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1.
Transplant Immunology ; : 101712, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028552

ABSTRACT

De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are associated with increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection and worse clinical outcomes after orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). No study has reported the production of DSAs after infection by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an OHT population. In this retrospective study, we described coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and clinical course in a large, contemporary OHT cohort. We showed that the case-fatality rate has significantly decreased since the early days of the pandemic, although remains higher than that of the general population. In addition, we found that 10% of OHT recipients developed de novo DSAs or experienced an increase in pre-existing DSAs after COVID-19, with the majority occurring in unvaccinated patients (15% vs 2%). Further studies are necessary to substantiate our findings in an external cohort.

2.
Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017959

ABSTRACT

There is limited evidence on vaccine effectiveness against asymptomatic or mild Omicron infections. We estimated that recent third doses of mRNA or inactivated vaccines reduced the risk of self-reported infection by 52% (95% confidence interval: 17%-73%), among randomly sampled adults during the Omicron BA.2 dominated surge in Hong Kong.

3.
Innovation in Aging ; 5:846-846, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2012134
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008260
5.
JBJS Open Access ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997368

ABSTRACT

Prioritizing the education of orthopaedic surgery residents and fellows is essential for the future of the field. This review highlights strategies that educators may find useful in improving their teaching skills for the modern orthopaedic surgery learner. Educators may benefit from focusing on active, effortful, and repetitive engagement in lecture;setting clear expectations to help track progress in clinic;and breaking skills into smaller steps in context of a framework when teaching procedural skills. Providing objective assessment and growth-oriented feedback helps establish a close rapport between educator and trainee while encouraging personal development. Through a remediation process that examines deficiency in core areas and equitability of the learning environment, the trainee and the educator may engage in a fair discussion that prevents trainees from falling behind. Finally, in the era of COVID-19, e-learning and virtual simulations have become increasingly used as effective modalities for teaching clinical knowledge and procedures to trainees. The medical education landscape has been changing at a rapid pace, and by evaluating and adapting to the novel educational models of today, the modern orthopaedic surgeon ensures a learning environment that is equitable, effective, and inspiring for the orthopaedic surgeon of tomorrow.

6.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 34(8):889-897, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1965534

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pand emic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought unprecedented pressure on communities, medical systems and economy all over the world. Candidate vaccines have been generated using existing technologies that provides us with the hope to effectively deal with COVID-19. Subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options in the "primer-boost" strategy, and have become the main force in the new candidate vaccines. This paper reviews the latest progress in clinical trials and platforms technology and highlight the challenges encountered in the development of COVID-19 subunit vaccine.

7.
2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2021 ; : 1279-1282, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948744

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing is a particularly important part of health care and is often overlooked or forgotten up until right when it is needed the most. With the wave of technological achievements in the last decade, a digital perspective for aid in contact tracing was a natural development from traditional contact tracing. When COVID-19 was categorized as a pandemic, the need for modernized contact tracing solutions became apparent, and highly sought after. Solutions using the Bluetooth protocol and/or Global Positioning System data (GPS) were hastily made available to the public in nations all over the world. These solutions quickly became criticized by privacy experts as being potential tools for tracking. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Acs Es&T Water ; : 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927052

ABSTRACT

The emerging variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2, e.g., Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron, have constrained the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. They challenge our current capability to identify and distinguish variants from wastewater, due to the high likelihood of viral RNA degradation and the prior knowledge required for primer design. This study focused on the detection of multiple VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 using a high-throughput, multiplexed, amplicon-based sequencing technology, namely, ATOPlex. We first demonstrated that this method can discern multiple variants from artificial samples consisting of four synthetic strains of SARS-CoV-2. The ability of ATOPlex to identify VOCs was further validated using real wastewater samples collected from both an international passenger flight and local wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphism on the genomes, the ATOPlex method was shown to be effective in detecting three VOCs, including two Beta variants and one Delta variant from either local wastewater or flight sewage samples, which were phylogenetically close to the variants that originated from France, Philippines, and the United States. We found this method is mutation-independent, rendering it a tool for proactive detection of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in wastewater for the application of wastewater-based epidemiology.

