ischemic findings in the gastric wall nor obstruction of the gastric artery. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse dark-red mucosa accompanied by multiple easy-bleeding, irregularly shaped ulcers throughout almost the whole stomach without active bleeding or visible vessels. The clinical course, including the endoscopic findings, progressed favorably with conservative treatment. COVID-19 pneumonia can present with acute gastric mucosal lesion, which may be induced by microvascular thrombosis due to COVID-19-related coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hematemesis/diagnosis , Hematemesis/etiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach
9.
Intern Med ; 60(21): 3421-3426, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486712

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Twenty-six days after admission, he experienced hematemesis despite improvement in his respiratory symptoms. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed edematous stomach wall thickening with neither ischemic findings in the gastric wall nor obstruction of the gastric artery. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse dark-red mucosa accompanied by multiple easy-bleeding, irregularly shaped ulcers throughout almost the whole stomach without active bleeding or visible vessels. The clinical course, including the endoscopic findings, progressed favorably with conservative treatment. COVID-19 pneumonia can present with acute gastric mucosal lesion, which may be induced by microvascular thrombosis due to COVID-19-related coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Hematemesis/diagnosis , Hematemesis/etiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1212-1217, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many health care workers around the world tackled with COVID-19, however sadly, the infection of many medical care workers were reported. To reduce the risk of infection, we launched selected team (Team COVID) of non-specialists and brought in active telemedicine method and computed tomography (CT)-first protocol. We describe our actual practice and the health status of medical doctors dealing with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Between April 17, 2020 and May 24, 2020, 10 doctors worked with COVID-19 patients as part of Team COVID. The Team COVID doctors used a CT-first triage protocol for outpatients and telemedicine for inpatients and outpatients. We evaluated paired serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 at the initial and end of the study duration and PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 at the end of the study duration. Furthermore, 36-item short-form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) at the beginning and end of the study period were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten doctors worked as Team COVID: seven internal medicine doctors and three surgeons. During the study period, Team COVID treated 165 individuals in the outpatient clinic and isolated hospitalized patients for 315 person-days. There were no positive results of serum-specific antibody testing and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Team COVID doctors. Furthermore, the SF-36 showed no deterioration in physical and mental QOL status. No in-hospital infection occurred during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The Team COVID fulfilled the treatment using the active telemedicine and CT-first triage protocol without in hospital infection and excess stress. The combination strategy seems acceptable for both the protection and stress relief among the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triage
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e048380, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the sociodemographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of socially isolated individuals during the 'mild lockdown' period of COVID-19 in Japan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The seven prefectures where the emergency declaration was first applied in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: We collected data on 11 333 individuals (52.4% women, 46.3±14.6 years) living in the seven prefectures where the emergency declaration was first applied. The online survey was performed between 11 May and 12 May 2020, in the final phase of the state of emergency. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) RESULTS: We found that male sex (95% CI 1.60 to 1.98), middle age (95% CI 1.55 to 1.93) and lower income (eg, annual household income <2.0 million: 95% CI 2.29 to 3.54) predicted social isolation; being a student was a protective factor against social isolation (95% CI 0.26 to 0.62). In the comparisons of each item of the LSNS-6 by sociodemographic characteristics, men were more likely to have fewer people to talk to about their personal problems (95% CI -0.37 to -0.28) and to seek help from (95% CI -0.39 to -0.30), and the middle-aged group had a lower social network of friends. Additionally, social isolation was associated with decreased online interaction with familiar people (95% CI -1.28 to -1.13) and decreased optimistic thinking under mild lockdown (95% CI -0.97 to -0.86). CONCLUSIONS: We identified the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics associated with social isolation under mild lockdown. These results are expected to be a useful resource for identifying which groups may require intervention to improve their social interactions in order to preserve their mental health during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26161, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258818

