Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(6): 810-818, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843838

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The US risdiplam expanded access program (EAP; NCT04256265) was opened to provide individuals with Type 1 or 2 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) who had no satisfactory treatment options access to risdiplam prior to commercial availability. The program was designed to collect safety data during risdiplam treatment. METHODS: Patients were enrolled from 23 non-preselected sites across 17 states and treated with risdiplam orally once daily. Eligible patients had a 5q autosomal recessive Type 1 or 2 SMA diagnosis, were aged ≥2 months at enrollment, and were ineligible for available and approved SMA treatments or could not continue treatment due to a medical condition, lack/loss of efficacy, or the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Overall, 155 patients with Type 1 (n = 73; 47.1%) or 2 SMA (n = 82; 52.9%) were enrolled and 149 patients (96.1%) completed the EAP (defined as obtaining access to commercial risdiplam, if desired). The median treatment duration was 4.8 months (range, 0.3-9.2 months). The median patient age was 11 years (range, 0-50 years), and most patients (n = 121; 78%) were previously treated with a disease-modifying therapy. The most frequently reported adverse events were diarrhea (n = 10; 6.5%), pyrexia (n = 7; 4.5%), and upper respiratory tract infection (n = 5; 3.2%). The most frequently reported serious adverse event was pneumonia (n = 3; 1.9%). No deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: In the EAP, the safety profile of risdiplam was similar to what was reported in pivotal risdiplam clinical trials. These safety data provide further support for the use of risdiplam in the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with SMA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Adult , Azo Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pyrimidines
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742609

ABSTRACT

Sleep quality is known to have a considerable impact on human health. Recent research shows that head and body pose play a vital role in affecting sleep quality. This paper presents a deep multi-task learning network to perform head and upper-body detection and pose classification during sleep. The proposed system has two major advantages: first, it detects and predicts upper-body pose and head pose simultaneously during sleep, and second, it is a contact-free home security camera-based monitoring system that can work on remote subjects, as it uses images captured by a home security camera. In addition, a synopsis of sleep postures is provided for analysis and diagnosis of sleep patterns. Experimental results show that our multi-task model achieves an average of 92.5% accuracy on challenging datasets, yields the best performance compared to the other methods, and obtains 91.7% accuracy on the real-life overnight sleep data. The proposed system can be applied reliably to extensive public sleep data with various covering conditions and is robust to real-life overnight sleep data.


Subject(s)
Posture , Sleep , Humans
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324429

ABSTRACT

Objecive: This study aimed to evaluate whether the coronavirus can be detected in the tears in the eyes of 2019- novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected patients and compa re the detection consistency of two simultaneously collected samples, from the tears and throat swabs, of these patients. Methods: : A total of 35 diagnosis confirmed patients with 2019-nCoV infection disease,from January 26 to February 19, 2020, at central theater Wuhan general hospital of PLA, were included in this cross-sectional case series study. The diagnosis was confirmed by both clinical and laboratory ways. Throat samples from all enrolled patients were collected with sampling swab, and simultaneously ,tear samples were collected w ith sampling swab from 9 patients (No.1-9) and with Schirmer's strip from the remaining patients (No.10-35) (bilateral eyes for all patients). Sample collecting and testing were performed in three separate time points: first from patients No.1-9,second from p atients No.10-29,and third from patients No.30-35. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chai n-reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed by the same technician(Researcher Zhang), who was blind to the patients profile, within 4 hours after each collection. Results: : Among enrolled patients, 29 (No.1-29) had mild or moderate clinical symptoms and 6 (No.30-35) had severe symptoms. The mean time interval from the sample collection day to diagnosis confirmation day was 9.71±6.50 days (ranged from 3 to 29 days). None of the patients had conjunctivitis. Nineteen out of 35 (54.3%) throat samples presented positive Rt-PCR results. Three (no.13,21,31) out of 35 (8.6%) tear samples presented positive RT-PCR results. Two(no.21, 31) of these three patients were throat swab positive and one (No. 13) was negative. The consistency analysis indicated that tears and throat samples showed poor consistency ( Kappa=-0.009, P=0.9 ).The cycle threshold value (Ct-value) of tears samples collected by sampling swab was significantly higher than that by Schirmer's strip(t=2.288, P=0.03). Conclusion: In spite of the low 2019-nCoV positive detection rate of tear samples from 2019-nCoV infected patients, we cannot fully rule out the transmission by ocular surface. Whether tear testing can be used as an aid in judging of 2019-nCoV infection need further investigation.Authors Ying Yan and Bo Zeng contributed equally to this study

