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1.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877432

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused millions of deaths and lacks treatment. Although several studies have focused on the major component of green tea, epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), which is efficient in preventing COVID-19, systemic analyses of the anti-COVID-19 potential of green tea remain insufficient. Here, we co-analyzed the target genes of tea ingredients and COVID-19 signature genes and found that epigallocatechin 3-acetalbehyde was capable of reversing the major molecular processes of COVID-19 (MAPK and NF-κB activation). These findings were further supported by Western blotting (WB), immunofluorescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, using molecular docking analysis, we identified three tea ingredients ((-)-catechin gallate, D-(+)-cellobiose, and EGCG) that may interact with the vital SARS-CoV-2 protein, 5R84, compared with the qualified 5R84 ligand WGS. Thus, our results indicated that tea ingredients have the potential to treat COVID-19 by suppressing the COVID-19 signature genes and interacting with the vital SARS-CoV-2 protein.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878516

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease epidemics have become more frequent and more complex during the 21st century, posing a health threat to the general public and leading to psychological symptoms. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms during epidemic outbreaks, including COVID-19. We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, OVID, Medline, Cochrane databases, bioRxiv and medRxiv to identify studies that reported the prevalence of depression, anxiety or insomnia during infectious disease epidemics, up to August 14th, 2020. Prevalence of mental symptoms among different populations including the general public, health workers, university students, older adults, infected patients, survivors of infection, and pregnant women across all types of epidemics was pooled. In addition, prevalence of mental symptoms during COVID-19 was estimated by time using meta-regression analysis. A total of 17,506 papers were initially retrieved, and a final of 283 studies met the inclusion criteria, representing a total of 948,882 individuals. The pooled prevalence of depression ranged from 23.1%, 95% confidential intervals (95% CI: [13.9-32.2]) in survivors to 43.3% (95% CI: [27.1-59.6]) in university students, the pooled prevalence of anxiety ranged from 25.0% (95% CI: [12.0-38.0]) in older adults to 43.3% (95% CI: [23.3-63.3]) in pregnant women, and insomnia symptoms ranged from 29.7% (95% CI: [24.4-34.9]) in the general public to 58.4% (95% CI: [28.1-88.6]) in university students. Prevalence of moderate-to-severe mental symptoms was lower but had substantial variation across different populations. The prevalence of mental problems increased over time during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general public, health workers and university students, and decreased among infected patients. Factors associated with increased prevalence for all three mental health symptoms included female sex, and having physical disorders, psychiatric disorders, COVID infection, colleagues or family members infected, experience of frontline work, close contact with infected patients, high exposure risk, quarantine experience and high concern about epidemics. Frequent exercise and good social support were associated with lower risk for these three mental symptoms. In conclusion, mental symptoms are common during epidemics with substantial variation across populations. The population-specific psychological crisis management are needed to decrease the burden of psychological problem and improve the mental wellbeing during epidemic.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878515

ABSTRACT

The long-term physical and mental sequelae of COVID-19 are a growing public health concern, yet there is considerable uncertainty about their prevalence, persistence and predictors. We conducted a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis of survivors' health consequences and sequelae for COVID-19. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched through Sep 30th, 2021. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of sequelae of COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 36,625 records identified, a total of 151 studies were included involving 1,285,407 participants from thirty-two countries. At least one sequelae symptom occurred in 50.1% (95% CI 45.4-54.8) of COVID-19 survivors for up to 12 months after infection. The most common investigation findings included abnormalities on lung CT (56.9%, 95% CI 46.2-67.3) and abnormal pulmonary function tests (45.6%, 95% CI 36.3-55.0), followed by generalized symptoms, such as fatigue (28.7%, 95% CI 21.0-37.0), psychiatric symptoms (19.7%, 95% CI 16.1-23.6) mainly depression (18.3%, 95% CI 13.3-23.8) and PTSD (17.9%, 95% CI 11.6-25.3), and neurological symptoms (18.7%, 95% CI 16.2-21.4), such as cognitive deficits (19.7%, 95% CI 8.8-33.4) and memory impairment (17.5%, 95% CI 8.1-29.6). Subgroup analysis showed that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly male, living in a high-income country, with more severe status at acute infection. Individuals with severe infection suffered more from PTSD, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficits, concentration impairment, and gustatory dysfunction. Survivors with mild infection had high burden of anxiety and memory impairment after recovery. Our findings suggest that after recovery from acute COVID-19, half of survivors still have a high burden of either physical or mental sequelae up to at least 12 months. It is important to provide urgent and appropriate prevention and intervention management to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and to promote the physical and psychiatric wellbeing of COVID-19 survivors.