9.
Hsi-An Chiao Tung Ta Hsueh/Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University ; 56(5):43-53, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876106

ABSTRACT

To study the spreading mechanism and risk and predict the spreading trend of COVID-19, and provide supports for the government to formulate prevention and control policies, a new nonlinear dynamic model, i.e., the susceptible-low risk-exposed-infectious-removed (SLEIR) model is proposed, and the population with protection measures is regarded as a low-risk group and included into this model. The basic reproduction number, equilibrium, stability and bifurcation are analyzed to reveal the spreading mechanism, and the data on COVID-19 in India is used for least-squares fitting of model parameters and some initial values. The fitted parameters are used to predict the spreading trend in India. Predicting results show that the average relative errors of the epidemic prediction are 4.107% and 2.805% from March to April and from April to May, respectively. For the latest epidemic prediction of India in October, the average relative error is 3.266%. These simulations indicate that the proposed model can accurately predict COVID-19 spreading in India, is more suitable for analyzing its spreading in India with higher prediction accuracy compared with the traditional SEIR model, and can provide technical support for the government of India to select prevention and control measures. © 2022, Editorial Office of Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University. All right reserved.

10.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 1(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860179

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has dramatically increased cheshospitalizations, and it is often difficult to determine whether there is a bacterial or fungal coinfection at time of presentation. In this study, we sought to determine the rates of coinfection and utilization of antibiotics in SARS-CoV-2 disease. Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia from April 13, 2020, to July 14, 2020. Results: In total, 277 patients were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia during this period. Patients that received antibiotics within 48 hours of presentation were more likely to be febrile (59.3% vs 41.2%;P =.01) and to have leukocytosis (23.9% vs 5.9%;P <.01) and were less likely to have a procalcitonin level <0.25 ng/mL (58.8% vs 74.5%;P =.04). In total, 45 patients had positive blood cultures collected during hospitalization, 16 of which were clinically significant. Of the clinically significant blood cultures, 5 were collected <48 hours of admission. Moreover, 18 sputum cultures were clinically significant, 2 of which were collected within 48 hours of admission. Conclusion: Bacterial and fungal coinfections in COVID-19 appear to be rare on presentation;thus, this factor may be a good target for enhanced antibiotic stewardship. © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

11.
Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ; 126:20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1780231

ABSTRACT

The goal of this project was to create and optimize the performance of portable chambers for reliable ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of personal protective equipment (PPE) and enable its safe reuse. During unforeseen times of high demand for PPE, such as during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), single-use PPE supply can be quickly depleted. UV radiation has been shown to disinfect materials with high efficacy. This paper reports the design and construction of two 280 nm ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection chambers in the form of portable chambers with 46 cm x 46 cm x 46 cm interior dimensions, one using light-emitting diodes and the other using mercury vapor lamps. This paper summarizes and presents a review of SARS-CoV-2 UV deactivation research during 2020 to 2021. Additionally, this paper discusses efforts to increase the uniformity and overall intensity of the UV-C radiation within the chambers through the installation of a UV-reflective, porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A calculator prototype was additionally designed to calculate the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 as a result of UV-C disinfection, and the prototype code is presented. The paper describes the selection of UV-C radiation sources for the chambers and the chambers' mechanical and electrical design, PTFE installation, testing, and safety considerations.

12.
Dili Xuebao/Acta Geographica Sinica ; 77(2):315-330, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1726804

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of economic geography, this paper studies the changing spatial pattern of world economy and China's role in different waves of economic globalization. Firstly, this study finds that the geographical pattern of world economy changes from "core-periphery" to "chain-reconfiguration", and to current "network-imbalance". Meanwhile the driving force of economic globalization shifts from "trade globalization" to "manufacturing globalization". At present, "multiple globalization" is involving into a new engine to driving the development of economic globalization. We then discuss that how China changes its role in economic globalization by changing modes of strategic coupling. We argue that the role transition of China breaks the traditional developing path which developed countries set for developing countries and theoretical spatial order put forward by classical industry gradient transfer, bringing new restructuring power and possibility for changing pattern of globalization. Finally, we discuss the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the development of economic globalization and the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era. Based on the analysis, we come up with some suggestions regarding to the potential development paths of China under the background of economic globalization. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

13.
6th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing, ICSIP 2021 ; : 294-298, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1722924

