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1.
Healthcare ; 10(6):1146, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894084

ABSTRACT

Halting the rapid clinical deterioration, marked by arterial hypoxemia, is among the greatest challenges clinicians face when treating COVID-19 patients in hospitals. While it is clear that oxygen measures and treatment procedures describe a patient's clinical condition at a given time point, the potential predictive strength of the duration and extent of oxygen supplementation methods over the entire course of hospitalization for a patient death from COVID-19 has yet to be assessed. In this study, we aim to develop a prediction model for COVID-19 mortality in hospitals by utilizing data on oxygen supplementation modalities of patients. We analyzed the data of 545 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 complications admitted to Assuta Ashdod Medical Center, Israel, between 7 March 2020, and 16 March 2021. By solely analyzing the daily data on oxygen supplementation modalities in 182 random patients, we could identify that 75% (9 out of 12) of individuals supported by reservoir oxygen masks during the first two days died 3–30 days following hospital admission. By contrast, the mortality rate was 4% (4 out of 98) among those who did not require any oxygenation supplementation. Then, we combined this data with daily blood test results and clinical information of 545 patients to predict COVID-19 mortality. Our Random Forest model yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score on the test set of 82.5%, 81.3%, and 83.0% at admission, two days post-admission, and seven days post-admission, respectively. Overall, our results could essentially assist clinical decision-making and optimized treatment and management for COVID-19 hospitalized patients with an elevated risk of mortality.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338372

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a global concern due to vaccine protection waning and the emergence of immune-evasive variants. While the effectiveness of a second booster vaccine dose (i.e., fourth inoculation) is well proven, its safety has yet to be fully understood, and vaccine compliance remains low. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare the short-term effects of the first and second BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster doses. 2,019 participants received smartwatches and filled in a daily questionnaire on systemic reactions to the vaccine. We found substantial changes from baseline levels in the 72 hours post-vaccination with the second booster in both self-reported and physiological reactions measured by the smartwatches. However, no significant difference in reactions was observed between the first and second boosters. We also found that participants who experienced more severe reactions to the first booster tended to likewise experience more severe reactions to the second booster. Our work supports the safety of the second booster from both subjective (self-reported questionnaires) and objective (physiological measurements) perspectives.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1375-1383, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875358

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive technological advances in recent years, objective and continuous assessment of physiologic measures after vaccination is rarely performed. We conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate short-term self-reported and physiologic reactions to the booster BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech, https://www.pfizer.com) vaccine dose. A total of 1,609 participants were equipped with smartwatches and completed daily questionnaires through a dedicated mobile application. The extent of systemic reactions reported after the booster dose was similar to that of the second dose and considerably greater than that of the first dose. Analyses of objective heart rate and heart rate variability measures recorded by smartwatches further supported this finding. Subjective and objective reactions after the booster dose were more apparent in younger participants and in participants who did not have underlying medical conditions. Our findings further support the safety of the booster dose from subjective and objective perspectives and underscore the need for integrating wearables in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Self Report , Vaccination
4.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860432

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical trial guidelines for assessing the safety of vaccines, are primarily based on self-reported questionnaires. Despite the tremendous technological advances in recent years, objective, continuous assessment of physiological measures post-vaccination is rarely performed. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study during the mass vaccination campaign in Israel. 160 participants >18 years who were not previously found to be COVID-19 positive and who received the BNT162b2 COVID-19 (Pfizer BioNTech) vaccine were equipped with an FDA-approved chest-patch sensor and a dedicated mobile application. The chest-patch sensor continuously monitored 13 different cardiovascular, and hemodynamic vitals: heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate variability, stroke volume, cardiac output, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance and skin temperature. The mobile application collected daily self-reported questionnaires on local and systemic reactions. Results: We identify continuous and significant changes following vaccine administration in nearly all vitals. Markedly, these changes are observed even in presumably asymptomatic participants who did not report any local or systemic reaction. Changes in vitals are more apparent at night, in younger participants, and in participants following the second vaccine dose. Conclusion: the considerably higher sensitivity of wearable sensors can revolutionize clinical trials by enabling earlier identification of abnormal reactions with fewer subjects.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318470