4.
Nature Communications ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1876946

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccination are two fundamental approaches for mitigating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the real-world impact of NPIs versus vaccination, or a combination of both, on COVID-19 remains uncertain. To address this, we built a Bayesian inference model to assess the changing effect of NPIs and vaccination on reducing COVID-19 transmission, based on a large-scale dataset including epidemiological parameters, virus variants, vaccines, and climate factors in Europe from August 2020 to October 2021. We found that (1) the combined effect of NPIs and vaccination resulted in a 53% (95% confidence interval: 42–62%) reduction in reproduction number by October 2021, whereas NPIs and vaccination reduced the transmission by 35% and 38%, respectively;(2) compared with vaccination, the change of NPI effect was less sensitive to emerging variants;(3) the relative effect of NPIs declined 12% from May 2021 due to a lower stringency and the introduction of vaccination strategies. Our results demonstrate that NPIs were complementary to vaccination in an effort to reduce COVID-19 transmission, and the relaxation of NPIs might depend on vaccination rates, control targets, and vaccine effectiveness concerning extant and emerging variants.Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and COVID-19 vaccination have been implemented concurrently, making their relative effects difficult to measure. Here, the authors show that effects of NPIs reduced as vaccine coverage increased, but that NPIs could still be important in the context of more transmissible variants.

5.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870745

ABSTRACT

The herb-pair ginseng-Fuzi (the root of Aconitum carmichaelii) is the material basis of Shenfu prescriptions and is popular in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heart failure, and even shock with severe-stage of COVID-19. A narrow therapeutic window of Fuzi may cause significant regional loss of property and life in clinics. Therefore, systemic elucidation of active components is crucial to improve the safety dose window of Shenfu oral prescriptions. A high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantification of 10 aconitines in SD rat plasma within 9 min. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were below 0.032 ng/ml and 0.095 ng/ml, respectively. Furthermore, a systemic comparison with their pharmacokinetic characteristics after oral administration of a safe dosage of 2 g/kg of Fuzi and ginseng-Fuzi decoction for 24 h was conducted. Eight representative diester, monoester, and non-ester aconitines and two new active components (i.e., songorine and indaconitine) were all adopted to elucidating the differences of the pharmacokinetic parameters in vivo. The compatibility of Fuzi and ginseng could significantly increase the in vivo exposure of active components. The terminal elimination half-life and the area under the concentration-time curve of mesaconitine, benzoylaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, benzoylhypaconitine, and songorine were all increased significantly. The hypaconitine, benzoylmesaconitine, and songorine were regarded as the main active components in vivo, which gave an effective clue for the development of new Shenfu oral prescriptions.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337275

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel variant of SARS-CoV-2, the Delta variant of concern (VOC), on disease severity is very unclear. In this retrospective study, we compared the clinical characteristics and the outcomes of patients infected with the Delta VOC and with wild-type strains during the local outbreak in Xi'an and Wuhan, China. Methods: : The clinical information pertaining to the 2927 cases (between February 10 and March 8, 2020) infected with wild-type strains and the 993 cases (between December 22, 2021and February 17, 2022) infected with the Delta VOC were extracted. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared the cohort of wild-type infection with the cohort of Delta VOC. Results: : Among patients younger than 18 years old, the proportion of patients infected with the Delta VOC was significantly higher than that of patients infected with wild-type strains (12.2% vs. 0.3%). In cases with mild and moderate illness, the proportion of patients was higher in the Delta VOC group than that in the wild-type strain (40.9% and 56.6% vs. 0.70% and 3.10%). However, in severe and critical patients, the proportion of patients was significantly less in the Delta VOC group than that in the wild-type strain (1.6% and 0.9% vs. 24.2% and 72.0%). In cases with severe or critical illness, and in the Delta VOC cohort or the wild-type cohort, the prognosis of patients with lymphocytes blood levels that gradually rising is good after treatment, while the prognosis of patients with lymphocytes blood levels that remain low is poor and even death(p<0.001). The Cox regression analysis revealed that the infection with the lineage of the wide-type strain had a higher risk than the Delta VOC in deteriorating to critical illness (hazards ratio 2.54[95%CI 1.279-5.026];p = 0.008). Conclusions: : Infection with the Delta VOC is characterized by younger patients, milder illness, and decreased risk of disease prognosis compared with the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type lineage;lymphopenia is an effective predictor of deterioration in patients with Delta VOC and wild-type strains, calling for clinicians to understand of characteristics of them, and to guide clinical decision-making.

