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1.
Antiviral Research ; 209:105507, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165062

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant is sweeping the world, which displays striking immune escape potential through mutations at key antigenic sites on the spike protein, making broad-spectrum SARS-CoV-2 prevention or therapeutical strategies urgently needed. Previously, we have reported a hACE2-targeting neutralizing antibody 3E8, which could efficiently block both prototype SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant infections in prophylactic mouse models, having the potential of broad-spectrum to prevent SARS-CoV-2. However, preparation of monoclonal neutralizing antibodies is severely limited by the time-consuming process and the relative high cost. Here, we utilized a modified VEEV replicon with two subgenomic (sg) promoters engineered to express the light and heavy chains of the 3E8 mAb. The feasibility and protective efficacy of replicating mRNA encoding 3E8 against Omicron infection in the hamster were demonstrated through the lung targeting delivery with the help of VEEV-VRP. Overall, we developed a safe and cost-effective platform of broad-spectrum to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Vaccines ; 10(12):2106, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2155413

ABSTRACT

In the three years since the first outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has continued to be prevalent in our community. It is believed that the virus will remain present, and be transmitted at a predictable rate, turning endemic. A major challenge that leads to this is the constant yet rapid mutation of the virus, which has rendered vaccination and current treatments less effective. In this study, the Lactobacillus sakei Probio65 extract (P65-CFS) was tested for its safety and efficacy in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 replication. Viral load quantification by RT-PCR showed that the P65-CFS inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 150 mg/mL being the most effective concentration (60.16% replication inhibition) (p < 0.05). No cytotoxicity was inflicted on the HEK 293 cells, human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells, or human cervical (HeLa) cells, as confirmed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The P65-CFS (150 mg/mL) also reduced 83.40% of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in virus-infected cells, both of which function as important biomarkers for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, inflammatory markers, including interferon-α(IFN-α), IFN-ß, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were all downregulated by P65-CFS in virus-infected cells as compared to the untreated control (p < 0.05). It was conclusively found that L. sakei Probio65 showed notable therapeutic efficacy in vitro by controlling not only viral multiplication but also pathogenicity;this finding suggests its potential to prevent severe COVID-19 and shorten the duration of infectiousness, thus proving useful as an adjuvant along with the currently available treatments.

3.
American Heart Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149200

ABSTRACT

Background Lowering blood pressure (BP) effectively reduces the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in high CV risk individuals. The optimal target of BP lowering among high CV risk individuals remains unclear. Methods The Effects of intensive Systolic blood Pressure lowering treatment in reducing RIsk of vascular evenTs (ESPRIT) trial is a multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive BP lowering strategy (Systolic BP target <120 mmHg) and standard BP lowering strategy (Systolic BP target <140 mmHg). Participants aged at least 50 years old with baseline systolic BP within 130-180 mmHg at high CV risk, defined by established CV diseases or two major CV risk factors, were enrolled. The primary outcome is a composite CV outcome of myocardial infarction, coronary or non-coronary revascularization, hospitalization or emergency department visit from new-onset heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure, stroke, or death from CV diseases. Secondary outcomes include components of the primary composite outcome, all-cause death, a composite of the primary outcome or all-cause death, kidney outcomes, as well as cognitive outcomes. Results Despite of the interruption of COVID-19 outbreak, the ESPRIT trial successfully enrolled and randomized 11,255 participants from 116 hospitals or primary health care institutions. The mean age of the participants was 64.6 (standard deviation [SD], 7.1) years, 4,650 (41.3%) were women. Among them 28.9%, 26.9% and 38.7% had coronary heart disease, prior stroke and diabetes mellitus, respectively. COVID-19 outbreak affected the BP lowering titration process of the trial, and delayed the reach of BP target. Conclusion The ESPRIT trial will address the important question on the optimal BP lowering target for individuals with high CV risk, and generate high quality evidence for treating millions of patients from East Asian countries.

