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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 242, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751765

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane (SFN), the principal biologically active phytochemical derived from glucoraphanin, the naturally occurring precursor present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of six strains of SARS-CoV-2, including Delta and Omicron, as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18-hACE2 mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN should be explored as a potential agent for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Isothiocyanates/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfoxides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Synergism , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324763

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to describe the situation of the COVID-19 in European countries and identify important factors related to prevention and control. Methods We obtained data from World Health Statistics 2020 and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). We caculated the Rt values of 51countries in Europe under different prevention and control measures. We used lasso regression to screen factors associated with morbidity and mortality. For variables selected, we used quantile regression to analyze the relevant influencing factors in countries with different levels of morbidity or mortality. Results The government has a great influence on the change of Rt value through prevention and control measures. The most important factor for personal and group prevention and control is the mobility index, testing, the closure of educational facilities, restrictions on large-scale gatherings, and commercial restrictions. The number of ICU beds and doctors in medical resources are also key factors. Basic sanitation facilities, such as the proportion of safe drinking water, also have an impact on the COVID-19 epidemic. Conclusions This study describes the current status of COVID-19 in European countries. We found key factors in individual prevention and control measures and group prevention and control measures.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324428

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of COVID-19 spread, China's stocks market was greatly affected, while other stocks markets also fell to a certain extent. In order to explore the mechanism of this phenomenon in addition to global economic integration, we establish a two market asset pricing model based on heterogeneous beliefs and exogenous dividends. The results show that as long as investors believe that there is a correlation between the prices of the two markets, even if one impact only affects noise traders in a single market, the prices of the other market will still be impacted. Interestingly, we find that a single market dividend shock does not affect another market. After that, in order to verify the existence and influence of this mechanism, this paper uses DCC-MGARCH to make a quantitative analysis of the impact of the epidemic on the stocks market of China and the United States. The increase of the number of domestic daily infection will significantly lead to the decline of the securities market of China, and the increase of the number of domestic cumulative infection will significantly lead to the decline of the stocks market of the United States. The stock markets of China and the United States have an impact on each other. The impact of homogeneity and heterogeneity on the stock market of China and the United States shows that the impact on the stock market of the United States is not only due to the integration of the world economy, but also due to the influence of investors' beliefs.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322145

ABSTRACT

We present CAiRE-COVID, a real-time question answering (QA) and multi-document summarization system, which won one of the 10 tasks in the Kaggle COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge, judged by medical experts. Our system aims to tackle the recent challenge of mining the numerous scientific articles being published on COVID-19 by answering high priority questions from the community and summarizing salient question-related information. It combines information extraction with state-of-the-art QA and query-focused multi-document summarization techniques, selecting and highlighting evidence snippets from existing literature given a query. We also propose query-focused abstractive and extractive multi-document summarization methods, to provide more relevant information related to the question. We further conduct quantitative experiments that show consistent improvements on various metrics for each module. We have launched our website CAiRE-COVID for broader use by the medical community, and have open-sourced the code for our system, to bootstrap further study by other researches.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325399

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014;Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).

6.
China Rural Economy ; 7(36), 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1628305

ABSTRACT

Chinese rural families are facing serious mobility constraints. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic further aggravates farmers' mobility dilemma, which seriously restricts the expansion of rural household consumption. It is of great theoretical value and practical significance to take reasonable and effective measures to alleviate farmers' mobility constraints. Based on the data of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014 to 2018, this article empirically examines the impact of labor migration on farmers' mobility constraints. The study finds that, labor migration significantly alleviates farmers' mobility constraints, and this basic conclusion remains robust after the definition of mobility constraints is changed, relaxing the exclusive constraints of instrumental variables and using the propensity score matching method. Further analysis shows that labor migration has a greater easing effect on the mobility constraints of farmers with low social networks, and it reduces the polarization caused by social network inequality such as clan network, endowment of parents, external identity, social and economic status gap. Heterogeneity analysis shows that labor migration has a more significant easing effect on the mobility constraints of middle-aged families, low human capital families and families in north region. This study proposes a new idea to solve the problem of farmers' mobility constraints and provides a new perspective to reduce the internal economic inequality within rural areas and a reference for the formulation of relevant policy-making.

7.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575983

ABSTRACT

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , China , Education, Distance , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296269

ABSTRACT

By largely unknown mechanisms, dysregulated gene-specific translation directly contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as sepsis and ARDS. Here, we report that G9a, a histone methyltransferase and well-regarded transcriptional repressor, non-canonically or non-epigenetically activates translation of select antimicrobial genes to promote proliferation of cytokine producing macrophages and to impair T cell function;all hallmarks of endotoxin-tolerance related complications including sepsis, ARDS and COVID19. Mechanistically, G9a interacts with translation regulators including METTL3, an N6-methyladenosine or m6A RNA methyltransferase, and methylates it to cooperatively upregulate the translation of certain m6A-modified mRNAs that encode immune checkpoint and anti-inflammatory proteins. Further, translatome proteomic analysis of ET macrophages progressively treated by a G9a inhibitor identified proteins showing G9a-dependent translation that unite the networks associated with hyperinflammation and T cell dysfunction. Overall, we identified a previously unrecognized function of G9a in gene-specific translation that can be leveraged to treat ET-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1034, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380915

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused numerous infections with diverse clinical symptoms. To identify human genetic variants contributing to the clinical development of COVID-19, we genotyped 1457 (598/859 with severe/mild symptoms) and sequenced 1141 (severe/mild: 474/667) patients of Chinese ancestry. We further incorporated 1401 genotyped and 948 sequenced ancestry-matched population controls, and tested genome-wide association on 1072 severe cases versus 3875 mild or population controls, followed by trans-ethnic meta-analysis with summary statistics of 3199 hospitalized cases and 897,488 population controls from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. We identified three significant signals outside the well-established 3p21.31 locus: an intronic variant in FOXP4-AS1 (rs1853837, odds ratio OR = 1.28, P = 2.51 × 10-10, allele frequencies in Chinese/European AF = 0.345/0.105), a frameshift insertion in ABO (rs8176719, OR = 1.19, P = 8.98 × 10-9, AF = 0.422/0.395) and a Chinese-specific intronic variant in MEF2B (rs74490654, OR = 8.73, P = 1.22 × 10-8, AF = 0.004/0). These findings highlight an important role of the adaptive immunity and the ABO blood-group system in protection from developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Introns/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
10.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(12):1175-1178, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1116448

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the spatiotemporal distribution and spatial clustering of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to evaluate the impact of comprehensive prevention and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic.

11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e17857, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-794032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental illness (MI) is common among those who work in health care settings. Whether MI is related to employees' mental status at work is yet to be determined. An MI app is developed and proposed to help employees assess their mental status in the hope of detecting MI at an earlier stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to build a model using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and fit statistics based on 2 aspects of measures and outfit mean square errors for the automatic detection and classification of personal MI at the workplace using the emotional labor and mental health (ELMH) questionnaire, so as to equip the staff in assessing and understanding their own mental status with an app on their mobile device. METHODS: We recruited 352 respiratory therapists (RTs) working in Taiwan medical centers and regional hospitals to fill out the 44-item ELMH questionnaire in March 2019. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Rasch analysis, and CNN were used as unsupervised and supervised learnings for (1) dividing RTs into 4 classes (ie, MI, false MI, health, and false health) and (2) building an ELMH predictive model to estimate 108 parameters of the CNN model. We calculated the prediction accuracy rate and created an app for classifying MI for RTs at the workplace as a web-based assessment. RESULTS: We observed that (1) 8 domains in ELMH were retained by EFA, (2) 4 types of mental health (n=6, 63, 265, and 18 located in 4 quadrants) were classified using the Rasch analysis, (3) the 44-item model yields a higher accuracy rate (0.92), and (4) an MI app available for RTs predicting MI was successfully developed and demonstrated in this study. CONCLUSIONS: The 44-item model with 108 parameters was estimated by using CNN to improve the accuracy of mental health for RTs. An MI app developed to help RTs self-detect work-related MI at an early stage should be made more available and viable in the future.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mobile Applications , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan , Workplace
12.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007626

ABSTRACT

Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) was recently approved as a smallpox vaccine. Variola is transmitted by respiratory droplets and MVA immunization by skin scarification (s.s.) protected mice far more effectively against lethal respiratory challenge with vaccinia virus (VACV) than any other route of delivery, and at lower doses. Comparisons of s.s. with intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular routes showed that MVAOVA s.s.-generated T cells were both more abundant and transcriptionally unique. MVAOVA s.s. produced greater numbers of lung Ova-specific CD8+ TRM and was superior in protecting mice against lethal VACVOVA respiratory challenge. Nearly as many lung TRM were generated with MVAOVA s.s. immunization compared to intra-tracheal immunization with MVAOVA and both routes vaccination protected mice against lethal pulmonary challenge with VACVOVA. Strikingly, MVAOVA s.s.-generated effector T cells exhibited overlapping gene transcriptional profiles to those generated via intra-tracheal immunization. Overall, our data suggest that heterologous MVA vectors immunized via s.s. are uniquely well-suited as vaccine vectors for respiratory pathogens, which may be relevant to COVID-19. In addition, MVA delivered via s.s. could represent a more effective dose-sparing smallpox vaccine.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945833