7.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3046-3054, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an important preventive measure against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to examine the willingness to vaccination and influencing factors among college students in China. METHODS: From March 18 to April 26, 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among college students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The survey was composed of the sociodemographic information, psychological status, experience during pandemic, the willingness of vaccination and related information. Students' attitudes towards vaccination were classified as 'vaccine acceptance', 'vaccine hesitancy', and 'vaccine resistance'. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the influencing factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and resistance. RESULTS: Among 23,143 students who completed the survey, a total of 22,660 participants were included in the final analysis with an effective rate of 97.9% after excluding invalid questionnaires. A total of 60.6% of participants would be willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine, 33.4% were hesitant to vaccination, and 6.0% were resistant to vaccination. Social media platforms and government agencies were the main sources of information vaccination. Worry about the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccine were the top two common reason of vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis identified that participants who worried about the adverse effects of vaccination were more likely to be vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 2.30, 2.58) and resistance (aOR = 2.71, 95% CI = 2.40, 3.05). CONCLUSION: More than half of college students are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, whereas nearly one-third college students are still hesitant or resistant. It is crucial to provide sufficient and scientific information on the efficacy and safety of vaccine through social media and government agencies platforms to promote vaccine progress against COVID-19 and control the pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760592

ABSTRACT

Digital mental health services (DMHSs) have great potential for mitigating the mental health burden related to COVID-19, but public accessibility (ease of acquiring services when needed) to DMHSs during the pandemic is largely unknown. Accessibility to DMHSs was tracked longitudinally among a nationwide sample of 18,804 adults in China from before to one year after COVID-19 outbreak. Unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models and latent growth mixture models were fitted to explore the overall growth trend, influencing factors, and latent trajectory classes of accessibility to DMHSs throughout COVID-19. Generalized estimating equation models and generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association between accessibility to DMHSs and long-term mental health symptoms. We found that people generally reported increased difficulty in accessing DMHSs from before to one year after COVID-19 outbreak. Males, youngsters, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals greatly affected by COVID-19 reported greater difficulty in accessing DMHSs. Four DMHS accessibility trajectory classes were identified: "lowest-great increase" (6.3%), "moderate low-slight increase" (44.4%), "moderate high-slight decrease" (18.1%) and "highest-great decrease" (31.2%). Trajectory classes reporting greater difficulty in accessing DMHSs were at higher risk for long-term mental symptoms. In conclusion, an overall increase in difficulty in accessing DMHSs is observed throughout COVID-19, and heterogeneity exists in DMHS accessibility trajectories. Our results suggest that easy access to DMHSs should be consistently facilitated. Moreover, access gaps should be reduced across demographic groups, and target populations for service allocation should alter as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health
9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 777350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753405

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has pressed a pause button on global economic development, and induced significant mental health problems. In order to demonstrate the progressed relationship between the pandemic, economic slowdown, and mental health burden, we overviewed the global-level gross domestic product changes and mental problems variation since the outbreak of COVID-19, and reviewed comprehensively the specific sectors influenced by the pandemic, including international trade, worldwide travel, education system, healthcare system, and individual employment. We hope to provide timely evidence to help with the promotion of policymakers' effective strategies in mitigating economic losses induced by the pandemic; we suggest different governments or policy makers in different countries to share information and experience in dealing with COVID-19-induced economic slowdown and promote COVID-19 vaccine popularization plan to protect every individual worldwide against the coronavirus essentially; and we appeal international information share and collaboration to minimize stigmatization related to adverse mental consequences of COVID-19 and to increase mental health wellbeings of people all over the world.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 49, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692636

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, respiratory infections, including SARS, HINI and the currently spreading COVID-19, caused by various viruses such as influenza and coronavirus have seriously threatened human health. It has generated inconsistent recommendations on the mandatory use of facemasks across countries on a population level due to insufficient evidence on the efficacy of facemask use among the general population. This meta-analysis aimed to explore (1) the efficacy of facemask use on preventing respiratory infections, and (2) the perceptions, intentions, and practice about facemask use among the general population worldwide. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, bioRxiv, and medRxiv databases since inception to August 17, 2020. From 21,341 records identified, eight RCTs on facemask in preventing infections and 78 studies on perception, intention, and practice of facemask use among the general population were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis of RCTs found a significant protective effect of facemask intervention (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71-0.99; I2 = 0%). This protective effect was even more pronounced when the intervention duration was more than two weeks (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis of observational studies on perception, intention, and practice on facemask use showed that 71% of respondents perceived facemasks to be effective for infection prevention, 68% of respondents would wear facemasks, and 54% of respondents wore facemasks for preventing respiratory infections. Differences in perception, intention, and practice behavior of facemask use in different regions may be related to the impact of respiratory infections, regional culture, and policies. The governments and relevant organizations should make effort to reduce the barriers in the use of facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315467

ABSTRACT

The challenges in scaling up SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity include shortages in the supply chain for consumables and reagents. Improvements in consumption patterns can be obtained through removal of key processing steps, including RNA extraction. Here, we present a scalable and validated extraction-free method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from swab specimens in saline, with a limit of detection at 1,000 GCE/mL and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310725

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. By 8 July 2020, the cumulative number of infected people worldwide had exceeded 11.50 million. It has been reported that a variety of indicators, including lymphocytes, can predict the progression of COVID-19 disease, but the clinical application value of eosinophils has not received widespread attention. It’s specific changes in the course of the disease, as well as the relationship with severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients, need to be further studied.Method: In this multicenter, retrospective study, we collected data on laboratory-confirmed 482 COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Wuhan, China, who died or were discharged between February 1, 2020, and February 20, 2020. By collecting the clinical data and laboratory examination results of the patients, we analyzed the changes of eosinophil and lymphocyte count in patients with different severity and outcomes, so as to study their relationship with the severity and prognosis, to compare the diagnostic effects of lymphocytes and eosinophils on severe COVID-2019 patients.Result: A total of 482 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 39.0% were severe patients and 13.3% were nonsurvivors. All the nonsurvivors were from the severe group. The count of eosinophil remained relatively lower levels during hospitalization in the severe and nonsurvival groups compared with the nonsevere and survival groups (all P < 0.05). Patients with the lowest eosinophil count during hospitalization reduced to <0.02×10⁹/L and =0.00×10⁹/L had higher rates of severity and fatality (all P < 0.05). The lowest counts of lymphocyte and eosinophil during hospitalization were used to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of severe COVID-19, and their diagnostic effects were similar. The cutoff values were ≤0.72×10⁹/L and =0.00×10⁹/L, and the areas under the curve were 0.768 and 0.740, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression model showed that the older age, the emergence of dyspnea, the increase of the white blood cell count on admission, the decrease of lymphocyte count on admission, and eosinophil count reduced to =0.00×10⁹/L on admission were associated with fatal outcome.Conclusion: Eosinophil and lymphocyte count remained relatively lower levels during hospitalization in the severe and nonsurvival COVID-19 patients, and patients with eosinophil decline had higher rates of severity and fatality. Eosinophils = 0.00×10⁹/L and lymphocytes ≤0.72×10⁹/L had the similar efficacy to diagnosis the severe COVID-19 patients. Compared with lymphocytes, eosinophils could also be used to diagnose severe COVID-19 patients and predict prognosis.Funding Statement: This study is funded by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (81974383 and 81772607 to W.Y.;81770554 and 81570501 to Y.F.)Declaration of Interests: None.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Ethics Commission of Wuhan Tongji Hospital, Union Hospital, and Jin Yin-tan Hospital, and written informed consent was waived.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308221

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread over the globe. The knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients was limited. Case presentation: We presented here two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 and clinically confirmed COVID-19, respectively. The patients both presented with fever at illness onset and patchy shadows in radiological images of lungs. Laboratory findings revealed leukopenia, lymphopenia and positive anti-HIV antibody. The younger case had a moderate course and was discharged after a 28-day hospitalization. However, the elder case with multiple comorbidities developed dyspnea and died on the fourth day after admission. Conclusions: : Combining our data with two case reports, we summarize that disease course varies in HIV-infected patients with COVID-19. More attention should be paid to the management of these patients. Whether there is any difference about clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 between HIV-infected and non-HIV infected patients, remains to be further investigated.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324424

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), recently emerged and led to a global pandemic with enormous consequent losses to global health and economies. To date, more than 30 million cases have been reported globally and have affected almost every with varying degrees. Meteorological and non-meteorological factors such as temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, population density, and latitude, are considered critical in virus transmission. To explore the correlation of environmental factors with the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 based on parameters including infection rate, effective reproduction number, and compound growth rate, we analyzed data of confirmed cases from 487 counties in the United States. We found a small impact of temperature and humidity on virus transmission, but observed a considerable positive influence of atmospheric pressure and population density on virus transmission. Geographic areas and seasons (autumn and winter), with exposure to higher atmospheric pressure, are more likely at higher risk of an outbreak. Social distancing and other measures could be effective strategies to combat COVID-19 outbreaks in densely populated areas. Additional studies are needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between meteorological parameters and transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 12-19, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma experience increases the risk of suicidal ideation, but little is known about potentially psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study aims to examine the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related traumatic event (CTE) exposure and suicidal ideation among hospital workers, and identify mediating roles of sleep disturbances in this relationship. METHODS: Workers in seven designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, were invited to participate in an online survey from May 27, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire to evaluate demographic characteristics, level of CTE exposures, nightmare frequency, insomnia severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. A series of correlation analyses were performed, and a mediation model was generated to examine correlations between CTE exposure, sleep disturbances, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: A total of 16,220 hospital workers were included in the final analysis, 13.3% of them reported suicidal ideation in the past month. CTE exposure was significantly associated with insomnia severity, nightmare frequency, and suicidal ideation. After controlling potential confounders, nightmares but not insomnia, depression, or anxiety were shown to be independent risk factors for suicidal ideation. Pathway analyses showed that the relationship between CTE exposure and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by nightmares (proportion mediated 66.4%) after adjusting for demographic characteristics and psychological confounders. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design precluded the investigation of causal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: CTE exposure increases risk of hospital workers' suicidal ideation that is mediated by nightmares, suggesting nightmares intervention might be considered as a component when developing suicide prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dreams/psychology , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623740

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the willingness of the general population to receive COVID-19 vaccines and identified factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. A national online survey was conducted from 29 January 2021 to 26 April 2021 in China. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Of the 34,041 participants surveyed, 18,810 (55.3%) were willing to get vaccinated, 13,736 (40.3%) were hesitant, and 1495 (4.4%) were resistant. Rates of vaccine acceptance increased over time, with geographical discrepancies in vaccine hesitancy and resistance between provinces in China. Vaccine safety was the greatest concern expressed by most participants (24,461 [71.9%]), and the major reason for participants' refusing vaccination (974 [65.2%]). Government agencies (23,131 [68.0%]) and social media (20,967 [61.6%]) were the main sources of COVID-19 vaccine information. Compared with vaccination acceptance, female, young and middle-aged, high income, and perceived low-risk of infection were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Histories of allergic reactions to other vaccines and depression symptoms were related to vaccine resistance. Common factors that influenced vaccine hesitancy and resistance were residing in cities and perceiving less protection with vaccines than with other protective measures. The results indicate that the rate of vaccine resistance is relatively low, but vaccine hesitancy is common. Individuals who are female, young and middle-aged, with a high income, and residing in cities are more likely to be hesitant for vaccination and should be the target populations for vaccination campaigns. Specific vaccine messaging from the government and social media could alleviate public concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy.

17.
Brain Sci ; 12(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613617

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic era, quarantines might potentially have negative effects and disproportionately exacerbate health condition problems. We conducted this cross-sectional, national study to ascertain the prevalence of constant pain symptoms and how quarantines impacted the pain symptoms and identify the factors associated with constant pain to further guide reducing the prevalence of chronic pain for vulnerable people under the pandemic. The sociodemographic data, quarantine conditions, mental health situations and pain symptoms of the general population were collected. After adjusting for potential confounders, long-term quarantine (≥15 days) exposures were associated with an increased risk of constant pain complaints compared to those not under a quarantine (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.26; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.03, 1.54; p = 0.026). Risk factors including unemployment (OR: 1.55), chronic disease history (OR: 2.38) and infection with COVID-19 (OR: 2.15), and any of mental health symptoms including depression, anxiety, insomnia and PTSD (OR: 5.44) were identified by a multivariable logistic regression. Additionally, mediation analysis revealed that the effects of the quarantine duration on pain symptoms were mediated by mental health symptoms (indirect effects: 0.075, p < 0.001). These results advocated that long-term quarantine measures were associated with an increased risk of experiencing pain, especially for vulnerable groups with COVID-19 infection and with mental health symptoms. The findings also suggest that reducing mental distress during the pandemic might contribute to reducing the burden of pain symptoms and prioritizing interventions for those experiencing a long-term quarantine.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 788769, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581323

