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J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 15(1): 38-48, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594479


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required for the cellular entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. ACE2, via the Ang-(1-7)-Mas-R axis, is part of the antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the renin-angiotensin system. We studied hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension and hypertensive human(h) ACE2 transgenic mice to determine the outcome of COVID-19 with or without AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker treatment. The severity of the illness and the levels of serum cardiac biomarkers (CK, CK-BM, cTnI), as well as the inflammation markers (IL-1, IL-6, CRP), were lesser in hypertensive COVID-19 patients treated with AT1R blockers than those treated with other antihypertensive drugs. Hypertensive hACE2 transgenic mice, pretreated with AT1R blocker, had increased ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 in the kidney and heart, 1 day post-infection. We conclude that those hypertensive patients treated with AT1R blocker may be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, AT1R blockers had no effect on the severity of the illness but instead may have protected COVID-19 patients from heart injury, via the ACE2-angiotensin1-7-Mas receptor axis.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Animals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
Clin Lab ; 66(11)2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922944


BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing symptomatic illness (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China. Travel-associated cases were reported in many other countries leading to epidemic transmission. The number of cases has increased rapidly but laboratory diagnosis is limited. METHODS: We collected samples from two groups of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 for experiments. In one group, 63 serum samples were analyzed IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 35 healthy serum samples were served as controls. In the other group, 91 plasma samples were analyzed by colloidal gold-immunochromatographic assay (GICA) for IgG and IgM antibodies and 35 healthy plasma samples were served as controls. Throat swab samples for nucleic acids retest were collected from 81/91 of these participant. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the combined ELISA IgM and IgG detection was 55/63 (87.3%). Sensitivity of the com-bined GICA IgM and IgG detection was 75/91 (82.4%). Both methods were negative for healthy controls and had a specificity of 100%. In 81 cases, the follow up throat swab samples were retested by RT-PCR, showing that 42 cases were positive. The sensitivity was 51.9% (42/81). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for IgG (AUC(IgG)) was 0.934. The area under the ROC curve for IgM (AUC(IgM)) was 0.812. The area under the ROC curve for IgG + IgM (AUC(IgG+IgM)) was 0.983. CONCLUSIONS: The serological test of SARS-CoV-2 can be used as an important supplement to the existing RT-PCR test for the specific and rapid diagnosis of COVID-19. AUC(IgG) > AUC(IgM) indicates that IgG has better classification performance than IgM. AUC(IgG + IgM) > AUC(IgG) indicates that the combination of IgG and IgM has better classification performance than IgG alone.

Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1089-1094, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72355


Objectives In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China. Laboratory-based diagnostic tests utilized real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on throat samples. This study evaluated the diagnostic value to analyzing throat and sputum samples in order to improve accuracy and detection efficiency. Methods Paired specimens of throat swabs and sputum were obtained from 54 cases, and RNA was extracted and tested for 2019-nCoV (equated with SARS-CoV-2) by the RT-PCR assay. Results The positive rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens and throat swabs were 76.9% and 44.2%, respectively. Sputum specimens showed a significantly higher positive rate than throat swabs in detecting viral nucleic acid using the RT-PCR assay (p = 0.001). Conclusions The detection rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens were significantly higher than those from throat swabs. We suggest that sputum would benefit for the detection of 2019-nCoV in patients who produce sputum. The results can facilitate the selection of specimens and increase the accuracy of diagnosis.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum