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2.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-4146402.v1

ABSTRACT

Background The ability of socially assistive robots (SARs) to treat dementia and Alzheimer’s disease has been verified. Currently, to increase the range of their application, there is an increasing amount of interest in using SARs to relieve pain and negative emotions among children in routine medical settings. However, there is little consensus regarding the use of these robots. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SARs on pain and negative affectivity among children undergoing invasive needle-based procedures. Design This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that was conducted in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook guidelines. Methods The PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, and WanFang databases were searched from inception to January 2024 to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 (RoB2.0) to assess the risk of bias among the included studies, and we used RevMan 6.3 software to conduct the meta-analysis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Results Ten RCTs involving 815 pediatric subjects were selected for this review and reported outcomes related to pain and emotions during IV placement, port needle insertion, flu vaccination, blood sampling, and dental treatment. Children undergoing needle-related procedures with SARs reported less anxiety (SMD= -0.36; 95% CI= -0.64, -0.09; P = 0.01) and fewer distressed avoidance behaviors (SMD= -0.67; 95% CI= -1.04, -0.30; P = 0.0004) than did those receiving typical care. There were nonsignificant differences between these groups in terms of in pain (SMD = -0.02; 95% CI = − 0.81, 0.78; P = 0.97) and fear (SMD = 0.38; 95% CI= -0.06, 0.82; P = 0.09). The results of exploratory subgroup analyses revealed no statistically significant differences based on the intervention type of robots or anesthetic use. Conclusions The use of SARs is a promising intervention method for alleviating anxiety and distress among children undergoing needle-related procedures. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to further validate these conclusions. Registrations The protocol of this study has been registered in the database PROSPERO (registration ID: CRD42023413279).

4.
Complex Intell Systems ; : 1-8, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244969

ABSTRACT

The distribution of relief materials is an important part of post-disaster emergency rescue. To meet the needs of the relief materials in the affected areas after a sudden disaster and ensure its smooth progress, an optimized dispatch model for multiple periods and multiple modes of transportation supported by the Internet of Things is established according to the characteristics of relief materials. Through the urgent production of relief materials, market procurement, and the use of inventory collection, the needs of the disaster area are met and the goal of minimizing system response time and total cost is achieved. The model is solved using CPLX software, and numerical simulation and results are analyzed using the example of the COVID-19 in Wuhan City, and the dispatching strategies are given under different disruption scenarios. The results show that the scheduling optimization method can meet the material demand of the disaster area with shorter time and lower cost compared with other methods, and can better cope with the supply interruptions that occur in post-disaster rescue.

5.
Journal of Economic Animal ; 27(1):74-78, 2023.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20239651

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCOV) is a new type of pig intestinal coronavirus, which targets pig small intestinal epithelial cells to cause severe enteritis. After infecting the host, PDCoV finishes its proliferation in the host cell by antagonism or escape the innate immune signaling transduction pathway. In order to understand the action mechanism of PDCOV 0n the congenital immune signal transduction pathways, this paper reviews the effects of PDCOV on RLR, Jak-STAT, MAPK and mitochondrial signaling pathway to clarify the relationship between PDCOV and host innate immune signaling transduction pathways in order to provide help for the prevention and treatment of PDCOV infection.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(8): 2126-2143, 2023 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245305

ABSTRACT

Sanhan Huashi formula(SHF) is the intermediate of a newly approved traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Sanhan Huashi Granules for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. The chemical composition of SHF is complex since it contains 20 single herbal medicines. In this study, UHPLC-Orbitrap Exploris 240 was used to identify the chemical components in SHF and in rat plasma, lung and feces after oral administration of SHF, and heat map was plotted for characterizing the distribution of the chemical components. Chromatographic separation was conducted on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18)(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) using 0.1% formic acid(A)-acetonitrile(B) as mobile phases in a gradient elution. Electrospray ionization(ESI) source was used to acquire data in positive and negative mode. By reference to quasi-molecular ions and MS/MS fragment ions and in combination with MS spectra of reference substances and compound information in literature reports, 80 components were identified in SHF, including 14 flavonoids, 13 coumarins, 5 lignans, 12 amino-compounds, 6 terpenes and 30 other compounds; 40 chemical components were identified in rat plasma, 27 in lung and 56 in feces. Component identification and characterization of SHF in vitro and in vivo lay foundations for disclosure of its pharmacodynamic substances and elucidation of the scientific connotation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Lignans , Rats , Animals , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
7.
Advanced Sensor and Energy Materials ; : 100067, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2328369