4.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 909-914, 2022 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115849

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application rules and effects of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantations" in the bundle treatment of the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), so as to provide a scientific evidence for effective treatment and prevention of severe type. METHODS: A retrospective comparative study method was used to analyze the clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted to Wuxi Fifth People's Hospital from January 2020 to March 2022, including demographic information, underlying diseases, clinical classification, length of hospital stay, treatment cost, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and other key indicators, and evaluate the application rules and effect of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantations" in the bundle treatment of the patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: The L-type new coronavirus strain was predominant in 2020, the Delta variant in 2021, and the Omicron variant in 2022. The proportion of mild cases was highest in 2022, with the highest proportion of > 65 years old patients developing severe and critical. Among the 150 patients, the proportion of interferon use (100.0%) was the highest in the bundle treatment regimen of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantation". The combined use of vitamin C, interferon and thymopeptide was highest in 2022. More than 75.0% of the age > 65 years old group had underlying diseases, which was also the age group with the highest proportion of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations". Compared with mild cases, the age, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization cost of patients with COVID-19 increased significantly with severity. Mild, ordinary, severe, and critically ill patients all had low lymphocyte counts, with 40.0% of severe patients having the lowest lymphocyte counts within 3 days of admission. The lymphocyte count of critically ill patients was reduced or continuously reduced after admission, and the use of the "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations" method to regulate immunity can effectively save the lives of critically ill patients. Of all cases of COVID-19 infection, 51.3% were asymptomatic, followed by respiratory symptoms (48.7%) and lung lesions (38.0%). Patients with renal dysfunction received this bundle therapy was highest, followed abnormal coagulation and abnormal liver function. This bundle therapy promoted a significant increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in various cases. After treatment, as the virus turns negative, the proportion of M1 type macrophages increased, and the proportion of regulatory T cell (Treg cells) that suppress immunity and the infection related C-C chemokine receptor type (CCR10+) Treg cells decreased. Mild adult cases showed a great change and declined rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age with underlying diseases is a risk factor for severe disease of COVID-19, the "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations" bundle fine treatment of COVID-19 can improve the proportion of lymphocyte composition and organ function, which can control the occurrence and development of severe diseases. In addition to the proportion of CD4+ T cells, the changes of the M1 macrophage, total Treg cell, and CCR10+ Treg cell proportions can be used to determine disease changes of adult patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Antiviral Agents , Peptides , Interferons
5.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111423

ABSTRACT

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from "Our World In Data" and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19's deleterious health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Europe/epidemiology , Seasons
7.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096122

ABSTRACT

Monitoring COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy helps design and implement strategies to increase vaccine uptake. Utilizing the large scale cross-sectional Household Pulse Survey data collected between July 21 and October 11 in 2021, this study aims to construct measures of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and identify demographic disparities among U.S. adults (18y+). Factor analysis identified three factors of vaccine hesitancy: safety concerns (prevalence: 70.1 %). trust issues (53.5 %), and not seen as necessary (33.8 %). Among those who did not show willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine, females were more likely to have safety concerns (73.7 %) compared to males (66.7 %), but less likely to have trust issues (female: 49.7 %; male: 57.1 %) or not seen as necessary (female: 23.8 %; male 43.4 %). Higher education was associated with higher prevalence of not seen as necessary. Younger adults and Whites had higher prevalence of having trust issues and not seen as necessary compared to their counter parts.

8.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2252262.v2

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with provoked thrombo-inflammatory responses. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic this was thought to contribute to hypercoagulability and multi-organ system complications in infected patients. Limited studies have evaluated the impact of therapeutic anti-coagulation therapy (AC) in alleviate these risks in COVID-19 positive patients. Our study aimed to investigate whether long-term therapeutic AC can decrease the risk of multi-organ system complications (MOSC) including stroke, limb ischemia, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, in-hospital and intensive care unit death in COVID-19 positive patients during the early phase of the pandemic in the United States. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of all COVID-19 positive United States Veterans between March 2020 and October 2020. Patients receiving continuous therapeutic AC for a least 30 days prior to or after their initial COVID-19 positive test were assigned to the AC group. Patients who did not receive AC were included in a control group. We analyzed the primary study outcome of MOSC between the AC and control groups using binary logistic regression analysis (Odd-Ratio; OR). Results: We identified 48,066 COVID-19 patients, of them 879 (1.8%) were receiving continuous therapeutic AC. The AC cohort had significantly worse comorbidities than the control group. On the adjusted binary logistic regression model, therapeutic AC significantly decreased in-hospital mortality rate (OR; 0.67, p = 0.04), despite a higher incidence of GI bleeding (OR; 4.00, p = 0.02). However, therapeutic AC did not significantly reduce other adverse events. Conclusion: AC therapy reduced in-hospital death early in the COVID-19 pandemic among patients who were hospitalized with the infection.  However, it did not decrease the risk of MOSC. Additional trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of AC in preventing complications associated with ongoing emerging strains of the COVID-19 virus.