ABSTRACT

At least since March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the multi-organ coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are keeping a firm grip on the world. Although most cases are mild, older patients and those with co-morbidities are at increased risk of developing a cytokine storm, characterized by a systemic inflammatory response leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ failure. The present paper focuses on the small molecule MP1032, describes its mode of action, and gives rationale why it is a promising option for the prevention/treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm. MP1032 is a phase-pure anhydrous polymorph of 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione sodium salt that exhibits good stability and bioavailability. The physiological action of MP1032 is based on a multi-target mechanism including localized, self-limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities that were demonstrated in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation. Furthermore, its immune-regulatory and PARP-1-modulating properties, coupled with antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, have been demonstrated in various cell models. Preclinical efficacy was elucidated in LPS-induced endotoxemia, a model with heightened innate immune responses that shares many similarities to COVID-19. So far, during oral clinical development with three-month daily administrations, no serious adverse drug reactions occurred, highlighting the outstanding safety profile of MP1032.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Luminol/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Amination , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Luminol/chemistry , Luminol/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241743, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917995

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has fast spread to over 200 countries and regions worldwide since its outbreak, while in March, Europe became the emerging epicentre. In this study, we aimed to model the epidemic trends and estimate the essential epidemic features of COVID-19 in Italy, Spain, Germany, and France at the initial stage. The numbers of daily confirmed cases and total confirmed cases were extracted from the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation reports of WHO. We applied an extended Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model to fit the epidemic trend and estimated corresponding epidemic features. The transmission rate estimates were 1.67 (95% credible interval (CrI), 1.64-1.71), 2.83 (2.72-2.85), 1.91 (1.84-1.98), and 1.89 (1.82-1.96) for Italy, Spain, Germany, and France, corresponding to the basic reproduction numbers (R0) 3.44 (3.35-3.54), 6.25 (5.97-6.55), 4.03 (3.84-4.23), and 4.00 (3.82-4.19), respectively. We found Spain had the lowest ascertainment rate of 0.22 (0.19-0.25), followed by France, Germany, and Italy of 0.45 (0.40-0.50), 0.46 (0.40-0.52), and 0.59 (0.55-0.64). The peaks of daily new confirmed cases would reach on April 16, April 5, April 21, and April 19 for Italy, Spain, Germany, and France if no action was taken by the authorities. Given the high transmissibility and high covertness of COVID-19, strict countermeasures, such as national lockdown and social distancing, were essential to be implemented to reduce the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Models, Theoretical , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
15.
Front Public Health ; 8: 550220, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890355

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Data collection in the ascending phase is crucial to address a rapidly evolving crisis by helping us understand the uncertain relationship between risk communication and psychological responses. Data were collected from 26 January 26, 2020, until February 17, 2020, with a mean test-retest interval of 16 days. A total of 846 adults from four residential communities in high-risk areas (Wuhan city) and low-risk areas (Zhengzhou city) were invited to complete a set of Internet-based questionnaires measuring the adoption of preventive behaviors, appraisal of risk communication, anxiety level, and susceptibility to emotional contagion. At the baseline assessment (Wave 1), 58 withdrew from the study, and 788 (433 females) completed the questionnaires. At the Wave 2 survey, 318 (185 females) adults from Wave 1 were retained. The results from cross-lagged models demonstrated reciprocal negative associations between anxiety and risk communication and between the appraisal of risk communication and the adoption of preventive behaviors. In addition, a higher appraisal of risk communication in the initial period of the outbreak mitigated the respondents' susceptibility to emotional contagion later on. Susceptibility to emotional contagion was positively associated with preventive behaviors taken. Furthermore, multiple-group structural equation modeling suggested that risk communication was more likely to affect the susceptibility to emotional contagion of people on the frontline of the outbreak than people living in low-risk areas. This study demonstrated the importance of risk communication aimed at encouraging appropriate countermeasures against virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , China/epidemiology , Communication , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21484, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of humanistic care and psychological counseling (HCPC) on psychological disorders (PD) in medical students after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: We will search randomized controlled trials or case-controlled studies of HCPC on PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak in the following electronic databases: PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, AMED, WANGFANG, and CNKI. The time is restricted from the construction of each database to the present. All process of study selection, data collection, and study quality evaluation will be carried out by two independent authors. Any different opinions will be solved by a third author through discussion. We will employ RevMan 5.3 software to conduct statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide a better understanding of HCPC on PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study may offer strong evidence for clinical practice to treat PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak. STUDY REGISTRATION: CRD42020193199.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Counseling/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychotherapy/methods , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humanism , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Young Adult
17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20141531