ABSTRACT

Highly contagious COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which poses a serious threat to global public health. Therefore, the development of a fast and reliable method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is an urgent research need. The Fe3O4@SiO2-Au is enriched with a variety of functional groups, which can be used to fabricate a sensitive electrochemical biosensor by biofunctionalization with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Accordingly, we developed a novel electrochemical sensor by chemically modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with Fe3O4@SiO2-Au nanocomposites (hereafter Fe3O4@SiO2-Au/GCE) for the rapid detection of S-protein spiked SARS-CoV-2 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The new electrochemical sensor has a low limit detection (viz., 4.78 pg/mL) and a wide linear dynamic range (viz., 0.1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL) for detecting the EIS response signal of S-protein. The robust Fe3O4@SiO2-Au/GCE biosensor has high selectivity, stability, and reproducibility for the detection of S-protein with good recovery of saliva samples.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 10: 1146648, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320311

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that threatens animal health and remains elusive despite years of research efforts. The systematical analysis of all available full-length genomes of TGEVs (a total of 43) and porcine respiratory coronaviruses PRCVs (a total of 7) showed that TGEVs fell into two independent evolutionary phylogenetic clades, GI and GII. Viruses circulating in China (until 2021) clustered with the traditional or attenuated vaccine strains within the same evolutionary clades (GI). In contrast, viruses latterly isolated in the USA fell into GII clade. The viruses circulating in China have a lower similarity with that isolated latterly in the USA all through the viral genome. In addition, at least four potential genomic recombination events were identified, three of which occurred in GI clade and one in GII clade. TGEVs circulating in China are distinct from the viruses latterly isolated in the USA at either genomic nucleotide or antigenic levels. Genomic recombination serves as a factor driving the expansion of TGEV genomic diversity.

9.
J Basic Microbiol ; 63(5): 519-529, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312806

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a member of pathogenic Betacoronaviruses that has been circulating for several decades in multiple host species. Given the similarity between BCoV and human coronaviruses, the current study aimed to review the complete genomes of 107 BCoV strains available on the GenBank database, collected between 1983 and 2017 from different countries. The maximum-likelihood based phylogenetic analysis revealed three main BCoV genogroups: GI, GII, and GIII. GI is further divided into nine subgenogroups: GI-a to GI-i. The GI-a to GI-d are restricted to Japan, and GI-e to GI-i to the USA. The evolutionary relationships were also inferred using phylogenetic network analysis, revealing two major distinct networks dominated by viruses identified in the USA and Japan, respectively. The USA strains-dominated Network Cluster includes two sub-branches: France/Germany and Japan/China in addition to the United States, while Japan strains-dominated Network Cluster is limited to Japan. Twelve recombination events were determined, including 11 intragenogroup (GI) and one intergenogroup (GII vs. GI-g). The breakpoints of the recombination events were mainly located in ORF1ab and the spike glycoprotein ORF. Interestingly, 10 of 12 recombination events occurred between Japan strains, one between the USA strains, and one from intercontinental recombination (Japan vs. USA). These findings suggest that geographical characteristics, and population density with closer contact, might significantly impact the BCoV infection and co-infection and boost the emergence of more complex virus lineages.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Phylogeny , Likelihood Functions , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Recombination, Genetic , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
10.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 28(10): 776-780, 2022-10.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-367758