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide. X-ray imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of COVID-19. In order to help doctors diagnose COVID-19 effectively, we proposed a novel model (DS-DenseNet), which based on depth separable dense. By adding an improved depth separable convolution layer, we reduced the amount of parameters and make the model lighter. In the viral pneumonia, COVID-19 and normal lung, 2905 sets of chest X-ray images were collected, and the restricted contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) algorithm was applied to preprocess the images and the preprocessed images were input into the model. Meanwhile, SDensenet, VGG16, Resnet18, Resnet34 and Densenet121 were introduced as baseline models. Compared with Resnet34, the sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of DS-Densenet are increased by 2.5%, 2.0% and 1.5% respectively;compared with SDensenet, the number of parameters is reduced by 44.0%, but the effect is not reduced. The experimental results show that the depth separable convolution can effectively reduce the model parameters, and the proposed DS-Densenet has a good classification effect, which has a certain significance for the auxiliary diagnosis of COVID-19. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
ChemistrySelect ; 6(48):14027-14038, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1599370

ABSTRACT

Picroside II, an iridoid glycoside, has anti-cancer, anti-virus, anti-apoptotic, nervous and myocardial protection effects and so on. However, the oral bioavailability of Picroside II is low, and the half-life in vivo is short, so it is limited to use in clinic. Triazole is a highly stable heterocyclic ring, which can be interacted with various enzymes or receptors in the organism through non-covalent interactions, and many of its good pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo have been reported. Based on the advantages of triazole and Picroside II, a series of triazole-modified Picroside II derivatives (5 a–5 i) were synthesized by using drug combination principles for the first time. The structures were confirmed by different spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS, and the primary biological evaluation of anti-breast cancer, anti-colorectal cancer, the effect on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor, and CD47-SIRPα protein were screened as well. Compound 5 e has anti-breast cancer activity, and compounds 3 and 5 i have anti-colorectal cancer activity. © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH

15.
Ieee Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering ; : 17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583778

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic causing millions of deaths, devastating social and economic disruptions. Testing individuals for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, is critical for mitigating and containing COVID-19. Many countries are implementing group testing strategies against COVID-19 to improve testing capacity and efficiency while saving required workloads and consumables. A group of individuals' nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab samples is mixed to conduct one test. However, existing group testing methods neglect the fact that mixing samples usually leads to substantial dilution of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2, which seriously impacts the sensitivity of tests. In this paper, we aim to screen individuals infected with COVID-19 with as few tests as possible, under the premise that the sensitivity of tests is high enough. To achieve this goal, we propose an Adaptive Group Testing (AdaGT) method. By collecting information on the number of positive and negative samples that have been identified during the screening process, the AdaGT method can estimate the ratio of positive samples in real-time. Based on this ratio, the AdaGT algorithm adjusts its testing strategy adaptively between an individual testing strategy and a group testing strategy. The group size of the group testing strategy is carefully selected to guarantee that the sensitivity of each test is higher than a predetermined threshold and that this group contains at most one positive sample on average. Theoretical performance analysis on the AdaGT algorithm is provided and then validated in experiments. Experimental results also show that the AdaGT algorithm outperforms existing methods in terms of efficiency and sensitivity.

16.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(11):12875-12886, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1567794

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the risk factors for early clinical recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 192 patients with IBD who received FMT treatment in the Colorectal Disease Specialty/Intestinal Microecology Treatment Center of the Tenth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University from February 2017 to June 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for early recurrence of inflammation. Feces from all participants were collected to extract the total bacterial genomic DNA. The V6-8 regions of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products were detected by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method, and the intestinal flora was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. Stool samples from all patients were tested for 9 bacteria, white blood cells (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts, as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Results: Of the 192 patients, 15 cases had inflammation recurrence during FMT and within one week after treatment, including 11 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and 4 cases of Crohn’s disease (CD), with a total recurrence rate of 7.8%. High Mayo inflammatory activity score, Mayo endoscopic sub-item score (MES) =3 points, CRP>10 mg/L, anemia, albumin <30 g/L, absolute value of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) <500/mm3, and intolerance to enteral full nutrition were independent risk factors for recurrence during and after FMT in UC patients (P<0.05). Albumin <30 g/L and simultaneous use of immunosuppressive agents were associated with disease recurrence during and after FMT in CD patients. WBC, PLT, and CRP were all negatively correlated with Enterococcus (EC), and ESR was positively correlated with Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) (P<0.01). Conclusion: The low recurrence rate of IBD after FMT indicates the safety of FMT, but this procedure should be cautiously used in patients with severe intestinal barrier dysfunction and/or severe intestinal dysfunction.