4.
World journal of clinical cases ; 10(1):104-116, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1640299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a better prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (the so-called obesity survival paradox), but conflicting results have been found. AIM To investigate the relationship between all-cause mortality and body mass index in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized in the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao from June 2013 to November 2018. The patients were grouped as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m2), and overweight/obesity (≥ 24 kg/m2). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. RESULTS Among 2327 patients, 297 (12.8%) were underweight, 1013 (43.5%) normal weight, and 1017 (43.7%) overweight/obesity. The all-cause hospital mortality was 4.6% (106/2327). Mortality was lowest in the overweight/obesity group and highest in the underweight group (2.8%, vs 5.0%, vs 9.1%, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality of overweight/obesity patients was lower than normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) = 0.535, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.334-0.855, P = 0.009], while the all-cause mortality of underweight patients was higher than that of normal-weight patients (OR = 1.886, 95%CI: 1.161-3.066, P = 0.010). Multivariable analysis showed that abnormal neutrophil counts (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.55-3.65, P < 0.001), abnormal albumin levels (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.72, P = 0.014), high-risk Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score (OR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.48-5.64, P = 0.002), and intensive care unit admission (OR = 3.11, 95%CI: 1.77-5.49, P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION All-cause mortality of normal-weight patients was higher than overweight/ obesity patients, lower than that of underweight patients. Neutrophil counts, albumin levels, Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
6.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 28(5): 369-375, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045955

ABSTRACT

Objecive: This study aimed to evaluate whether Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the tears in the eyes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-2019) infected patients and compare the detection consistency of two simultaneously collected samples, from the tears and throat swabs.Methods: A total of 35 COVID-2019 patients were included in this cross-sectional case series study. Throat samples from all enrolled patients were collected with sampling swab, and simultaneously, tear samples were collected with sampling swab from 9 patients (No.1-9) and with Schirmer's strip from the remaining patients (No.10-35) (bilateral eyes for all patients). Sample collecting and testing were performed in three separate time points: first from patients No.1-9, second from patients No.10-29, and third from patients No. 30-35. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed.Results: Among enrolled patients, 29 (No.1-29) had mild or moderate clinical symptoms and 6 (No.30-35) had severe symptoms. The mean time interval from the sample collection day to diagnosis confirmation day was 9.71 ± 6.50 days (ranged from 3 to 29 days). None of the patients had conjunctivitis. Nineteen out of 35 (54.3%) throat samples presented positive Rt-PCR results. Three (no.13,21,31) out of 35 (8.6%) tear samples presented positive RT-PCR results. Two (no.21, 31) of these three patients were throat swab positive and one (No. 13) was negative. The consistency analysis indicated that tears and throat samples showed poor consistency (Kappa = -0.009, P = .9).The cycle threshold value (Ct-value) of tear samples collected by sampling swab was significantly higher than that by Schirmer's strip (t = 2.288, P = .03).Conclusion: In spite of the low SARS-CoV-2 positive detection rate of tear samples from COVID-2019 patients, we cannot fully rule out the transmission by ocular surface. Whether tear testing can be used as an aid in judging of SARS-CoV-2 infection need further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pharynx , RNA, Viral
9.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(3): 300-309, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030468