Subject(s)
Infections , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 , Ischemia , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Stroke
9.
Health equity ; 6(1):500-507, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047138

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities and vaccine can help mitigate infection and transition, decrease rate of hospitalization, lower mortality rate, and control the pandemic. This study aims to examine disparities in COVID-19 vaccination rate by age among Whites, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asian Americans, and the modification effects by gender and education. Methods: We used seven waves of biweekly surveys from the Household Pulse Survey collected between July 21, 2021, and October 11, 2021. Results: Asians reported the highest, Blacks reported the lowest vaccination rate, and gender differences were minimal. Increasing age was associated with higher vaccination rate except for the oldest age group. The decline was from 84.4% (70–79 years) to 41.1% (80–88 years: 41.1%) among Hispanics and 92.8% to 69.6% among Asians. Educational effect was the most salient among younger adults with the largest gaps observed in Blacks. Among 18–29-year Black participants, the vaccination rates were 31.1% (confidence interval [95% CI]: 25.7–37.1) for high school or lower, 58.9% (95% CI: 54.2–63.5) for some college or associate degree, and 74.2% (95% CI: 69.4–78.5) for bachelor or higher degrees, leaving a 43.1% gap between the lowest and the highest education levels. The gaps in this age group were 33.7% among Whites, 32.1% among Hispanics, and 20.5% among Asian Americans. Conclusion: Our study advances the existing literature on COVID-19 vaccination by providing empirical evidence on the dynamic race/ethnic–age–education differences across racial/ethnic groups. The findings from our study provide scientific foundation for the development of more strategies to improve vaccination rate for the minority populations.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034898

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious global threat. The metabolic analysis had been successfully applied in the efforts to uncover the pathological mechanisms and biomarkers of disease severity. Here we performed a quasi-targeted metabolomic analysis on 56 COVID-19 patients from Sierra Leone in western Africa, revealing the metabolomic profiles and the association with disease severity, which was confirmed by the targeted metabolomic analysis of 19 pairs of COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed on published metabolic data of COVID-19 to verify our findings. Of the 596 identified metabolites, 58 showed significant differences between severe and nonsevere groups. The pathway enrichment of these differential metabolites revealed glutamine and glutamate metabolism as the most significant metabolic pathway (Impact = 0.5; -log10P = 1.959). Further targeted metabolic analysis revealed six metabolites with significant intergroup differences, with glutamine/glutamate ratio significantly associated with severe disease, negatively correlated with 10 clinical parameters and positively correlated with SPO2 (rs = 0.442, p = 0.005). Mini meta-analysis indicated elevated glutamate was related to increased risk of COVID-19 infection (pooled odd ratio [OR] = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.50) and severe COVID-19 (pooled OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.14-4.56). In contrast, elevated glutamine related to decreased risk of infection and severe COVID-19, the pooled OR were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20-0.44), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.19-0.98), respectively. Glutamine and glutamate metabolism are associated with COVID-19 severity in multiple populations, which might confer potential therapeutic target of COVID-19, especially for severe patients.

12.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; : 15394492221107557, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916860

ABSTRACT

The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may be greater than that of the viral infection. This impact is likely greater for disadvantaged groups such as people with long-term physical disabilities (PwLTPD). This cross-sectional study used a multiple linear regression model to examine factors associated with depressive symptoms and to understand their relative importance during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The model explained 58% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Anxiety was the most important predictor, accounting for 8% of variance. Higher levels of anxiety, loneliness, and financial stress; prior diagnosis of depression; and non-Black race predicted a higher level of depressive symptoms in PwLTPD during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Occupational therapy practitioners should strategically acknowledge predictors of depression that cannot be modified and actively address those that can be modified through evidence-based interventions to improve depressive symptoms in PwLTPD.