17.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 37(6):3297-3302, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566893

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of COVID-19 prognosis with the indexes of inflammation and coagulation. Methods: The clinical data of 103 cases of COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. COX regression models and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to estimate the COVID-19 prognosis. Results: The results showed that C-reactive protein (HR=1.007, p<0.001), procalcitonin (HR=1.013, p=0.006), prothrombin time (HR=1.190, p<0.001), Fibrinogen (HR=0.784, p=0.002) and D-dimer (HR=1.078, p<0.001) is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 death. Among the inflammation indicators, the maximum area under the ROC curve of NLR is 0.87. In the coagulation index, the maximum area under the ROC curve of PT is 0.84. For the combined indicators of inflammation and coagulation, the area under the ROC curve is 0.89. Conclusions: In conclusion, we found that the length of PT at admission and the level of fibrinogen and D-dimer were related to the risk of COVID-19 death. It may be considered to jointly predict the risk of death of COVID-19 with inflammation and coagulation indicators. © 2021 A. CARBONE Editore. All rights reserved.

18.
Hsi-An Chiao Tung Ta Hsueh/Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University ; 55(11):162-172, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1524553

ABSTRACT

In order to accurately simulate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide certain reference for formulation of epidemic prevention and control policies, a new nonlinear dynamics model is presented. Considering real prevention and control measures, the total population is divided into seven groups in the model, including susceptible, latent, quarantined, asymptomatic, symptomatic, hospitalized and recovered groups. The basic reproduction number is calculated and analyzed. The cure rate and mortality rate are fitted as time-varying functions, and the remaining parameters and initial values of some states are fitted by least squares with the number of currently confirmed cases. The real data of COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions of Hubei Province within 20 days (February 14 to March 4, 2020) are used to simulate and verify the model. Simulation results show that the mean relative error of fitting is 0.629%. Compared with the real data of cumulatively confirmed cases, cured cases and deaths, the mean relative errors of the epidemic prediction by the model in Wuhan are 0.772%, 3.517%, and 2.025%, respectively, and in other regions of Hubei Province are 0.808%, 2.241% and 2.39%, respectively. It indicates that the model can accurately simulate the spread of COVID-19 and has a wide range of applicability. Moreover, sensitivity analysis is made and simulated on the model parameters. The impacts of various prevention and control measures on the spread of COVID-19 are discussed. The analysis results show that the most effective prevention and control measures include reducing contact among people, strengthening tracking and quarantine of close contacts, and increasing detection and treatment capabilities so that the infected people can be isolated and treated as soon as possible. © 2021, Editorial Office of Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University. All right reserved.

19.
QJM ; 114(11): 795-801, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic. Age is an independent factor in death from the disease, and predictive models to stratify patients according to their mortality risk are needed. AIM: To compare the laboratory parameters of the younger (≤70) and the elderly (>70) groups, and develop death prediction models for the two groups according to age stratification. DESIGN: A retrospective, single-center observational study. METHODS: This study included 437 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, 2020. Epidemiological information, laboratory data and outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between elderly patients and younger patients. First, recursive feature elimination (RFE) was used to select the optimal subset. Then, two random forest (RF) algorithms models were built to predict the prognoses of COVID-19 patients and identify the optimal diagnostic predictors for patients' clinical prognoses. RESULTS: Comparisons of the laboratory data of the two age groups revealed many different laboratory indicators. RFE was used to select the optimal subset for analysis, from which 11 variables were screened out for the two groups. The RF algorithm were built to predict the prognoses of COVID-19 patients based on the best subset, and the area under ROC curve (AUC) of the two groups is 0.874 (95% CI: 0.833-0.915) and 0.842 (95% CI: 0.765-0.920). CONCLUSION: Two prediction models for COVID-19 were developed in the patients with COVID-19 based on random forest algorithm, which provides a simple tool for the early prediction of COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Algorithms , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 2021(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1458433

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (diagnostic). The objectives are as follows:. To assess the accuracy of routine blood-based laboratory tests to predict mortality and deterioration to severe or critical (from mild or moderate) COVID-19 in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Secondary objectives Where data are available, we will investigate whether prognostic accuracy varies according to a specific measurement or test, reference standard, timing of outcome verification, sample type, study design, and setting, including prevalence of the target condition (either by stratified analysis or meta-regression).

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