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has threatened public health worldwide. Host antiviral immune responses are essential for viral clearance and disease control, however, remarkably decreased immune cell numbers and exhaustion of host cellular immune responses are commonly observed in patients with COVID-19. This is of concern as it is closely associated with disease severity and poor outcomes. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a ligand for multiple immune inhibitory receptors, whose expression can be upregulated by viral infections. HLA-G/receptor signalling, such as engagement with immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT-2) or ILT-4, not only inhibit T and natural killer (NK) cell immune responses, dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and B cell antibody production. It also induces regulatory cells such as myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), or M2 type macrophages. Moreover, HLA-G interaction with CD8 and killer inhibitory receptor (KIR) 2DL4 can provoke T cell apoptosis and NK cell senescence. In this context, HLA-G can induce profound immune suppression, which favours the escape of SARS-CoV-2 from immune attack. Although detailed knowledge on the clinical relevance of HLA-G in SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited, we herein review the immunopathological aspects of HLA-G/receptor signalling in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could provide a better understanding of COVID-19 disease progression and identify potential immunointerventions to counteract SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA-G Antigens/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 774504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581154

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is our generation's greatest global challenge to our public health system. Vaccines are considered one of the most effective tools available for preventing COVID-19 infection and its complications and sequelae. Understanding and addressing the psychological stress related to COVID-19 vaccination may promote acceptance of these vaccines. Methods: We conducted an online survey from January 29 to April 26, 2021 to explore stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination among the general public in China. Participants were asked to evaluate their psychological stress of considering whether or not to get vaccinated at the beginning period of the COVID-19 mass vaccination, after getting access to the information about the vaccine, as well as after getting vaccinated, using visual analog stress scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore factors potentially associated with COVID-19-related psychological stress levels before and after getting vaccinated. Results: A total of 34,041 participants were included in the final analysis. The mean stress score concerning COVID-19 vaccination was 3.90 ± 2.60 among all participants, and significantly decreased over time. In addition, the vaccine-related stress level significantly decreased after accessing information about the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 29,396), as well as after getting vaccinated (N = 5,103). Multivariable regression analysis showed higher stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination in participants who were younger, having lower education level, having history of chronic diseases, mistrusting vaccine's efficacy, experience of vaccine allergy events, being affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, and having mental illness symptoms. Moreover, mistrust in vaccine efficacy and experience of vaccine allergy events had a long-term impact on psychological stress levels about COVID-19 vaccination even after getting vaccinated. Conclusions: The current findings profiled the COVID-19 vaccine-related psychological stress among the general public in China. Population-specific management and interventions targeting the stress related to COVID-19 vaccination are needed to help governments and policy makers promote individual's willingness to get vaccinations for public well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 106: 102649, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561473

ABSTRACT

Governments worldwide have rapidly deployed non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the effect of these individual NPI measures across space and time has yet to be sufficiently assessed, especially with the increase of policy fatigue and the urge for NPI relaxation in the vaccination era. Using the decay ratio in the suppression of COVID-19 infections and multi-source big data, we investigated the changing performance of different NPIs across waves from global and regional levels (in 133 countries) to national and subnational (in the United States of America [USA]) scales before the implementation of mass vaccination. The synergistic effectiveness of all NPIs for reducing COVID-19 infections declined along waves, from 95.4% in the first wave to 56.0% in the third wave recently at the global level and similarly from 83.3% to 58.7% at the USA national level, while it had fluctuating performance across waves on regional and subnational scales. Regardless of geographical scale, gathering restrictions and facial coverings played significant roles in epidemic mitigation before the vaccine rollout. Our findings have important implications for continued tailoring and implementation of NPI strategies, together with vaccination, to mitigate future COVID-19 waves, caused by new variants, and other emerging respiratory infectious diseases.

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