ABSTRACT

Background: Since winter 2020, excess deaths due to COVID-19 have been higher in Eastern Europe than most of Western Europe, partly because regulatory enforcement was poor. Methods: This paper analysed data from 50 countries in the WHO European Region, in addition to data from USA and Canada. Excess mMortality and vaccination data were retrieved from “Our World In Data” and regulation implementation was assessed using standard methods. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the association between mortality and each covariate. Results: Excess mortality increased by 4.1 per 100 000 (P = 0.038) for every percentage decrease in vaccination rate and with 6/100 000 (p=0.011) for every decreased unit in the regulatory implementation score a country achieved in the Rule of Law Index. Conclusion: Degree of regulation enforcement, likely including public health measure enforcement, may be an important factor in controlling COVID-19’s deleterious health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Betacoronavirus , Vaccination Coverage
11.
Journal of Nursing Management ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2306849

ABSTRACT

Aim. To elaborate on the relationship between work engagement, perceived organizational support, and the turnover intention of nurses by analysing some potential moderators. Background. Nurses' turnover intention is negatively impacted by their level of work engagement and perceptions of organizational support. However, it is challenging to reach a consistent conclusion. Methods. Data were acquired from six electronic databases. Each study was evaluated using the quality assessment tool for cross-sectional studies of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). STATA 15.0 was used to analyse the data, and a random effects model was used. The groups that included two or more studies were added to the moderator analysis. Results. A total of 40 study articles involving 23,451 participants were included. The turnover intention of nurses was inversely associated with work engagement (coefficient: −0.42) and perceived organizational support (coefficient: −0.32). A substantial moderating role was played by cultural background, economic status, working years, and investigation time (P<0.05). Conclusion. Work engagement and organizational support significantly reduced turnover intention among nurses. Considering the acute shortage of nurses worldwide, nurses with lower wages, fewer working years, and lower levels of work engagement should be given more attention and support from their organizations. Implications for Nursing Management. The meta-analysis suggested that managers should give their employees a more organizational support and promote their work engagement to motivate nurses' retention intention and maintain a stable workforce with little employee turnover.

12.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2900071.v1

ABSTRACT

Antibody tests are used as surveillance tools for informing health policy making. However, results may vary by type of antibody assay and timing of sample collection following infection. Long-term longitudinal cohort studies on antibody assay seropositivity have remained limited, especially among Asian populations. Using blood samples obtained at health physicals (2020–2022) of healthcare workers (mass vaccinated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines) at a Japanese medical center, we measured N-specific antibodies using two commercially available systems. Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 measures total antibodies and Abbott AlinityⓇ SARS-CoV-2 IgG measures only IgG. Among 2,538 participants, 16.6% tested positive via total antibody assay versus 12.9% by IgG-only (including grayzone) by mid-June 2022. For 219 cases with a previous PCR-confirmed infection, positivity was 97.3% using total antibody assay versus 76.3% using IgG-only assay. During the first 16 weeks after infection, both assays demonstrated high positivity. However, while positivity of the total antibody assay was retained for the entire study period (until week 113 post-infection), IgG-only assay positivity declined after week 16. Our study found significant differences in the performance of total antibody versus IgG-only assays, suggesting an optimal assay for retaining sensitivity over the entire infection period when designing seroprevalence studies.

13.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(4): 213, 2023 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298359

