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1.
Phytother Res ; 36(8): 3232-3247, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976773

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-Cov-2 is responsible for more than 6 million deaths globally. The development of broad-spectrum and cost-effective antivirals is urgently needed. Medicinal plants are renowned as a complementary approach in which antiviral natural products have been established as safe and effective drugs. Here, we report that the percolation extract of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (SSP) is a broad-spectrum viral entry inhibitor against SARS-CoV-1/2 and other enveloped viruses. The viral inhibitory activities of the SSP were evaluated by using pseudotyped SARS-CoV-1 and 2, HIV-1ADA and HXB2 , and H5N1. SSP effectively inhibited viral entry and with EC50 values ranging from 3.6 to 5.1 µg/ml. Pre-treatment of pseudovirus or target cells with SSP showed consistent inhibitory activities with the respective EC50 value of 2.3 or 2.1 µg/ml. SSP blocked both SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and the host ACE2 receptor. In vivo studies indicated that there was no abnormal toxicity and behavior in long-term SSP treatment. Based on these findings, we concluded that SSP has the potential to be developed as a drug candidate for preventing and treating COVID-19 and other emerging enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4744-4755, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954694

ABSTRACT

Viruses exploit the host lipid metabolism machinery to achieve efficient replication. We herein characterize the lipids profile reprogramming in vitro and in vivo using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted lipidomics. The lipidome of SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells was markedly different from that of mock-infected samples, with most of the changes involving downregulation of ceramides. In COVID-19 patients' plasma samples, a total of 54 lipids belonging to 12 lipid classes that were significantly perturbed compared to non-infected control subjects' plasma samples were identified. Among these 12 lipid classes, ether-linked phosphatidylcholines, ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, and ceramides were the four most perturbed. Pathway analysis revealed that the glycerophospholipid, sphingolipid, and ether lipid metabolisms pathway were the most significantly perturbed host pathways. Phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP) were involved in all three pathways and PAP-1 deficiency significantly suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication. siRNA knockdown of LPIN2 and LPIN3 resulted in significant reduction of SARS-CoV-2 load. In summary, these findings characterized the host lipidomic changes upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and identified PAP-1 as a potential target for intervention for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Caco-2 Cells , Ceramides , Ethers , Glycerophospholipids , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Phosphatidate Phosphatase/genetics , Phosphatidate Phosphatase/metabolism , Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism , Phosphatidylethanolamines/metabolism
3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4714-4730, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954691

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the biggest public health challenge the world has witnessed in the past decades. SARS-CoV-2 undergoes constant mutations and new variants of concerns (VOCs) with altered transmissibility, virulence, and/or susceptibility to vaccines and therapeutics continue to emerge. Detailed analysis of host factors involved in virus replication may help to identify novel treatment targets. In this study, we dissected the metabolome derived from COVID-19 patients to identify key host factors that are required for efficient SARS-CoV-2 replication. Through a series of metabolomic analyses, in vitro, and in vivo investigations, we identified ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) as a novel host factor required for efficient replication of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants, including Omicron. ACLY should be further explored as a novel intervention target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase , Humans , Pandemics , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 62, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908152

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to the waves of the resurgence of COVID-19 cases. Effective antivirals against variants are required. Here we demonstrate that a human-derived peptide 4H30 has broad antiviral activity against the ancestral virus and four Variants of Concern (VOCs) in vitro. Mechanistically, 4H30 can inhibit three distinct steps of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Specifically, 4H30 blocks viral entry by clustering SARS-CoV-2 virions; prevents membrane fusion by inhibiting endosomal acidification; and inhibits the release of virions by cross-linking SARS-CoV-2 with cellular glycosaminoglycans. In vivo studies show that 4H30 significantly reduces the lung viral titers in hamsters, with a more potent reduction for the Omicron variant than the Delta variant. This is likely because the entry of the Omicron variant mainly relies on the endocytic pathway which is targeted by 4H30. Moreover, 4H30 reduces syncytia formation in infected hamster lungs. These findings provide a proof of concept that a single antiviral can inhibit viral entry, fusion, and release.

5.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892019

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been confirmed in over 450 million confirmed cases since 2019. Although several vaccines have been certified by the WHO and people are being vaccinated on a global scale, it has been reported that multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants can escape neutralization by antibodies, resulting in vaccine breakthrough infections. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to induce heterologous protection based on trained immune responses. Here, we investigated whether BCG-induced trained immunity protected against SARS-CoV-2 in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Our data demonstrate that i.v. BCG (BCG-i.v.) vaccination induces robust trained innate immune responses and provides protection against WT SARS-CoV-2, as well as the B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.2 variants. Further studies suggest that myeloid cell differentiation and activation of the glycolysis pathway are associated with BCG-induced training immunity in K18-hACE2 mice. Overall, our study provides the experimental evidence that establishes a causal relationship between BCG-i.v. vaccination and protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Melphalan , Mice , gamma-Globulins
6.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 100, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493085

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominantly a respiratory tract infection that significantly rewires the host metabolism. Here, we monitored a cohort of COVID-19 patients' plasma lipidome over the disease course and identified triacylglycerol (TG) as the dominant lipid class present in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced metabolic dysregulation. In particular, we pinpointed the lipid droplet (LD)-formation enzyme diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and the LD stabilizer adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) to be essential host factors for SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mechanistically, viral nucleo capsid protein drives DGAT1/2 gene expression to facilitate LD formation and associates with ADRP on the LD surface to complete the viral replication cycle. DGAT gene depletion reduces SARS-CoV-2 protein synthesis without compromising viral genome replication/transcription. Importantly, a cheap and orally available DGAT inhibitor, xanthohumol, was found to suppress SARS-CoV-2 replication and the associated pulmonary inflammation in a hamster model. Our findings not only uncovered the mechanistic role of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein to exploit LDs-oriented network for heightened metabolic demand, but also the potential to target the LDs-synthetase DGAT and LDs-stabilizer ADRP for COVID-19 treatment.

7.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218064

ABSTRACT

Host cell lipids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of respiratory virus infection. However, a direct comparison of the lipidomic profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infections is lacking. In this study, we first compared the lipid profile of influenza virus and rhinovirus infection in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Most lipid features were downregulated for both influenza virus and rhinovirus, especially for the sphingomyelin features. Pathway analysis showed that sphingolipid metabolism was the most perturbed pathway. Functional study showed that bacterial sphingomyelinase suppressed influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication, but promoted rhinovirus replication. These findings suggest that sphingomyelin pathway can be a potential target for antiviral therapy, but should be carefully evaluated as it has opposite effects on different respiratory viruses. Furthermore, the differential effect of sphingomyelinase on rhinovirus and influenza virus may explain the interference between rhinovirus and influenza virus infection.


Subject(s)
Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Rhinovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sphingomyelins/pharmacology , Animals , Bronchial Diseases/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Dogs , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human , Lipidomics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase , Virus Replication/drug effects
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