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCharacteristic chest computed tomography (CT) manifestation of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was added as a diagnostic criterion in the Chinese National COVID-19 management guideline. Whether the characteristic findings of Chest CT could differentiate confirmed COVID-19 cases from other positive nucleic acid test (NAT)-negative patients has not been rigorously evaluated. PurposeWe aim to test whether chest computed tomography (CT) manifestation of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) can be differentiated by a radiologist or a computer-based CT image analysis system. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective case-control study that included 52 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 80 non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia patients between 20 December, 2019 and 10 February, 2020. The chest CT images were evaluated by radiologists in a double blind fashion. A computer-based image analysis system (uAI system, Lianying Inc., Shanghai, China) detected the lesions in 18 lung segments defined by Boyden classification system and calculated the infected volume in each segment. The number and volume of lesions detected by radiologist and computer system was compared with Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. ResultsThe main CT manifestations of COVID-19 were multi-lobar/segmental peripheral ground-glass opacities and patchy air space infiltrates. The case and control groups were similar in demographics, comorbidity, and clinical manifestations. There was no significant difference in eight radiologist identified CT image features between the two groups of patients. There was also no difference in the absolute and relative volume of infected regions in each lung segment. ConclusionsWe documented the non-differentiating nature of initial chest CT image between COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia with suspected symptoms. Our results do not support CT findings replacing microbiological diagnosis as a critical criterion for COVID-19 diagnosis. Our findings may prompt re-evaluation of isolated patients without laboratory confirmation.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1531-1535, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324713

ABSTRACT

It is an essential task to discuss the death cases for clinicians. During the emergent public events, the report and analysis of death cases is of far-reaching significance. The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has brought huge losses to China, and the medical system has been sustaining tremendous pressure. The best weapon to defeat the epidemic is medical data and related scientific research, of which the systematic analysis and efficient use of death cases is a key step. Based on the incomplete record of death case report, the lack of humanistic perspective and patient report, every department and institution is facing great challenge in terms of data management. Given that the relevant systems need to be improved, and that the integration of standardized reports and clinical research is not mature,as well as other problems, we put forward several methodological suggestions: ① Establish national medical and health data center and improve relevant laws and regulations. ② Increase investment in medical data management and start data collection and analysis as early as possible during the epidemic. ③ Refine the content of death case report and promote the standardization of report. ④ Pay close attention to the report of death cases, review, summary and analysis. More importantly, we should continue to build and improve platforms and programs related to disease control, carry out epidemic-associated scientific research, enhance the managing efficiency of public health data, elevate the anti-risk capability of our medical system, and promote the steady progress of the health China strategy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1526-1530, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324709

ABSTRACT

The analysis and utilization of clinical scientific research data is an effective means to promote the progress of diagnosis and treatment, and a key step in the development of medical sciences. During the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), how to transform the limited diagnostic data into clinical research resources has attracted much attention. Based on the low efficiency of data collection and extraction, the inconsistency of data analysis, the irregularity of data report and the high timeliness of data update during the epidemic, this paper briefly analyzed the background and reasons of data application under the current situation, and then discusses the problems and feasible solutions of clinical data applications under the epidemic situation and, more importantly, for future medical clinical research methods. We put forward several methodological suggestions: ① gradually improve the medical big data model and establish the national medical health data center; ② improve the scientific research literacy of medical staff and popularize the basic skills and knowledge of GCP; ③ promote a scientific, networked and shared data collection and management mode; ④ use the mixed research method and collective analysis to improve the efficiency of clinical data analysis; ⑤ pay attention to narration of the medical feelings and emphasize the humanistic data of clinical medicine. It is expected to promote the standardized and reasonable use of clinical scientific research data, the rigorous integration of expert opinions, and ultimately the development of big data for national health care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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