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1.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5199

ABSTRACT

A review Objective: To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with severe new coronavirus pneumonia, and to improve the understanding and management of clinicians on novel coronavirus pneumonia Methods: The onset, development, treatment and outcome of a patient with severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed and relevant literatures were reviewed Results: At the beginning of the disease, the patient presented fever and dry cough, and later the disease progressed to dyspnea Chest CT showed bilateral exudation of the lung Lopinavir/ritonavir, IFN-α and Ig were given to the patient according to the expert group′s opinion The pneumonia was cured and the patient was discharged two weeks later Conclusion: Appropriate management strategies are effective on diagnosis and treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia

2.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4380

ABSTRACT

At present, the epidemic situation of corona virus disease (COVID-19) is still very serious, and timely and early identification of COVID-19 patients is a key step in controlling the epidemic As a gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test not only puts higher requirements of the detection technol , but also challenges the selection of specimen types for patients with different disease process this article reports the diagnosis and treatment of 2 COVID-19 confirmed cases, and analyzes the detection of SARA-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using different types of specimens, which provides a reference for how to select specimens types and improve nucleic acid detection rate in clin diagnosis of COVID-19

3.
Sustainability ; 13(1):145, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-984169

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, it became significant to study how to improve the customer satisfaction for Japanese tourist accommodations for restart and recovery in the future, and in preparation for the 2021 Japan Olympics Therefore, the current paper attempts to evaluate ryokans through descriptive statistics from a tourism accommodation survey and customer-satisfaction-related comprehensive assessment system for built environment efficiency (CASBEE) importance–performance analysis (IPA) Through three progressive studies, three findings were obtained: (1) ryokans are more flexible than hotels, have strong anti-risk capabilities, and have received more and more attention from tourists and support from the Japanese government;(2) improvement strategies for customer satisfaction after COVID-19 were provided from IPA;and (3) a dynamic evaluation model of green ryokans was discussed and may be employed in other countries and regions experiencing the same situation

4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23654, 2020 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing cardiac injury. Identifying the factors that affect high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I may indicate the cause of cardiac injury in elderly patients, and this could hopefully assist in protecting heart function in this patient population. METHODS: One hundred and eighty inpatients who were admitted for COVID-19 were screened. Patients older than 60 years were included in this study, and the clinical characteristics and laboratory results of the cohort were analyzed. The correlation between cardiac injury and clinical/laboratory variables was statistically analyzed, and further logistic regression was performed to determine how these variables influence cardiac injury in geriatric patients. RESULTS: Age (p < 0.001) significantly correlated with cardiac injury, whereas sex (p = 0.372) and coexisting diseases did not. Rising procalcitonin (p = 0.001), interleukin-2 receptor (p < 0.001), interleukin 6 (p = 0.001), interleukin 10 (p < 0.001), tumor necrosis factor α (p = 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), white blood cells (p < 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.001), declining lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and natural killer cells (p = 0.005) were associated with cardiac injury and showed predictive ability in the multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that age and inflammatory factors influence cardiac injury in elderly patients. Interfering with inflammation in this patient population may potentially confer cardiac protection.

5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1110

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to viral infection, which may include SARS-CoV-2 The management of IBD and COVID-19

6.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-149690

ABSTRACT

A few animals have been suspected to be intermediate hosts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a large-scale single-cell screening of SARS-CoV-2 target cells on a wide variety of animals is missing. Here, we constructed the single-cell atlas for 11 representative species in pets, livestock, poultry, and wildlife. Notably, the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 target cells in cat was found considerably higher than other species we investigated and SARS-CoV-2 target cells were detected in multiple cell types of domestic pig, implying the necessity to carefully evaluate the risk of cats during the current COVID-19 pandemic and keep pigs under surveillance for the possibility of becoming intermediate hosts in future coronavirus outbreak. Furthermore, we screened the expression patterns of receptors for 144 viruses, resulting in a comprehensive atlas of virus target cells. Taken together, our work provides a novel and fundamental strategy to screen virus target cells and susceptible species, based on single-cell transcriptomes we generated for domesticated animals and wildlife, which could function as a valuable resource for controlling current pandemics and serve as an early warning system for coping with future infectious disease threats.