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 are treated as suspected of the disease. Use of computed tomography findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 are expected to be a reasonable method for triaging patients, and computed tomography-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a computed tomography-first triage protocol is lacking.The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a computed tomography-first triage strategy in patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019.This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with fever who received medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital, prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated according to the computed tomography-first triage protocol. The primary outcome was efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for patients with fever in an outpatient clinic. Efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for outpatients with fever was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of feverish outpatients and final diagnoses.In total, 108 consecutive outpatients with fever were examined at our hospital. Using the computed tomography-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were classified as suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction; no patients in the group considered less likely to have Coronavirus disease 2019 tested positive for the virus. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs 1037.0 minutes, P < .001).Our computed tomography-first triage protocol was acceptable for screening patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is inadequate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
13.
Dig Endosc ; 34(1): 96-104, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) is useful for the early detection and treatment of many diseases; however, GIE is considered a high-risk procedure in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era. This study aimed to explore the rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in saliva and gastrointestinal fluids to which endoscopy medical staff are exposed. METHODS: The study was a single-center cross-sectional study. From June 1 to July 31, 2020, all patients who underwent GIE at Yokohama City University Hospital were registered. All patients provided 3 mL of saliva. For upper GIE, 10 mL of gastric fluid was collected through the endoscope. For lower GIE, 10 mL of intestinal fluid was collected through the endoscope. The primary outcome was the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva and gastrointestinal fluids. We also analyzed serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and patients' background information. RESULTS: A total of 783 samples (560 upper GIE and 223 lower GIE samples) were analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on saliva samples did not show any positive results in either upper or lower GIE samples. However, 2.0% (16/783) of gastrointestinal fluid samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. No significant differences in age, sex, purpose of endoscopy, medication, or rate of antibody test positivity were found between PCR positive and PCR negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic patients, even those with no detectable virus in their saliva, had SARS-CoV-2 in their gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy medical staff should be aware of infection when performing procedures. The study was registered as UMIN000040587.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Saliva
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977750

ABSTRACT

This study examined the psychological distress caused by non-coercive lockdown (mild lockdown) in Japan. An online survey was conducted with 11,333 people (52.4% females; mean age = 46.3 ± 14.6 years, range = 18-89 years) during the mild lockdown in the seven prefectures most affected by COVID-19 infection. Over one-third (36.6%) of participants experienced mild-to-moderate psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K6] score 5-12), while 11.5% reported serious psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). The estimated prevalence of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥ 10) was 17.9%. Regarding the distribution of K6 scores, the proportion of those with psychological distress in this study was significantly higher when compared with the previous national survey data from 2010, 2013, 2016, and 2019. Healthcare workers, those with a history of treatment for mental illness, and younger participants (aged 18-19 or 20-39 years) showed particularly high levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress severity was influenced by specific interactional structures of risk factors: high loneliness, poor interpersonal relationships, COVID-19-related sleeplessness and anxiety, deterioration of household economy, and work and academic difficulties. Even when non-coercive lockdowns are implemented, people's mental health should be considered, and policies to prevent mental health deterioration are needed. Cross-disciplinary public-private sector efforts tailored to each individual's problem structure are important to address the mental health issues arising from lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Front Psychol ; 11: 593903, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971296

ABSTRACT

Physical exercise is seen as the main ally for health promotion, preventing and protecting the organism from several diseases. According to WHO, there is a tendency of constant growth in the elderly population in the coming years. The regular practice of exercises by the elderly becomes relevant to minimize the deleterious effects of the aging process and to increase the fitness index. Recently, the world population started a confrontation against Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), which is the most significant public health challenge globally. Although social isolation is a reasonable measure in an attempt to stop contamination by COVID-19, this measure has limited the ability of individuals to exercise outdoors or in gyms and health clubs, which increased the risk of developing chronic illnesses related to a sedentary lifestyle. The critical point is that the recent recommendations on exercise prescription to combat the potentially harmful effects of COVID-19 failure to adequately address resistance exercise interventions as home-based exercise strategy. Thus, in this paper, we discussed the physical exercise as medicine if the training status is enough to protect the elderly against COVID-19 infection, about the role of physical activity on immunosuppression. Possible risks for COVID-19 infection, and the old training methods, such as no-load resistance training as possible resistance exercise strategies and high-intensity interval training, as new proposals of home-based exercise interventions, could perform during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 372, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894411

ABSTRACT

To deter the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have imposed a lockdown with restrictions. On 7 April 2020, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency over the COVID-19 outbreak. Japan was in "mild lockdown" which was not enforceable and non-punitive with the declaration. We conducted an online survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in the "mild lockdown" under a declared state of emergency for COVID-19. We collected data on 11,333 inhabitants (52.4% women, 46.3 ± 14.6 years) living in the seven prefectures where the declaration was first applied. The investigation dates of this study, 11 and 12 May 2020, were in the final phase of the state of emergency. The survey was conducted in real-time to minimize participants' recall bias. In addition to psychological inventories often used worldwide, the questionnaires used in this survey included lifestyle and stress management items related to COVID-19 and various socio-demographic items including occupation (e.g. healthcare worker) or income.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Japan , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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