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1.
Membranes ; 12(1):23, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580578

ABSTRACT

Environmentally friendly face masks with high filtration efficiency are in urgent need to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other airborne viruses, bacteria and particulate matters. In this study, coaxial electrospinning was employed to fabricate a lithium chloride enhanced cellulose acetate/thermoplastic polyurethanes (CA/TPU-LiCl) face mask nanofiber filtration membrane, which was biodegradable and reusable. The analysis results show that the CA/TPU-LiCl membrane had an excellent filtration performance: when the filtration efficiency reached 99.8%, the pressure drop was only 52 Pa. The membrane also had an outstanding reusability. The filtration performance maintained at 98.2% after 10 test cycles, and an alcohol immersion disinfection treatment showed no effect on its filtration performance. In summary, the CA/TPU-LiCl nanofiber membrane made in this work is a promising biodegradable and reusable filtration material with a wide range of potential applications, including high-performance face mask.

2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294053

ABSTRACT

The cardiovascular complications of acute COVID-19 are well described;however, a comprehensive characterization of the post-acute cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 at one year has not been undertaken. Here we use the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases to build a cohort of 151,195 people with COVID-19, 3,670,087 contemporary and 3,656,337 historical controls to estimate risks and 1-year burdens of a set of pre-specified incident cardiovascular outcomes. We show that beyond the first 30 days of infection, people with COVID-19 are at increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease spanning several categories including cerebrovascular disorders, dysrhythmias, ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, heart failure, and thromboembolic disease. The risks and burdens were evident among those who were non-hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection and increased in a graded fashion according to care setting of the acute infection (non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and admitted to intensive care). Taken together, our results provide evidence that risk and 1-year burden of cardiovascular disease in survivors of acute COVID-19 are substantial. Care pathways of people who survived the acute episode of COVID-19 should include attention to cardiovascular health and disease.

3.
Journal of Advanced Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1536633

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 global pandemic is far from ending. There is an urgent need to identify applicable biomarkers for early predicting the outcome of COVID-19. Growing evidences have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies evolved with disease progression and severity in COIVD-19 patients. Objectives We assumed that antibodies may serve as biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission. Methods By taking advantage of a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray, we surveyed IgG responses against 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 1,034 hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission and followed till 66 days. The microarray results were further correlated with clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the association between SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies and COVID-19 mortality. Results Nonsurvivors (n=955) induced higher levels of IgG responses against most of non-structural proteins than survivors (n=79) on admission. In particular, the magnitude of IgG antibodies against 8 non-structural proteins (NSP1, NSP4, NSP7, NSP8, NSP9, NSP10, RdRp, and NSP14) and 2 accessory proteins (ORF3b and ORF9b) possessed significant predictive power for patient death, even after further adjustments for demographics, comorbidities, and common laboratory biomarkers for disease severity (all with p trend < 0.05). Additionally, IgG responses to all of these 10 non-structural/accessory proteins were also associated with the severity of disease, and differential kinetics and serum positive rate of these IgG responses were confirmed in COVID-19 patients of varying severities within 20 days after symptoms onset. The area under curves (AUCs) for these IgG responses, determined by computational cross-validations, were between 0.62 and 0.71. Conclusions Our findings might have important implications for improving clinical management of COVID-19 patients.

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 740-751, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498507

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To quantify the integrated levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the two well-recognized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry-related genes, and to further identify key factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC). Methods: We developed a metric of the potential for tissue infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("TPSI") based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcript levels and compared TPSI levels between tumor and matched normal tissues across 11 tumor types. For further analysis of HNSC, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), functional analysis, and single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were conducted to investigate TPSI-relevant biological processes and their relationship with the immune landscape. TPSI-related factors were identified from clinical and mutational domains, followed by lasso regression to determine their relative effects on TPSI levels. Results: TPSI levels in tumors were generally lower than in the normal tissues. In HNSC, the genes highly associated with TPSI were enriched in viral entry-related processes, and TPSI levels were positively correlated with both eosinophils and T helper 17 (Th17) cell infiltration. Furthermore, the site of onset, human papillomaviruses (HPV) status, and nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1 (NSD1) mutations were identified as the most important factors shaping TPSI levels. Conclusions: This study identified the infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 between tumor and normal tissues, and provided evidence for the risk stratification of HNSC.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Head and Neck Neoplasms/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1433153

ABSTRACT

Although some countries are gradually returning to production and life, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect the world, further motivating recovery policies. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study evaluates the environmental and economic impacts of COVID-19 on the world, both today and in the longer term. This study explores the post-pandemic impacts conditional on varied fiscal policies (including forgone revenue and additional spending) and their combination with a carbon tax. This study finds that the pandemic shocks in 2020 slowed regional economies worldwide, and a continued pandemic in 2021 will further stymie economic activity. Among the government’s recovery policies, indirect tax reduction has the best positive stimulus to regional economies;however, it is not conducive to low-carbon energy development and will also lead to an increase in CO2 and pollutant emissions. A post-pandemic green recovery plan could prioritize replacing indirect production taxes with taxes on GHG emissions, which would both improve economic turnover metrics and reduce environmental emissions in 2021. In the long run, this tax shift will not only minimize the economic damage to the global economy but also help governments around the world to get back on track in meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement.