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 threatens the whole world, which catalyzes a variety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test (NAT) kits. To monitor test quality and evaluate NAT kits, quality control materials that best simulate real clinical samples are needed. In this study, the performance of SARS-CoV-2 cell culture supernatant, PCDH-based pseudovirus, and MS2-based pseudovirus as quality control materials was compared. PCDH-based pseudovirus was found to be more similar in characteristics to SARS-CoV-2 particle, and more suitable for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 NAT kits than MS2-based pseudovirus. Proper detection using sensitive and precise NAT kits is essential to guarantee diagnosis. Thus, limit of detection, precision, anti-inference ability, and cross-reactivity of NAT kits from PerkinElmer, Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, Sansure Biotech Inc., Da An Gene Co, Ltd, Shanghai BioGerm Medical Biotechnology Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd, were compared using PCDH-based pseudovirus. For the seven kits evaluated, N gene was more sensitive than ORF1ab gene in most kits, whereas E gene was most sensitive among the three genes in Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd. PerkinElmer got the lowest limit of detection for N gene at 11.61 copies/mL, and the value was 34.66 copies/mL for ORF1ab gene. All of the kits showed good precision, with CV values less than 5%, as well as acceptable anti-interference ability of 2 mg/L human genomic DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans , Limit of Detection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(11): 1201-1204, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841333

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can also infect tissues besides the respiratory system, such as the ocular tissues, remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 exists intracellularly in the ocular tissues of a patient previously infected with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case study analyzed a patient previously infected with COVID-19 who had an acute glaucoma attack during her rehabilitation. Plasma samples and tissue specimens, including ones from the conjunctiva, anterior lens capsular, trabecular meshwork, and iris, were collected during phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy surgery. Specimens from another patient who had glaucoma but not COVID-19 were used as a negative control. Main Outcomes and Measures: Specimens were analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The nucleocapsid protein antigen of SARS-CoV-2 was measured in the conjunctiva, trabecular meshwork, and iris using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor on the conjunctiva was measured using immunohistochemistry. Results: The patient with a previous COVID-19 infection was female and 64 years old, and the control patient without a COVID-19 infection history was male and 61 years old. The nucleocapsid protein antigen of SARS-CoV-2 was detected on the cells of the conjunctiva, trabecular, and iris of the patient infected with COVID-19 but not in the control participant, while angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor proteins were detected on the conjunctiva of both patients. Conclusions and Relevance: The nucleocapsid protein antigen of SARS-CoV-2 existed intracellularly in the ocular tissues of a patient previously infected with COVID-19. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 can also infect ocular tissues in addition to the respiratory system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/isolation & purification , Eye/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/isolation & purification
12.
Zhongguo Jishui Paishui = China Water & Wastewater ; - (6):22, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-833165

ABSTRACT

Based on the problem that the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the urban drainage system through the excretion of patients' faces into the sewer, the fate of infective viruses in the urban water cycle was analyzed. Then, it was concluded that attention should be paid to the risk of virus spreading through sludge after the virus enters the urban drainage system. In the case of COVID-19 epidemic, it is impartant to summarize and reflect on the pathogen control during sludge treatment and disposal process in China. Therefore, the relevant standards and policies of sludge sterilization and disinfection in China have been systematically combed, and the relevant research results of the United States and the European Union have been studied. It has been considered that the sludge is a good carrier of pathogens;the standard restrictions on pathogens in sludge in our country are relatively loose currently. So it is necessary to strengthen the experiments and research on inactivation of pathogens in sludge, and to formulate the index and limit value of pathogens. The SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus that can be relatively easily killed by antivirus agent. Therefore, adding disinfectant to the sludge pretreatment section is an effective measure to control pathogens during the epidemic. Aerobic fermentation, anaerobic digestion, lime stabilization, thermal drying, and radiation treatment can effectively reduce pathogens. During the epidemic period, sludge disposal methods are recommended to adopt incineration or co-incineration. For areas where the harmless disposal capacity of sludge is insufficient, the implementation of compliance sludge disposal outlet should be promoted. In addition, in order to reduce the exposure risk, in the sludge treatment and disposal process, the better sealing device should be preferred.