7.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20115196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector1. When recovering COVID-19 patients are discharged in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the potential risk of re-introducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved2,3,4. Here we show that 20% of COVID-19 patients, who were ready for a hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath ([~]105 RNA copies/m3). They were estimated to emit about 1400 RNA copies into the air per minute. Although fewer surface swabs (1.3%, N=318) tested positive, medical equipment frequently contacted by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 in four hospitals in Wuhan. All air samples (N=44) appeared negative likely due to the dilution or inactivation through natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and applied disinfection. Despite the low risk of cross environmental contamination in the studied hospitals, there is a critical need for strengthening the hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114741, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176010

ABSTRACT

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play important roles in water purification but are also important source of aerosols. However, the relationship between aerosol characteristics and wastewater treatment process remains poorly understood. In this study, aerosols were collected over a 24-month period from a WWTP using a modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process. The aerated tank (AerT) was characterized by the highest respiratory fraction (RF) concentrations (861-1525 CFU/m3) and proportions (50.76%-65.96%) of aerosol particles. Fourteen core potential pathogens and 15 toxic metal(loid)s were identified in aerosols. Mycobacterium was the genus that aerosolized most easily in fine grid, pre-anoxic tank, and AerT. High wastewater treatment efficiency may increase the emission of RF and core potential pathogens. The median size of activated sludge, richness of core potential pathogens in wastewater, and total suspended particulates were the most influential factors directly related to the RF proportions, core community of potential pathogens, and composition of toxic metal(loid)s in WWTP aerosols, respectively. Relative humidity, temperature, input and removal of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, and mixed liquor suspended solids could also directly or indirectly affect the aerosol characteristics. This study enhances the mechanistic understanding of linking aerosol characteristics to treatment processes and has important implications for targeted manipulation.


Subject(s)
Waste Water , Water Purification , Aerosols , Metals , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
9.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114665, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116269

ABSTRACT

Hospitals are important sources of pollutants resulted from diagnostic, laboratory and research activities as well as medicine excretion by patients, which include active component of drugs and metabolite, chemicals, residues of pharmaceuticals, radioactive markers, iodinated contrast media, etc. The discharge of hospital wastes and wastewater, especially those without appropriate treatment would expose the public in danger of infection. In particular, under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic context in China, it is of great significance to reduce the health risks to the public and environment. In this study, technologies of different types of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection have been summarized. Liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet irradiation disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastewater disinfection. While incineration, chemical disinfection, and physical disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastes disinfection. In addition, considering the characteristics of various hospital wastes, the classification and selection of corresponding disinfection technologies are discussed. On this basis, this study provides scientific suggestions for management, technology selection, and operation of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection in China, which is of great significance for development of national disinfection strategy for hospital wastes and wastewater during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Waste Water/virology , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans
10.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20052175

ABSTRACT

BackgroundRespiratory and faecal aerosols play a suspected role in transmitting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We performed extensive environmental sampling in a dedicated hospital building for Covid-19 patients in both toilet and non-toilet environments, and analysed the associated environmental factors. MethodsWe collected data of the Covid-19 patients. 107 surface samples, 46 air samples, two exhaled condensate samples, and two expired air samples were collected were collected within and beyond the four three-bed isolation rooms. We reviewed the environmental design of the building and the cleaning routines. We conducted field measurement of airflow and CO2 concentrations. FindingsThe 107 surface samples comprised 37 from toilets, 34 from other surfaces in isolation rooms (ventilated at 30-60 L/s), and 36 from other surfaces outside isolation rooms in the hospital. Four of these samples were positive, namely two ward door-handles, one bathroom toilet-seat cover and one bathroom door-handle; and three were weakly positive, namely one bathroom toilet seat, one bathroom washbasin tap lever and one bathroom ceiling-exhaust louvre. One of the 46 air samples was weakly positive, and this was a corridor air sample. The two exhaled condensate samples and the two expired air samples were negative. InterpretationThe faecal-derived aerosols in patients toilets contained most of the detected SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital, highlighting the importance of surface and hand hygiene for intervention. FundingThe work were partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no 41977370), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kongs (no 17202719) (no C7025-16G), and Scientific Research Fund of Jiangsu Provincial Department of Health (no S21017002).

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