6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113421, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260670

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 virus is essential to control COVID-19 outbreak. In this study, we propose a promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based COVID-19 biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in untreated saliva. The SERS-immune substrate was fabricated by a novel oil/water/oil (O/W/O) three-phase liquid-liquid interfaces self-assembly method, forming two layers of dense and uniform gold nanoparticle films to ensure the reproducibility and sensitivity of SERS immunoassay. The detection was performed by an immunoreaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody modified SERS-immune substrate, spike antigen protein and Raman reporter-labeled immuno-Ag nanoparticles. This SERS-based biosensor was able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at concentrations of 0.77 fg mL-1 in phosphate-buffered saline and 6.07 fg mL-1 in untreated saliva. The designed SERS-based biosensor exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 virus without any sample pretreatment, providing a potential choice for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21253747

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) necessitates systematic efforts for epidemiological surveillance. The current method for identifying variants is viral whole genome sequencing (WGS). Broad clinical adoption of sequencing is limited by costly equipment, bioinformatics support, technical expertise, and time for implementation. Here we describe a scalable, multiplex, non-sequencing-based capillary electrophoresis assay to affordably screen for SARS-CoV-2 VOC.

8.
Materials Letters: X ; : 100074, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1164235

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of 2020, the whole world suffered from the new coronavirus (COVID-19). Wearing a mask was believed to reduce the spread of the virus. The core material of a mask required good air permeability and efficient filtration. Electrospun materials may match these requirments. By electrospinning, we prepared polyvinyl butyral (PVB)/berberine hydrochloride (BH) membranes onto the spunbonded nonwovens. The composite meshes showed a porous structures, good air permeability (164±16 mm/s) and air filtration efficiency 96.4% for PM 0.3, 100% for PM 2.5, with pressure drop (108 Pa). Moreover, with the addition of BH, the as-spun membranes showed good antibacterial property for staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the prepared PVB/berberine membranes had good hydrophobicity with water contact angle higher than 140°. These results indicated that the fabricated PVB/berberine membranes have potential applications in mask and air filtration.

9.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(3):336-340, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125331

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) patients and make a feasible screening process in fever clinic.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorine/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
12.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5199

ABSTRACT

A review. Objective: To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with severe new coronavirus pneumonia, and to improve the understanding and management of clinicians on novel coronavirus pneumonia. Methods: The onset, development, treatment and outcome of a patient with severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed and relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: At the beginning of the disease, the patient presented fever and dry cough, and later the disease progressed to dyspnea. Chest CT showed bilateral exudation of the lung. Lopinavir/ritonavir, IFN-α and Ig were given to the patient according to the expert group′s opinion. The pneumonia was cured and the patient was discharged two weeks later. Conclusion: Appropriate management strategies are effective on diagnosis and treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia.

13.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4380

ABSTRACT

At present, the epidemic situation of corona virus disease (COVID-19) is still very serious, and timely and early identification of COVID-19 patients is a key step in controlling the epidemic. As a gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test not only puts higher requirements of the detection technol., but also challenges the selection of specimen types for patients with different disease process. this article reports the diagnosis and treatment of 2 COVID-19 confirmed cases, and analyzes the detection of SARA-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using different types of specimens, which provides a reference for how to select specimens types and improve nucleic acid detection rate in clin. diagnosis of COVID-19.

14.
Sustainability ; 13(1):145, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984169

ABSTRACT

Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, it became significant to study how to improve the customer satisfaction for Japanese tourist accommodations for restart and recovery in the future, and in preparation for the 2021 Japan Olympics. Therefore, the current paper attempts to evaluate ryokans through descriptive statistics from a tourism accommodation survey and customer-satisfaction-related comprehensive assessment system for built environment efficiency (CASBEE) importance–performance analysis (IPA). Through three progressive studies, three findings were obtained: (1) ryokans are more flexible than hotels, have strong anti-risk capabilities, and have received more and more attention from tourists and support from the Japanese government;(2) improvement strategies for customer satisfaction after COVID-19 were provided from IPA;and (3) a dynamic evaluation model of green ryokans was discussed and may be employed in other countries and regions experiencing the same situation.

15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(1): e23654, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Geriatric patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing cardiac injury. Identifying the factors that affect high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I may indicate the cause of cardiac injury in elderly patients, and this could hopefully assist in protecting heart function in this patient population. METHODS: One hundred and eighty inpatients who were admitted for COVID-19 were screened. Patients older than 60 years were included in this study, and the clinical characteristics and laboratory results of the cohort were analyzed. The correlation between cardiac injury and clinical/laboratory variables was statistically analyzed, and further logistic regression was performed to determine how these variables influence cardiac injury in geriatric patients. RESULTS: Age (p < 0.001) significantly correlated with cardiac injury, whereas sex (p = 0.372) and coexisting diseases did not. Rising procalcitonin (p = 0.001), interleukin-2 receptor (p < 0.001), interleukin 6 (p = 0.001), interleukin 10 (p < 0.001), tumor necrosis factor α (p = 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.001), white blood cells (p < 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.001), declining lymphocytes (p < 0.001), and natural killer cells (p = 0.005) were associated with cardiac injury and showed predictive ability in the multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that age and inflammatory factors influence cardiac injury in elderly patients. Interfering with inflammation in this patient population may potentially confer cardiac protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Killer Cells, Natural , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/virology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Risk Factors , Troponin T/blood
16.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1110

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to viral infection, which may include SARS-CoV-2. The management of IBD and COVID-19

17.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-149690

ABSTRACT

A few animals have been suspected to be intermediate hosts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a large-scale single-cell screening of SARS-CoV-2 target cells on a wide variety of animals is missing. Here, we constructed the single-cell atlas for 11 representative species in pets, livestock, poultry, and wildlife. Notably, the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 target cells in cat was found considerably higher than other species we investigated and SARS-CoV-2 target cells were detected in multiple cell types of domestic pig, implying the necessity to carefully evaluate the risk of cats during the current COVID-19 pandemic and keep pigs under surveillance for the possibility of becoming intermediate hosts in future coronavirus outbreak. Furthermore, we screened the expression patterns of receptors for 144 viruses, resulting in a comprehensive atlas of virus target cells. Taken together, our work provides a novel and fundamental strategy to screen virus target cells and susceptible species, based on single-cell transcriptomes we generated for domesticated animals and wildlife, which could function as a valuable resource for controlling current pandemics and serve as an early warning system for coping with future infectious disease threats.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20115196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector1. When recovering COVID-19 patients are discharged in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the potential risk of re-introducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved2,3,4. Here we show that 20% of COVID-19 patients, who were ready for a hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath ([~]105 RNA copies/m3). They were estimated to emit about 1400 RNA copies into the air per minute. Although fewer surface swabs (1.3%, N=318) tested positive, medical equipment frequently contacted by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 in four hospitals in Wuhan. All air samples (N=44) appeared negative likely due to the dilution or inactivation through natural ventilation (1.6-3.3 m/s) and applied disinfection. Despite the low risk of cross environmental contamination in the studied hospitals, there is a critical need for strengthening the hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114741, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176010

ABSTRACT

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play important roles in water purification but are also important source of aerosols. However, the relationship between aerosol characteristics and wastewater treatment process remains poorly understood. In this study, aerosols were collected over a 24-month period from a WWTP using a modified anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process. The aerated tank (AerT) was characterized by the highest respiratory fraction (RF) concentrations (861-1525 CFU/m3) and proportions (50.76%-65.96%) of aerosol particles. Fourteen core potential pathogens and 15 toxic metal(loid)s were identified in aerosols. Mycobacterium was the genus that aerosolized most easily in fine grid, pre-anoxic tank, and AerT. High wastewater treatment efficiency may increase the emission of RF and core potential pathogens. The median size of activated sludge, richness of core potential pathogens in wastewater, and total suspended particulates were the most influential factors directly related to the RF proportions, core community of potential pathogens, and composition of toxic metal(loid)s in WWTP aerosols, respectively. Relative humidity, temperature, input and removal of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, and mixed liquor suspended solids could also directly or indirectly affect the aerosol characteristics. This study enhances the mechanistic understanding of linking aerosol characteristics to treatment processes and has important implications for targeted manipulation.


Subject(s)
Waste Water , Water Purification , Aerosols , Metals , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
20.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114665, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116269

ABSTRACT

Hospitals are important sources of pollutants resulted from diagnostic, laboratory and research activities as well as medicine excretion by patients, which include active component of drugs and metabolite, chemicals, residues of pharmaceuticals, radioactive markers, iodinated contrast media, etc. The discharge of hospital wastes and wastewater, especially those without appropriate treatment would expose the public in danger of infection. In particular, under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic context in China, it is of great significance to reduce the health risks to the public and environment. In this study, technologies of different types of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection have been summarized. Liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet irradiation disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastewater disinfection. While incineration, chemical disinfection, and physical disinfection are commonly used for hospital wastes disinfection. In addition, considering the characteristics of various hospital wastes, the classification and selection of corresponding disinfection technologies are discussed. On this basis, this study provides scientific suggestions for management, technology selection, and operation of hospital wastes and wastewater disinfection in China, which is of great significance for development of national disinfection strategy for hospital wastes and wastewater during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Waste Water/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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