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Environ Pollut ; 275: 116615, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077885

ABSTRACT

To prevent spreads of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), China adopted the lockdown measures in late January 2020, providing a platform to study the response of air quality and atmospheric chemical and physical properties to strict reduced emissions. In this study, the continuous measurements of aerosol light absorption were conducted in Nanjing, east China, from January 3 to March 31, 2020. Our results showed that the contribution of black carbon (BC) to light absorption at the different wavelengths was more than 75% and the rest light absorption was contributed by brown carbon (BrC), which was mainly originated from primary emissions. Secondary BrC absorption, which was mainly produced by photochemical oxidation, constituted a minor fraction (2-7%) of the total absorption. Compared with the sampling in the pre-lockdown, the significant decreases of BC (43%) and secondary BrC absorption (31%) were found during the lockdown period, resulting in a substantial decrease of solar energy absorbance by 36% on a local scale. The control measures also changed the diurnal variations of light absorption. Due to the reduced emissions, the relative fraction of fossil fuel to BC also dropped from 78% in the pre-lockdown to 71% in the lockdown. The concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 decreased 1.1 µg m-3, 33 µg m-3 and 9.1 ppb whereas O3 concentration increased 9.0 ppb during the COVID-19 lockdown period. The decreased concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 were mainly contributed by both emission reduction (51-64%) and meteorological conditions (36-49%). Our results highlighted that the balance of control measures in alleviation of particulate matter (PM) and O3 pollution, and meteorology should be seriously considered for improvement of air quality in this urban city of China.

2.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044859

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not only attacking our physical health, but it is also increasing psychological suffering. This study aimed to observe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes among patients with mild to moderate illness in Fangcang shelter hospitals. Methods: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 129 patients with mild to moderate illness from Jiangxia Fangcang shelter hospitals in Wuhan, China. The participants were assessed by quantifying their symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and stressful life events and analyzing potential risk factors associated with these symptoms. Using correlation analysis, we examined associations between exposure to COVID-19 and subsequent psychological distress in response to the outbreak. Results: In total, 49.6% of participants had depressive or anxiety symptoms. The depressive and anxiety symptoms were highly related to sleep disturbances and hypochondriasis (all r > 0.50, P < 0.01). The impact of the event was positively related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances, hypochondriasis and life events (all r > 0.35, P < 0.01) but was negatively related to psychological resilience (r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The presence of the COVID-19 infection in this setting was associated with increased anxiety, depression and stress levels, and decreased sleep quality, and seriously affected patients' quality of life as well as adversely affecting the course and prognosis of physical diseases. Conclusion: The sleep quality, anxiety, and depression of COVID-19 patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals were significantly related to the impact of the epidemic.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907630

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated a marked decrease in peripheral lymphocyte levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Few studies have focused on the changes of NK, T- and B-cell subsets, inflammatory cytokines and virus-specific antibodies in patients with moderate COVID-19. A total of 11 RT-PCR-confirmed convalescent patients with COVID-19 and 11 patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (control patients) were enrolled in this study. NK, CD8+ T, CD4+ T, Tfh-like and B-cell subsets were analysed using flow cytometry. Cytokines and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were analysed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. NK cell counts were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 than in control patients (P = 0.017). Effector memory CD8+ T-cell counts significantly increased in patients with COVID-19 during a convalescent period of 1 week (P = 0.041). TIM-3+ Tfh-like cell and CD226+ Tfh-like cell counts significantly increased (P = 0.027) and decreased (P = 0.022), respectively, during the same period. Moreover, ICOS+ Tfh-like cell counts tended to decrease (P = 0.074). No abnormal increase in cytokine levels was observed. The high expression of NK cells is important in innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The increase in effector memory CD8+ T-cell counts, the up-regulation of inhibitory molecules and the down-regulation of active molecules on CD4+ T cells and Tfh-like cells in patients with COVID-19 would benefit the maintenance of balanced cellular and humoural immune responses, may prevent the development of severe cases and contribute to the recovery of patients with COVID-19.

4.
Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. ; 6(41): 616-620, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-727546

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the clinical features and imaging findings of six coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, so as to provide evidences for early diagnosis and clinical intervention. Methods Six COVID-19 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were enrolled from the Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from Jan. 1 to Feb. 22, 2020. The epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, imaging data and laboratory indicators were retrospectively analyzed. Results All six patients had a clear travel or residence history in Wuhan. Four patients had fever, three had cough, two had upper respiratory tract symptoms such as runny nose and sore throat, and two had systemic symptoms such as headache and muscle ache. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed that all the six patients had abnormal manifestations in bilateral lungs, and the lower lung lesions were more common than the upper lung lesions. The main manifestations were multiple ground-glass opacities, consolidation shadows, crazy paving sign and different degrees of fibrosis in lateral field of bilateral lungs. Chest CT examination later after onset showed lung consolidation and severe fibrosis. Conclusion The imaging of COVID-19 has special characteristics. Combined with the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, COVID-19 can be effectively diagnosed in the early stage.

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