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine how participation in daily life is impacted during the first six months following a new cancer diagnosis and to identify risk factors for participation restrictions. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were used to suggest referrals to rehabilitation services. METHODS: Participants (n = 123) were adults (> 18 years) with the newly diagnosed primary brain, breast, colorectal, or lung cancer. PROs were collected at baseline (within 30 days of diagnosis/treatment initiation), two and five months post baseline. Daily life participation was assessed through the community participation indicators (CPI) (score range: 0-1) and patient-reported outcome measurement information system (PROMIS) ability to participate, (score range: 20-80; mean: 50, SD: 10). PROMIS-43 profile was also completed. Linear mixed-effect models with random intercept evaluated change in participation over time. RESULTS: The baseline total sample mean CPI score was 0.56; patients reported mildly impaired participation based on PROMIS scores (baseline: 46.19, 2-month follow-up: 44.81, 5 months: 44.84). However, no statistically significant changes in participation were observed over the study period. Risk factors for lower participation included receiving chemotherapy, lower physical function, higher anxiety and fatigue, and reduction in employment, p < 0.05. PROs indicated that roughly half of the participants may benefit from physical or occupational therapy or mental health support, but only 20-36% were referred by their medical team. CONCLUSION: People newly diagnosed with cancer experience impaired participation, but they are infrequently referred to supportive services such as rehabilitation. The use of PROs to assess participation, physical function, and mental health can promote access to supportive care services by identifying patients who may benefit from rehabilitation beyond those identified through routine clinical care.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Adult , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Neoplasms/therapy , Anxiety/etiology
14.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2022, China has eliminated the compulsory nucleic acid screening, which led to a new pandemic of Omicron. We observed a surge of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) at a largest tertiary hospital in Shanghai. We evaluated the potential relationship between the infection of Omicron and the occurrence of PACG. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we identified 41 patients diagnosed with PACG from 523 individuals registered in ophthalmic emergency from December 2022 to January 2023. We compared the proportion of PACG patients in all the patients registered at the ophthalmic emergency department in the corresponding period (December and January) from 2018 to 2023. RESULTS: The proportion of PACG patients rose to 6.74% and 9.13%, nearly a five-fold increase compared to the previous 1.90%. The proportion of PACG patients throughout 2022 also increased in the recent 2 months. All PACG patients in our center from Dec. 21st 2022 to Jan. 27th 2023 had positive nucleic acid tests at their initial visits. The peak of glaucoma came around Dec. 27th 2022, while the peak of the internal medicine emergency came around Jan. 5th 2023. CONCLUSIONS: The behavior pattern of the infected people and anxiety mood would induce the PACG attack. Some ophthalmic advice should be added to the Chinese treatment guidelines for COVID-19. Also, a shallow anterior chamber and narrow angle need to be ruled out when necessary. Further studies on larger populations are needed to explore the relationship between PACG and Covid.