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including movement control orders and lockdowns, altered our daily habits, and severely affected our well-being and physiology. The effect of these changes is yet to be fully understood. Here, we analyzed highly detailed data on 169 participants for 2-6 months, before and during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Israel. Our entire study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore is the first to decipher the specific effects of the lockdown from the general effects of the pandemic. We extracted 12 well-being indicators from sensory data of smartwatches and from self-reported questionnaires, filled on a daily basis using a designated mobile application. We used a mixed ANOVA model to study the interplay between age, gender, and chorotype on well-being before and after lockdowns. We found that at the population level, lockdowns resulted in significant changes in mood, sleep duration, sport duration, social encounters, resting heart rate, and the number of steps. The lockdown's adverse effects were greater for young early chronotypes who did not increase their sleep duration, reduced activity level and suffered from significantly reduced mood, and for women, who further suffered an increase in stress levels and a greater decline in social encounters. Our findings underscore that while lockdowns severely impacted our well-being and physiology in general, greater damage has been identified in certain subpopulations. Based on the observed effects, special attention should be given to younger people, who are usually not in the focus of social support, and to women.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1543, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for Israel and the Palestinian territory. Given the extensive interaction between the two populations, vaccination in one population may indirectly benefit the other via reduced transmission. Due to the mobility and extensive contacts, Palestinians employed in Israel could be a prime target for vaccination. METHODS: To evaluate the epidemiological and the economic benefits conferred by vaccinating Palestinians employed in Israel, we developed a model of influenza transmission within and between Israel and the West Bank. We parameterized the contact patterns underlying transmission by conducting a survey among Palestinians employed in Israel, and integrating survey results with traffic patterns and socio-demographic data. RESULTS: Vaccinating 50% of Palestinian workers is predicted to reduce the annual influenza burden by 28,745 cases (95% CI: 15,031-50,717) and 37.7 deaths (95% CI: 19·9-65·5) for the Israeli population, and by 32,9900 cases (95% CI: 14,379-51,531) and 20.2 deaths (CI 95%: 9·8-31·5) for the Palestinian population. Further, we found that as the indirect protection was so substantial, funding such a vaccination campaign would be cost-saving from the Israeli Ministry of Health perspective. CONCLUSIONS: Offering influenza vaccination to Palestinians employed in Israel could efficiently reduce morbidity and mortality within both Israel and the Palestinian territory.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
7.
IISE Transactions ; : 1-24, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1366972

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and treatment of newborns with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can substantially reduce mortality rates. Polymerase chain reduction (PCR) technology is desirable for diagnosing HIV-exposed infants and for monitoring the disease progression in older patients. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), processing both types of tests requires the use of scarce resources. In this paper, we present a supply chain network model for referring/assigning HIV test samples from clinics to labs. These assignments aim to minimize the expected infant mortality from AIDS due to delays in the return of test results. Using queuing theory, we present an analytical framework to evaluate the distribution of the sample waiting times at the testing labs and incorporate it into a mathematical model. The suggested framework takes into consideration the non-stationarity in the availability of reagents and technical staff. Hence, our model provides a method to find an assignment strategy that involves an indirect prioritization of samples that are more likely than others to be positive. We also develop a heuristic to simplify the implementation of an assignment strategy and provide general managerial insights for operating sample referral networks in LMIC with limited resources. Using a case study from Tanzania, we show that the potential improvement is substantial, especially when some labs are utilized almost to their full capacity. Our results apply to other settings in which expensive equipment with volatile availability is used to perform crucial operations, for example, the recent COVID-19 testing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of IISE Transactions is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

8.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(181): 20210284, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338769

ABSTRACT

Current COVID-19 screening efforts mainly rely on reported symptoms and the potential exposure to infected individuals. Here, we developed a machine-learning model for COVID-19 detection that uses four layers of information: (i) sociodemographic characteristics of the individual, (ii) spatio-temporal patterns of the disease, (iii) medical condition and general health consumption of the individual and (iv) information reported by the individual during the testing episode. We evaluated our model on 140 682 members of Maccabi Health Services who were tested for COVID-19 at least once between February and October 2020. These individuals underwent, in total, 264 516 COVID-19 PCR tests, out of which 16 512 were positive. Our multi-layer model obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 81.6% when evaluated over all the individuals in the dataset, and an AUC of 72.8% when only individuals who did not report any symptom were included. Furthermore, considering only information collected before the testing episode-i.e. before the individual had the chance to report on any symptom-our model could reach a considerably high AUC of 79.5%. Our ability to predict early on the outcomes of COVID-19 tests is pivotal for breaking transmission chains, and can be used for a more efficient testing policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Area Under Curve , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253865, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact mixing plays a key role in the spread of COVID-19. Thus, mobility restrictions of varying degrees up to and including nationwide lockdowns have been implemented in over 200 countries. To appropriately target the timing, location, and severity of measures intended to encourage social distancing at a country level, it is essential to predict when and where outbreaks will occur, and how widespread they will be. METHODS: We analyze aggregated, anonymized health data and cell phone mobility data from Israel. We develop predictive models for daily new cases and the test positivity rate over the next 7 days for different geographic regions in Israel. We evaluate model goodness of fit using root mean squared error (RMSE). We use these predictions in a five-tier categorization scheme to predict the severity of COVID-19 in each region over the next week. We measure magnitude accuracy (MA), the extent to which the correct severity tier is predicted. RESULTS: Models using mobility data outperformed models that did not use mobility data, reducing RMSE by 17.3% when predicting new cases and by 10.2% when predicting the test positivity rate. The best set of predictors for new cases consisted of 1-day lag of past 7-day average new cases, along with a measure of internal movement within a region. The best set of predictors for the test positivity rate consisted of 3-days lag of past 7-day average test positivity rate, along with the same measure of internal movement. Using these predictors, RMSE was 4.812 cases per 100,000 people when predicting new cases and 0.79% when predicting the test positivity rate. MA in predicting new cases was 0.775, and accuracy of prediction to within one tier was 1.0. MA in predicting the test positivity rate was 0.820, and accuracy to within one tier was 0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Using anonymized, macro-level data human mobility data along with health data aids predictions of when and where COVID-19 outbreaks are likely to occur. Our method provides a useful tool for government decision makers, particularly in the post-vaccination era, when focused interventions are needed to contain COVID-19 outbreaks while mitigating the collateral damage from more global restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Israel
10.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(179): 20210078, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249357