13.
Health Equity ; 6(1): 500-507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915514

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities and vaccine can help mitigate infection and transition, decrease rate of hospitalization, lower mortality rate, and control the pandemic. This study aims to examine disparities in COVID-19 vaccination rate by age among Whites, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asian Americans, and the modification effects by gender and education. Methods: We used seven waves of biweekly surveys from the Household Pulse Survey collected between July 21, 2021, and October 11, 2021. Results: Asians reported the highest, Blacks reported the lowest vaccination rate, and gender differences were minimal. Increasing age was associated with higher vaccination rate except for the oldest age group. The decline was from 84.4% (70-79 years) to 41.1% (80-88 years: 41.1%) among Hispanics and 92.8% to 69.6% among Asians. Educational effect was the most salient among younger adults with the largest gaps observed in Blacks. Among 18-29-year Black participants, the vaccination rates were 31.1% (confidence interval [95% CI]: 25.7-37.1) for high school or lower, 58.9% (95% CI: 54.2-63.5) for some college or associate degree, and 74.2% (95% CI: 69.4-78.5) for bachelor or higher degrees, leaving a 43.1% gap between the lowest and the highest education levels. The gaps in this age group were 33.7% among Whites, 32.1% among Hispanics, and 20.5% among Asian Americans. Conclusion: Our study advances the existing literature on COVID-19 vaccination by providing empirical evidence on the dynamic race/ethnic-age-education differences across racial/ethnic groups. The findings from our study provide scientific foundation for the development of more strategies to improve vaccination rate for the minority populations.

15.
Computational and mathematical methods in medicine ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887961

ABSTRACT

There are some advantages of traditional Chinese medicine in anti-COVID-19, and more and more Chinese people are beginning to accept health care of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). By selecting two important independent variables, degree of Chinese cultural identity and performance expectation, their influence mechanism on the consumption attitude of health care for TCM is studied. The results show that the two dimensions of degree of Chinese cultural identity significantly affect the consumption attitude of health care for TCM, and the surface recognition dimension negatively affects the behavioral attitude of health care for TCM. The deep behavioral dimension has a positive impact on the consumption attitude of health care for TCM. Performance expectation has a positive impact on the consumption attitude of health care for TCM. Chinese cultural identity and performance expectation have a positive interaction on the consumption attitude of health care for TCM.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875550

ABSTRACT

Pain, fatigue, and depression, considered aging with disability (AwD) symptoms, are known to be substantially higher among middle-aged adults with long-term disability compared to their age peers. Participation has been recognized as an important component of health. This cohort survey study reports findings on the relationship between AwD symptoms and ability to participate in, and satisfaction with participation in, social roles and activities using PROMIS measures. Data were collected at three time points from individuals aged 45-64 with an average of two decades of disability duration and primarily living in the state of Missouri, USA. This study reports on Time 1 (T1) and Time 3 (T3), pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic declaration, respectively. Multiple regressions using both individual AwD symptoms and a composite measure demonstrated that having more pain, fatigue, and depression was associated with worse participation outcomes. Lower physical function scores were also related to lower participation scores, as was being female and living with others, and having more income reduced participation. Better physical health and identifying as African American/Black were associated with higher participation scores. Our findings suggest that AwD symptoms, along with other sociodemographic and health factors, play a substantial role in the social participation outcomes for persons aging with disability and remain consistent over time.

17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 19-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844257

ABSTRACT

Sequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains preliminary information on the phylodynamics and phylogeography of this new virus. A maximum clade credibility tree (MCCT) was constructed using available whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 and highly similar whole genome sequences from bat SARS-like coronavirus, which are available in GenBank. In this chapter, we describe the molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 by sequencing the viral genomes from confirmed COVID-19 patients, utilizing methods such as target fragment amplification, sequencing, alignment, and maximum similarity mapping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Environmental Science & Policy ; 135:26-35, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819488

ABSTRACT

Carbon neutrality has been a global consensus to navigate away from catastrophic climate change. In particular, such climate changes also generate inevitable influences on economic securities, such as energy security and food security, through energy structure transformation etc. Energy and food are essential elements for human beings, and they are naturally linked to sustainable development. Usually, emergency events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may threaten energy security or food security in a region, the risk of which would be amplified due to the energy-food nexus effect. This is no doubt also a challenge and an opportunity for countries to achieve carbon neutrality. To realize the stable pathways to carbon neutrality, it is important to analyze the energy scarcity risk and food scarcity risk of each industry and country as well as the nexus effect between energy and food. In this paper, we combine multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis with network control analysis (NCA) to investigate the dependence degree of each country and region on energy and food resources as well as the risk transmission network of the energy-food scarcity nexus. Base on this, the impact of climate policy on energy-food nexus scarcity risk is analyzed. We found some interesting conclusions. First, regarding the risk transmission network of the energy-food scarcity nexus, China, Germany and the US are the main generators, and the main receptors are Taiwan, Mexico and the Netherlands. These results imply that international trade transfers energy/food scarcity to geographically distant regions via the international supply chain. Second, as for the scarcity risk per unit of output, small economies that rely heavily on imported energy or food (such as Cyprus and Luxemburg) have the highest scarcity risk and are among the top receptors of transmitted risks. We suggest collaborative conservation and management of energy and food resources. Third, the analyses that assess the emission intensity and scarcity risk find that implementation of emission control policies could significantly decrease initial energy scarcity risk and energy-food nexus scarcity risk. This implies that besides emission reduction achievement, climate policies bring co-benefits of energy-food nexus security. Moreover, the co-benefit of energy and food nexus security for low income economies associated with climate policy is much higher than that for high income economies.