15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 35(1): 32-36, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic characteristics and clinical key indicators of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 of the local Omicron variant epidemic, to understand the clinical characteristics of mild and severe patients, and to provide a scientific basis for the effective treatment and prevention of severe disease. METHODS: From January 2020 to March 2022, the clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi were retrospective analyzed, including virus gene subtypes, demographic information, clinical classification, main clinical symptoms, and key indicators of clinical testing, and the changes of clinical characteristics of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted, 78, 52 and 20 in 2020, 2021 and 2022, including 10, 1 and 1 severe patient, and the main infected virus strains were L, Delta, and Omicron variants. The relapse rate of patients infected with the Omicron variant was as high as 15.0% (3/20), the incidence of diarrhea decreased to 10.0% (2/20), the incidence of severe disease decreased to 5.0% (1/20), and the number of hospitalization days of mild patients increased compared with 2020 (days: 20.43±1.78 vs. 15.84±1.12); respiratory symptoms were reduced, and the proportion of pulmonary lesions decreased to 10.5%; the virus titer of severely ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection (day 3) was higher than that of L-type strain (Ct value: 23.92±1.16 vs. 28.19±1.54). The acute plasma cytokines interleukin (IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly lower in patients with severe Omicron variant new coronavirus infection than those with mild disease [IL-6 (ng/L): 3.92±0.24 vs. 6.02±0.41, IL-10 (ng/L): 0.58±0.01 vs. 4.43±0.32, TNF-α (ng/L): 1.73±0.02 vs. 6.91±1.25, all P < 0.05], while γ-interferon (IFN-γ) and IL-17A were significantly higher than patients with mild disease [IFN-γ (ng/L): 23.07±0.17 vs. 13.52±2.34, IL-17A (ng/L): 35.58±0.08 vs. 26.39±1.37, both P < 0.05]. Compared with previous epidemics (2020 and 2021), the proportion of CD4/CD8 ratio, lymphocyte count, eosinophil and serum creatinine decreased in patients with mild Omicron infection in 2022 (36.8% vs. 22.1%, 9.8%; 36.8% vs. 23.5%, 7.8%; 42.1% vs. 41.2%, 15.7%; 42.1% vs. 19.1%, 9.8%), the proportion of patients with elevated monocyte count and procalcitonin was large (42.1% vs. 50.0%, 23.5%; 21.1% vs. 5.9%, 0). CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of severe disease in patients with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection was significantly lower than that of previous epidemics, and the occurrence of severe diseases was still related to the underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 909-914, 2022 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application rules and effects of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantations" in the bundle treatment of the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), so as to provide a scientific evidence for effective treatment and prevention of severe type. METHODS: A retrospective comparative study method was used to analyze the clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted to Wuxi Fifth People's Hospital from January 2020 to March 2022, including demographic information, underlying diseases, clinical classification, length of hospital stay, treatment cost, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and other key indicators, and evaluate the application rules and effect of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantations" in the bundle treatment of the patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: The L-type new coronavirus strain was predominant in 2020, the Delta variant in 2021, and the Omicron variant in 2022. The proportion of mild cases was highest in 2022, with the highest proportion of > 65 years old patients developing severe and critical. Among the 150 patients, the proportion of interferon use (100.0%) was the highest in the bundle treatment regimen of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two Transplantation". The combined use of vitamin C, interferon and thymopeptide was highest in 2022. More than 75.0% of the age > 65 years old group had underlying diseases, which was also the age group with the highest proportion of "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations". Compared with mild cases, the age, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization cost of patients with COVID-19 increased significantly with severity. Mild, ordinary, severe, and critically ill patients all had low lymphocyte counts, with 40.0% of severe patients having the lowest lymphocyte counts within 3 days of admission. The lymphocyte count of critically ill patients was reduced or continuously reduced after admission, and the use of the "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations" method to regulate immunity can effectively save the lives of critically ill patients. Of all cases of COVID-19 infection, 51.3% were asymptomatic, followed by respiratory symptoms (48.7%) and lung lesions (38.0%). Patients with renal dysfunction received this bundle therapy was highest, followed abnormal coagulation and abnormal liver function. This bundle therapy promoted a significant increase in CD4+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes in various cases. After treatment, as the virus turns negative, the proportion of M1 type macrophages increased, and the proportion of regulatory T cell (Treg cells) that suppress immunity and the infection related C-C chemokine receptor type (CCR10+) Treg cells decreased. Mild adult cases showed a great change and declined rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age with underlying diseases is a risk factor for severe disease of COVID-19, the "Four Elements, One Peptide, and Two transplantations" bundle fine treatment of COVID-19 can improve the proportion of lymphocyte composition and organ function, which can control the occurrence and development of severe diseases. In addition to the proportion of CD4+ T cells, the changes of the M1 macrophage, total Treg cell, and CCR10+ Treg cell proportions can be used to determine disease changes of adult patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , Antiviral Agents , Peptides , Interferons
17.
OTJR (Thorofare N J) ; : 15394492221107557, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254629

ABSTRACT

The mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may be greater than that of the viral infection. This impact is likely greater for disadvantaged groups such as people with long-term physical disabilities (PwLTPD). This cross-sectional study used a multiple linear regression model to examine factors associated with depressive symptoms and to understand their relative importance during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The model explained 58% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Anxiety was the most important predictor, accounting for 8% of variance. Higher levels of anxiety, loneliness, and financial stress; prior diagnosis of depression; and non-Black race predicted a higher level of depressive symptoms in PwLTPD during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Occupational therapy practitioners should strategically acknowledge predictors of depression that cannot be modified and actively address those that can be modified through evidence-based interventions to improve depressive symptoms in PwLTPD.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 944369, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263207