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented restrictions imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic altered our daily habits and severely affected our well-being and physiology. The effect of these changes is yet to be fully understood. Here, we analysed highly detailed data on 169 participants for two to six months, before and during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Israel. We extracted 12 well-being indicators from sensory data of smartwatches and from self-reported questionnaires, filled daily using a designated mobile application. We found that, in general, lockdowns resulted in significant changes in mood, sleep duration, sport duration, social encounters, resting heart rate and number of steps. Examining subpopulations, we found that younger participants (aged 20-40 years) suffered from a greater decline in mood and number of steps than older participants (aged 60-80 years). Likewise, women suffered from a higher increase in stress and reduction in social encounters than men. Younger early chronotypes did not increase their sleep duration and exhibited the highest drop in mood. Our findings underscore that while lockdowns severely impacted our well-being and physiology in general, greater damage has been identified in certain subpopulations. Accordingly, special attention should be given to younger people, who are usually not in the focus of social support, and to women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100264, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189051

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, various genetic variants have been described. The B.1.1.7 variant, which emerged in England during December 2020, is associated with increased infectivity. Therefore, its pattern of spread is of great importance. The Israeli government established three national programs: massive RT-PCR testing, focused surveillance in nursing homes, and robust prioritized vaccination with BNT162b2. To define the impact of the aforementioned programs, we analyze data from ∼300,000 RT-PCR samples collected from December 6, 2020, to February 10, 2021. We reveal that the B.1.1.7 is 45% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20%-60%) more transmissible than the wild-type strain and has become the dominant strain in Israel within 3.5 weeks. Despite the rapid increase in viral spread, focused RT-PCR testing and prioritized vaccination programs are capable of preventing the spread of the B.1.1.7 variant in the elderly. Therefore, proactive surveillance programs, combined with prioritized vaccination, are achievable and can reduce severe illness and subsequent death.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 596, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Applying heavy nationwide restrictions is a powerful method to curtail COVID-19 transmission but poses a significant humanitarian and economic crisis. Thus, it is essential to improve our understanding of COVID-19 transmission, and develop more focused and effective strategies. As human mobility drives transmission, data from cellphone devices can be utilized to achieve these goals. METHODS: We analyzed aggregated and anonymized mobility data from the cell phone devices of> 3 million users between February 1, 2020, to May 16, 2020 - in which several movement restrictions were applied and lifted in Israel. We integrated these mobility patterns into age-, risk- and region-structured transmission model. Calibrated to coronavirus incidence in 250 regions covering Israel, we evaluated the efficacy and effectiveness in decreasing morbidity and mortality of applying localized and temporal lockdowns (stay-at-home order). RESULTS: Poorer regions exhibited lower and slower compliance with the restrictions. Our transmission model further indicated that individuals from impoverished areas were associated with high transmission rates. Considering a horizon of 1-3 years, we found that to reduce COVID-19 mortality, school closure has an adverse effect, while interventions focusing on the elderly are the most efficient. We also found that applying localized and temporal lockdowns during regional outbreaks reduces the overall mortality and morbidity compared to nationwide lockdowns. These trends were consistent across vast ranges of epidemiological parameters, and potential seasonal forcing. CONCLUSIONS: More resources should be devoted to helping impoverished regions. Utilizing cellphone data despite being anonymized and aggregated can help policymakers worldwide identify hotspots and apply designated strategies against future COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Population Dynamics , Poverty , Aged , Child , Humans , Israel , SARS-CoV-2
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