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1.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602102

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients’ perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54–14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13–212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17–0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS More than one-third ofpatients met the diagnostic criteria of probable PTSD 1 month post-discharge. Providing timely emotional support during hospitaliza-tion may be one of the key measures for preventing PTSD in patients with COVID-19.

2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1915576, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients' perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13-212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19.


Antecedentes: El COVID-19 ha supuesto una inmensa carga psicológica para el paciente infectado. El malestar psicológico puede persistir aún después de la recuperación inicial de la infección.Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia y los factores predictores del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) provisional en pacientes recuperados de COVID-2019.Métodos: El cuestionario inicial se realizó en pacientes con el COVID-19 desde el 10 de febrero del 2020 hasta el 25 de febrero del 2020 en un hospital designado. Se consideraron las variables demográficas y clínicas, además, se evaluaron los niveles de depresión y ansiedad mediante el cuestionario de salud del paciente de 9 elementos y el cuestionario del trastorno de ansiedad generalizada de 7 elementos, respectivamente. Un cuestionario de seguimiento fue realizado un mes después del alta. Los síntomas de TEPT fueron medidos por el Cuestionario de Eventos de Impacto 6 (IES-6 por sus siglas en ingles) y el nivel de percepción de los pacientes sobre el cuidado de soporte durante la hospitalización fue investigado utilizando un cuestionario auto-administrado.Resultados: Ciento catorce pacientes completaron tanto el cuestionario inicial como el de seguimiento. Cuarenta y un (36.0%) pacientes cumplieron con el punto de corte para el diagnóstico provisional de TEPT según el IES-6. El sexo femenino (OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 1.54-14.37), un nivel de educación secundaria o inferior (OR = 15.49, 95% CI: 1.13-212.71), niveles elevados de ansiedad (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.61) y una menor percepción de soporte emocional durante la hospitalización (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96) fueron factores predictores de riesgo elevado para el desarrollo provisional de TEPT.Conclusiones: El TEPT es observado con frecuencia en pacientes con COVID-19 un mes después del alta. Las pacientes de sexo femenino, los pacientes con un nivel de educación bajo, los pacientes con un nivel elevado de ansiedad y una menor percepción de apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podrían tener mayor probabilidad de desarrollar TEPT en el futuro cercano. El reforzamiento del apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podría ayudar a prevenir el TEPT en pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 585537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211866

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the factors affecting the recovery of mental health in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study is to look into the change of psychological distress and to explore the role of negative appraisals in the improvement of psychological distress in COVID-19 patients after they recovered from the infection. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal survey on patients with COVID-19 infection in Changsha. The 9-item Patient Health scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, and a newly developed measure, the COVID-19 Impact Scale (CIS) were applied to assess patients' depression, anxiety, and negative appraisal toward COVID-19 infection during their hospitalization and 1 month post-discharge. Results: Seventy-two patients were included in the analysis. A significant decrease in anxiety and depression levels was observed after patients were discharged from hospital. Two meaningful factors of the CIS were extracted based on factor analysis, namely "health impact," and "social impact." The change of social impact explained the 12.7 and 10.5% variance in the depression and anxiety symptom improvement, respectively. Conclusions: Change in negative appraisals, especially the appraisals related to COVID-19 social impact may play a vital role in the relief of psychological distress of infected patients. Therefore, a cognitive and social care perspective might be considered when promoting the mental health recovery and readjustment to society among COVID-19 patients.

4.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(6): 657-664, 2020 Jun 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) brought psychological stress to the public, especially to patients. This study aims to investigate the mental health of patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. METHODS: We took cross-section investigation for the mental health of 112 patients with COVID-19 via questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were performed to compare general and clinical data between the slight-ordinary patients and severe patients. Single sample t-tests were used to compare the difference between the factor scores of the Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90) in COVID-19 patients with the norm of 2015 and factor scores of SCL-90 in patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). RESULTS: The obsessive-compulsive, depression, sleep and eating disorders had the highest frequency among the positive symptoms of SCL-90 in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha. The factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 were higher than those of the norm (P≤0.001 or P<0.05). Slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 in Changsha showed lower factor scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and hostility compared with the patients with SARS (P<0.001 or P<0.05). There was no difference in factor scores of SCL-90 between the patients with severe COVID-19 and those with SARS(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of somatization, depression, anxiety, phobia anxiety, sleep and eating disorders in patients with COVID-19 in Changsha are higher than those of the norm. However, the mental health of slight-ordinary patients with COVID-19 is better than that of patients with SARS. It needs to provide targeting psychological interventions depending on the severity of patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Status , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Depression , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(11): 10059-10069, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459080

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the clinical value of abnormal laboratory results of multiple organs in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and to help clinicians perform correct treatment. RESULTS: Elevated neutrophil-to-LYM ratio (NLR), D-dimer(D-D), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-2, interferon-Y, and age were significantly associated with the severity of illness. However, significant and sustained decreases were observed in the LYM subset (p<0.05). D-D, T cell counts, and cytokine levels in severe COVID-19 patients who survived the disease gradually recovered at later time points to levels that were comparable to those of mild cases. Second, D-D increased from 0.5 to 8, and the risk ratio increased from 2.75 to 55, eventually leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Moreover, the acute renal function damage occurred earlier than abnormal heart and liver functions (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The degrees of lymphopenia and proinflammatory cytokine storm were higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in mild cases. The degree was associated with the disease severity. Advanced age, NLR, D-D, and cytokine levels may serve as useful prognostic factors for the early identification of severe COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 93 confirmed COVID-19 patients. The samples were examined for lymphocyte (LYM) subsets by flow cytometry and cytokine profiles by specific immunoassays. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the best diagnostic thresholds for laboratory results, and principal component analysis was used to screen the major risk factors. The prognostic values were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curve and univariate and multivariate COX regression models.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokines/blood , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 84: 106504, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-76298

ABSTRACT

AIM: To accumulate evidence that indicated the key role played by virus-triggered inflammation in the 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which emerged in Wuhan City and rapidly spread throughout China. METHODS: Age, neutrophil(NEU)-to-lymphocyte (LYM) ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte (MON) ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of 93 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were investigated and compared. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the thresholds for five bio-markers, and their prognostic values were assessed via the Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariate COX regression models. RESULTS: The median age was 46.4 years old, and 37cases were females. A total of 27.8% of patients had been to Wuhan, and 73.1% had contacted with people from Wuhan. Fever (83.8%) and cough (70.9%) were the two most common symptoms. Elevated NLR and age were significantly associated with illness severity. The binary logistic analysis identified elevated NLR (hazard risk [HR] 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-4.57) and age (HR 2.52, 95% CI 1.65-4.83) as independent factors for poor clinical outcome of COVID-19. NLR exhibited the largest area under the curve at 0.841, with the highest specificity (63.6%) and sensitivity (88%). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated age and NLR can be considered independent biomarkers for indicating poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Platelets/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/physiology , Monocytes/physiology , Neutrophils/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Epidemics , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
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