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have shown that patients with immunosuppression tend to have longer-lasting SARS-CoV-2 infections and a number of mutations were observed during the infection period. However, these studies were, in general, conducted longitudinally. Mutation evolution among groups of patients with immunosuppression have not been well studied, especially among Asian populations. Methods: Our study targeted a nosocomial cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a Japanese medical center during Delta surge (AY.29 sublineage), involving ward nurses and inpatients. Whole-genome sequencing analyses were performed to examine mutation changes. Haplotype and minor variant analyses were furtherly performed to detect the mutations on the viral genomes in detail. In addition, sequences of the first wild-type strain hCoV-19/Wuhan/WIV04/2019 and AY.29 wild-type strain hCoV-19/Japan/TKYK15779/2021 were used as references to assess the phylogenetical development of this cluster. Results: A total of 6 nurses and 14 inpatients were identified as a nosocomial cluster from September 14 through 28, 2021. All were Delta variant (AY.29 sublineage) positive. 92.9% of infected patients (13 out of 14) were either cancer patients and/or receiving immunosuppressive or steroid treatments. Compared to AY.29 wild type, a total of 12 mutations were found in the 20 cases. Haplotype analysis found one index group of eight cases with F274F (N) mutation and 10 other haplotypes with one to three additional mutations. Furthermore, we found that cases with more than three minor variants were all cancer patients under immunosuppressive treatments. The phylogenetical tree analysis, including 20 nosocomial cluster-associated viral genomes, the first wild-type strain and the AY.29 wild-type strain as references, indicated the mutation development of the AY.29 virus in this cluster. Conclusion: Our study of a nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 cluster highlights mutation acquisition during transmission. More importantly, it provided new evidence emphasizing the need to further improve infection control measures to prevent nosocomial infection among immunosuppressed patients.

19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4941, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265371

ABSTRACT

Despite Japan's high vaccination coverage, daily numbers of new COVID-19 cases have been high. However, studies on the seroprevalence among Japanese people and the causative factors for rapid spread have remained limited. In this study, we aimed to examine the seroprevalence and associated factors in healthcare workers (HCWs) of a medical center in Tokyo using blood samples drawn at annual check-ups from 2020 to 2022. We found that of the 3,788 HCWs in 2022 (by mid-June), 669 were seropositive for N-specific antibodies (tested by Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay); the seroprevalence surged from 0.3% in 2020 and 1.6% in 2021 to 17.7% in 2022. Notably, our study found 325 (48.6%; 325/669) cases were infected without awareness. Among those with a previously PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the past three years, 79.0% (282/357) were found after January 2022, after the Omicron variant was first detected in Tokyo at the end of 2021. This study indicates the fast spread of the SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs during the Omicron surge in Japan. The high percentage of infection without awareness may be a key driving factor causing rapid person-to-person transmission, as shown in this medical center with high vaccination coverage and strict infection control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , East Asian People , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232486

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious global threat. The metabolic analysis had been successfully applied in the efforts to uncover the pathological mechanisms and biomarkers of disease severity. Here we performed a quasi-targeted metabolomic analysis on 56 COVID-19 patients from Sierra Leone in western Africa, revealing the metabolomic profiles and the association with disease severity, which was confirmed by the targeted metabolomic analysis of 19 pairs of COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed on published metabolic data of COVID-19 to verify our findings. Of the 596 identified metabolites, 58 showed significant differences between severe and nonsevere groups. The pathway enrichment of these differential metabolites revealed glutamine and glutamate metabolism as the most significant metabolic pathway (Impact = 0.5; -log10P = 1.959). Further targeted metabolic analysis revealed six metabolites with significant intergroup differences, with glutamine/glutamate ratio significantly associated with severe disease, negatively correlated with 10 clinical parameters and positively correlated with SPO2 (rs = 0.442, p = 0.005). Mini meta-analysis indicated elevated glutamate was related to increased risk of COVID-19 infection (pooled odd ratio [OR] = 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.50) and severe COVID-19 (pooled OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.14-4.56). In contrast, elevated glutamine related to decreased risk of infection and severe COVID-19, the pooled OR were 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20-0.44), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.19-0.98), respectively. Glutamine and glutamate metabolism are associated with COVID-19 severity in multiple populations, which might confer potential therapeutic target of COVID-19, especially for severe patients.

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