19.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 15(4): 533-540, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798637

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effects of baffle and intraocular pressure (IOP) on the aerosols generated in the noncontact tonometer (NCT) measurement and provide recommendations for the standardized use of the NCT during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This clinical trial included 252 subjects (312 eyes) in The Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University from March 7, 2020, to March 28, 2020. Sixty subjects (120 eyes) with normal IOP were divided into two groups. One group used an NCT without a baffle, another group used an NCT with a baffle. Another 192 subjects (192 eyes) were divided into four groups: Group A1 (without a baffle+normal IOP), Group A2 (without a baffle+high IOP), Group B1 (with a baffle+normal IOP) and Group B2 (with a baffle+high IOP). Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and PM10 generated by all subjects were quantified during the NCT measurement. The IOP values were recorded simultaneously. Effects of baffle and IOP on aerosols generated during the NCT measurement were analyzed. RESULTS: In the normal eye group with a baffle, the aerosol density decreased in a wave-like shape near the NCT with the increase in the number of people measured for IOP, demonstrating no cumulative effect. However, in the normal eye group without a baffle, there was a cumulative effect. PM2.5 and PM10 in Group A2 were higher than Group A1 (both P<0.001). The PM2.5 and PM10 in Group B2 were higher than Group B1 (P<0.01, P<0.001 respectively). The PM10 of Group B1 was lower than Group A1 (P<0.01). PM2.5 in Group B2 were lower than Group A2 (P<0.01). The median of per capita PM2.5 and PM10 in the combined Group A1+A2 were 0.80 and 1.10 µg/m3 respectively, which were higher than 0.20 and 0.60 µg/m3 in the combined Group B1+B2 (both P<0.01). The median of per capita PM2.5 and PM10 in the combined Group A1+B1 were 0.10 and 0.20 µg/m3 respectively, which were lower than 1.30 and 1.70 µg/m3 in the combined Group A2+B2 (both P<0.001). CONCLUSION: More aerosols could be generated in patients with high IOP. After the NCT is equipped with a baffle, per capita aerosol density generated decreased significantly near the NCT; And with the increase in the number of people measured for IOP, the aerosols gradually dissipated near the NCT, demonstrating no cumulative effect. Therefore, it is suggested that the NCT should be equipped with a baffle, especially for patients with high IOP.

20.
Hepatol Int ; 16(3): 691-701, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on safety and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with compensated (C-cirrhosis) and decompensated cirrhosis (D-cirrhosis) are limited. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, adult participants with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis were enrolled and received two doses of inactivated whole-virion COVID-19 vaccines. Adverse events were recorded within 14 days after any dose of vaccination, and serum samples of enrolled patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies at least 14 days after the second dose. Risk factors for negative neutralizing antibody were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 553 patients were enrolled from 15 centers in China, including 388 and 165 patients with C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis. The vaccines were well tolerated, most adverse reactions were mild and transient, and injection site pain (23/388 [5.9%] vs 9/165 [5.5%]) and fatigue (5/388 [1.3%] vs 3/165 [1.8%]) were the most frequently local and systemic adverse events in both the C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Overall, 4.4% (16/363) and 0.3% (1/363) of patients were reported Grades 2 and 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (defined as ALT > 2 upper limit of normal [ULN] but ≤ 5 ULN, and ALT > 5 ULN, respectively). The positive rates of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies were 71.6% (278/388) and 66.1% (109/165) in C-cirrhosis and D-cirrhosis groups. Notably, Child-Pugh score of B and C levels was an independent risk factor of negative neutralizing antibody. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations are safe with acceptable immunogenicity in cirrhotic patients, and Child-Pugh score of B and C levels is associated with hyporesponsive to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liver Cirrhosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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