14.
Transfus Med Rev ; 34(2): 75-80, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622874

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, a new coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), aroused the attention of the entire world. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 in China as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Two other coronavirus infections-SARS in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012-both caused severe respiratory syndrome in humans. All 3 of these emerging infectious diseases leading to a global spread are caused by ß-coronaviruses. Although coronaviruses usually infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, viral shedding in plasma or serum is common. Therefore, there is still a theoretical risk of transmission of coronaviruses through the transfusion of labile blood products. Because more and more asymptomatic infections are being found among COVID-19 cases, considerations of blood safety and coronaviruses have arisen especially in endemic areas. In this review, we detail current evidence and understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 through blood products as of February 10, 2020, and also discuss pathogen inactivation methods on coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Public Health , Risk , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control
15.
Science ; 369(6506): 1010-1014, 2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599036

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies have become an important tool in treating infectious diseases. Recently, two separate approaches yielded successful antibody treatments for Ebola-one from genetically humanized mice and the other from a human survivor. Here, we describe parallel efforts using both humanized mice and convalescent patients to generate antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, which yielded a large collection of fully human antibodies that were characterized for binding, neutralization, and three-dimensional structure. On the basis of these criteria, we selected pairs of highly potent individual antibodies that simultaneously bind the receptor binding domain of the spike protein, thereby providing ideal partners for a therapeutic antibody cocktail that aims to decrease the potential for virus escape mutants that might arise in response to selective pressure from a single-antibody treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody Affinity , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites, Antibody , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytophagocytosis , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Young Adult
16.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(3): e2106, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71880

ABSTRACT

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are global public concerns. With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China in December 2019, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has been attracting tremendous attention. Rapid and accurate laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for early discovery, early reporting, early quarantine, early treatment, and cutting off epidemic transmission. The genome structure, transmission, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are basically similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the other two beta-CoVs of medical importance. During the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV epidemics, a variety of molecular and serological diagnostic assays were established and should be referred to for SARS-CoV-2. In this review, by summarizing the articles and guidelines about specimen collection, nucleic acid tests (NAT) and serological tests for SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, several suggestions are put forward to improve the laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, for NAT: collecting stool and blood samples at later periods of illness to improve the positive rate if lower respiratory tract specimens are unavailable; increasing template volume to raise the sensitivity of detection; putting samples in reagents containing guanidine salt to inactivate virus as well as protect RNA; setting proper positive, negative and inhibition controls to ensure high-quality results; simultaneously amplifying human RNase P gene to avoid false-negative results. For antibody test, diverse assays targeting different antigens, and collecting paired samples are needed.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , DNA Primers , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Ribonuclease P/genetics , Ribonuclease P/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods
17.
Med Drug Discov ; 5: 100026, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-14895

ABSTRACT

A novel approach modifying cells to express viral markers to elicit protective immunity responses (decoy cellular vaccination) in the prevention of COVID-19 disease is currently being explored. Our approach entails utilizing SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen-expressing, non-replicating cells as carriers and presenters of immunogenic antigens, so called "I-cells". By using irradiated cells as presenting vehicles of SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens(s) in a cellular context, these presented viral proteins can be recognized by the host immune system, thus, an efficient protective immune response might be elicited. Another advantage of this strategy is that the manufacturing process is scalable and yields uniform cell products allowing for "off-the-shelf" frozen supply availability. To prevent engraftment and proliferation of the cells after administration, the cells will be irradiated post-harvesting abolishing in vivo replication potential. Specifically, immunoreactive Spike-1 proteins from SARS-CoV-2 are expressed on the surface of irradiated target I-cells. Utilizing this innovative strategy, these viral antigen-displaying decoy cells will be developed as a vaccine to protect against COVID-19 disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL