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1.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(7): 1063-1074, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908191

ABSTRACT

Frequent outbreaks of coronaviruses underscore the need for antivirals and vaccines that can counter a broad range of coronavirus types. We isolated a human antibody named 76E1 from a COVID-19 convalescent patient, and report that it has broad-range neutralizing activity against multiple α- and ß-coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 variants. 76E1 also binds its epitope in peptides from γ- and δ-coronaviruses. 76E1 cross-protects against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 infection in both prophylactic and therapeutic murine animal models. Structural and functional studies revealed that 76E1 targets a unique epitope within the spike protein that comprises the highly conserved S2' site and the fusion peptide. The epitope that 76E1 binds is partially buried in the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer in the prefusion state, but is exposed when the spike protein binds to ACE2. This observation suggests that 76E1 binds to the epitope at an intermediate state of the spike trimer during the transition from the prefusion to the postfusion state, thereby blocking membrane fusion and viral entry. We hope that the identification of this crucial epitope, which can be recognized by 76E1, will guide epitope-based design of next-generation pan-coronavirus vaccines and antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
iScience ; 25(6): 104431, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851361

ABSTRACT

The different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have attracted most public concern because they caused "wave and wave" COVID-19 pandemic. The initial step of viral infection is mediated by the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein, which mediates the receptor recognition and membrane fusion between virus and host cells. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) targeting the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have become promising candidates for clinical intervention strategy, while multiple studies have shown that different variants have enhanced infectivity and antibody resistance. Here, we explore the structure and function of STS165, a broadly inter-Spike bivalent nAb against SARS-CoV-2 variants and even SARS-CoV, contributing to further understanding of the working mechanism of nAbs.

3.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 36, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805604

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) has aroused concerns over their increased infectivity and transmissibility, as well as decreased sensitivity to SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Such exigencies call for the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines or inhibitors to combat the circulating SARS-CoV-2 NAb-escape variants and other sarbecoviruses. In this study, we isolated a broadly NAb against sarbecoviruses named GW01 from a donor who recovered from COVID-19. Cryo-EM structure and competition assay revealed that GW01 targets a highly conserved epitope in a wide spectrum of different sarbecoviruses. However, we found that GW01, the well-known sarbecovirus NAb S309, and the potent SARS-CoV-2 NAbs CC12.1 and REGN10989 only neutralize about 90% of the 56 tested currently circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron. Therefore, to improve efficacy, we engineered an IgG-like bispecific antibody GW01-REGN10989 (G9) consisting of single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) of GW01 and REGN10989. We found that G9 could neutralize 100% of NAb-escape mutants (23 out of 23), including Omicron variant, with a geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentration of 8.8 ng/mL. G9 showed prophylactic and therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection of both the lung and brain in hACE2-transgenic mice. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that GW01 and REGN10989 bind to the receptor-binding domain in different epitopes and from different directions. Since G9 targets the epitopes for both GW01 and REGN10989, it was effective against variants with resistance to GW01 or REGN10989 alone and other NAb-escape variants. Therefore, this novel bispecific antibody, G9, is a strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2, NAb-escape variants, and other sarbecoviruses that may cause future emerging or re-emerging coronavirus diseases.

4.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 74: 102388, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796139

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as a public health crisis and led to tremendous economic devastation. The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for virus entry, representing the initial step of viral infection. S is one of the major targets for development of the antiviral drugs, antibodies, and vaccines. ACE2 is a peptidase that plays a physiologically important role in the renin-angiotensin system. Concurrently, it also forms dimer of heterodimer with the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 to regulate intestinal amino acid metabolism. The symptoms of COVID-19 are closely correlated with the physiological functions of ACE2. In this review, we summarize the functional and structural studies on ACE2, B0AT1, and their complex with S of SARS-CoV-2, providing insights into the various symptoms caused by viral infection and the development of therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323688

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global public health challenge. The viral pathogen responsible, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), binds to a host receptor ACE2 through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and virus entry. Although the role of ACE2 as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is clear, studies have shown that ACE2 expression across different human tissues is extremely low, especially in pulmonary and bronchial cells. Thus, other host receptors and/or co-receptors that promote the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells of the respiratory system might exist. In this study, we have identified tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL), specifically interacts with SARS-CoV-2 S on the host cell membrane. When overexpressed in cells that do not highly express either AXL or ACE2, AXL promotes virus entry as efficiently as ACE2. Strikingly, deleting AXL, but not ACE2, significantly reduces infection of pulmonary cells by the SARS-CoV-2 virus pseudotype. Soluble human recombinant AXL, but not ACE2, blocks SARS-CoV-2 virus pseudotype infection in pulmonary cells. Taken together, our findings suggest AXL may play an important role in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection of the human respiratory system and is a potential target in future clinical intervention strategies.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296092

ABSTRACT

The recurrent outbreak of coronaviruses and variants underscores the need for broadly reactive antivirals and vaccines. Here, a novel broad-spectrum human antibody named 76E1 was isolated from a COVID-19 convalescent patient and showed broad neutralization activity against multiple α- and β-coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 variants and also exhibited the binding breath to peptides containing the epitope from γ- and δ- coronaviruses. 76E1 cross-protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 infection in both prophylactic and treatment models. The epitope including the fusion peptide and S2’ cleavage site recognized by 76E1 was significantly conserved among α-, β-, γ- and δ- coronaviruses. We uncovered a novel mechanism of antibody neutralization that the epitope of 76E1 was proportionally less exposed in the prefusion trimeric structure of spike protein but could be unmasked by binding to the receptor ACE2. Once the epitope exposed, 76E1 inhibited S2’ cleavage, thus blocked the membrane fusion process. Our data demonstrate a key epitope targeted by broadly-neutralizing antibodies and will guide next-generation epitope-based pan-coronavirus vaccine design.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 315, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442755

ABSTRACT

The evolution of coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, makes broad-spectrum coronavirus preventional or therapeutical strategies highly sought after. Here we report a human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-targeting monoclonal antibody, 3E8, blocked the S1-subunits and pseudo-typed virus constructs from multiple coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 mutant variants (SARS-CoV-2-D614G, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.1, and P.1), SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63, without markedly affecting the physiological activities of ACE2 or causing severe toxicity in ACE2 "knock-in" mice. 3E8 also blocked live SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in a prophylactic mouse model of COVID-19. Cryo-EM and "alanine walk" studies revealed the key binding residues on ACE2 interacting with the CDR3 domain of 3E8 heavy chain. Although full evaluation of safety in non-human primates is necessary before clinical development of 3E8, we provided a potentially potent and "broad-spectrum" management strategy against all coronaviruses that utilize ACE2 as entry receptors and disclosed an anti-coronavirus epitope on human ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Vero Cells
10.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1304-1319.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246001

ABSTRACT

Despite mounting evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engagement with immune cells, most express little, if any, of the canonical receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, using a myeloid cell receptor-focused ectopic expression screen, we identified several C-type lectins (DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, LSECtin, ASGR1, and CLEC10A) and Tweety family member 2 (TTYH2) as glycan-dependent binding partners of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Except for TTYH2, these molecules primarily interacted with spike via regions outside of the receptor-binding domain. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of pulmonary cells from individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicated predominant expression of these molecules on myeloid cells. Although these receptors do not support active replication of SARS-CoV-2, their engagement with the virus induced robust proinflammatory responses in myeloid cells that correlated with COVID-19 severity. We also generated a bispecific anti-spike nanobody that not only blocked ACE2-mediated infection but also the myeloid receptor-mediated proinflammatory responses. Our findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2-myeloid receptor interactions promote immune hyperactivation, which represents potential targets for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Cytokines , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Models, Molecular , Neoplasm Proteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Cell Res ; 31(5): 517-525, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139736

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represent promising candidates for clinical intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated a large number of nAbs from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals capable of disrupting proper interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein and the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the structural basis for their potent neutralizing activity remains unclear. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of the ten most potent nAbs in their native full-length IgG-form or in both IgG-form and Fab-form bound to the trimeric S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The bivalent binding of the full-length IgG is found to associate with more RBDs in the "up" conformation than the monovalent binding of Fab, perhaps contributing to the enhanced neutralizing activity of IgG and triggering more shedding of the S1 subunit from the S protein. Comparison of a large number of nAbs identified common and unique structural features associated with their potent neutralizing activities. This work provides a structural basis for further understanding the mechanism of nAbs, especially through revealing the bivalent binding and its correlation with more potent neutralization and the shedding of S1 subunit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/ultrastructure , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
14.
Science ; 369(6504): 650-655, 2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610891

ABSTRACT

Developing therapeutics against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could be guided by the distribution of epitopes, not only on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein but also across the full Spike (S) protein. We isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent COVID-19 patients. Three mAbs showed neutralizing activities against authentic SARS-CoV-2. One mAb, named 4A8, exhibits high neutralization potency against both authentic and pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 but does not bind the RBD. We defined the epitope of 4A8 as the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein by determining with cryo-eletron microscopy its structure in complex with the S protein to an overall resolution of 3.1 angstroms and local resolution of 3.3 angstroms for the 4A8-NTD interface. This points to the NTD as a promising target for therapeutic mAbs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antibody Specificity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Middle Aged , Mutation , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Young Adult
15.
Science ; 367(6485): 1444-1448, 2020 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17388

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein (S protein) of SARS-CoV-2, both at an overall resolution of 2.9 angstroms, with a local resolution of 3.5 angstroms at the ACE2-RBD interface. The ACE2-B0AT1 complex is assembled as a dimer of heterodimers, with the collectrin-like domain of ACE2 mediating homodimerization. The RBD is recognized by the extracellular peptidase domain of ACE2 mainly through polar residues. These findings provide important insights into the molecular basis for coronavirus recognition and infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/ultrastructure , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/ultrastructure , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment
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