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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742726

ABSTRACT

The prolonged duration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC, e.g., Omicron) and variants of interest (VOI, e.g., Lambda). These variants have challenged the protective efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines, thus calling for the development of novel therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Here, we constructed a novel fusion inhibitor-based recombinant protein, denoted as 5-Helix, consisting of three heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and two heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fragments. The 5-Helix interacted with the HR2 domain of the viral S2 subunit, the most conserved region in spike (S) protein, to block homologous six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between viral HR1 and HR2 domains and, hence, viral S-mediated cell-cell fusion. The 5-Helix potently inhibited infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs, including Delta and Omicron variants. The 5-Helix also inhibited infection by authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (nCoV-SH01) strain and its Delta variant. Collectively, our findings suggest that 5-Helix can be further developed as either a therapeutic or prophylactic to treat and prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers and disaster service workers have been reported to be vulnerable to mental health problems during outbreaks of infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of disaster service workers in charge of COVID-19-related work and also identify the factors affecting their quality of life. METHODS: From June 2020 to June 2021, a survey was conducted of 526 disaster service workers in charge of COVID-19-related work. This included those working in public health care centers (PHC), 119 rescue and emergency medical services (119 REMS), public servants of city hall (PS), and police officers. The Korean version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument brief form were used. A one-way ANOVA was conducted, and a stepwise regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors affecting quality of life. RESULTS: Regarding quality of life, 119 REMS (180.64 ± 26.20) scored significantly higher than PHC (165.76 ± 23.73) and PS (163.90 ± 23.60), while police officers (176.87 ± 23.17) scored significantly higher than PS (163.90 ± 23.60) (F = 12.373, p < 0.001). Resilience (ß = 0.897, p < 0.01) was the most significant explanatory variable, and together with insomnia (ß = 0.154, p < 0.01), depression (ß = -0.152, p < 0.01), and COVID-19 anxiety (ß = -0.057, p < 0.01) accounted for 91.8% of the explanatory variance with regard to quality of life. DISCUSSION: Quality of life was found to be negatively correlated with insomnia, depression, and COVID-19 anxiety while being positively correlated with resilience. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the resilience of disaster service workers.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312716

ABSTRACT

Positive-sense single-stranded ((+)ss) RNA viruses are among the leading causes of human and animal infectious diseases in the world, but so far, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat these infections. Here we found that several bis- benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (e.g. berbamine), potently inhibited the infection of coronaviruses (e.g. SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV), flaviviruses (e.g. JEV, ZIKV and DENV), and enteroviruses (e.g. EV-A71) in host cells. Moreover, berbamine protected mice from lethal challenge of JEV. We also found that berbamine inhibited TRPMLs (Ca2+ permeable non-selective cation channels in endosomes and lysosomes), which compromised the endolysosomal trafficking of viral receptors, such as ACE2 and DPP4. This led to the increased secretion of these receptors via extracellular vesicles and the concomitant decrease in their levels at the plasma membrane, thereby preventing (+)ss RNA viruses from entering the host cells. In summary, these results indicate that bis- benzylisoquinoline alkaloids such as berbamine, can act as a pan-anti-(+)ss RNA virus drug by inhibiting TPRMLs to prevent viral entry.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311006

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic brings several features that increase the sense of fear, not to mention confusion, quarantine, financial losses, etc., which may lead to adverse psychosocial outcomes. The influence of such stressors takes place within a broader sociocultural context that needs to be considered.Objective: To examine how the psychological response to the pandemic varies across countries and identify which risk/protective factors contribute to this response.Methods : An online survey was conducted from May 29-June 12, 2020, among a multinational sample of 8,806 adults from eight countries/regions (Canada, United States, England, Switzerland, Belgium, Hong Kong, Philippines, New Zealand). Probable generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depression episode (MDE) were assessed. The independent role of a wide range of potential factors was examined using multilevel logistic regression.Findings: Probable GAD and MDE were indicated by 21.0% and 25.5% of the respondents, respectively, with an important variation according to countries/regions (GAD: 12.2%-31.0%;MDE: 16.7%-32.9%). When considered together, 30.2% of the participants indicated probable GAD or MDE. Several factors were positively associated with a probable GAD or MDE, including (in descending order of importance) weak sense of coherence (SOC), lower age, false beliefs, isolation, threat perceived for oneself/family, mistrust in authorities, stigma, threat perceived for country/world, financial losses, being a female, and having high level of information about COVID-19. Having a weak SOC yielded the highest adjusted odds ratio for probable GAD or MDE (3.23;95% CI: 2.76-3.78).Interpretation: This pandemic is having an impact on psychological health. In some places and under certain circumstances, however, people seem to be better protected psychologically. This is a unique opportunity to evaluate the psychosocial impacts across various sociocultural backgrounds, providing important lessons that could inform all phases of disaster risk management.Funding: This study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interest.Ethics Approval Statement: This study takes place within a broader research project funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. It was reviewed and approved by the Research Ethics Board of the CIUSSS de l'Estrie – CHUS (HEC ref: 2020-3674).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323671

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear. Objectives: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China. Methods: : The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number ( R t ). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and R t . Results: : There were 12745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the effect of temperature on R t is not of statistical significance, which holds for most of included regions except for those in North China. Conclusions: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315024

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 may predispose pregnant women to higher risks of severe disease and poorer neonatal outcome. Psychological sequalae of this pandemic may pose a greater conundrum than its clinical aspects. It is currently unknown that how pregnant women cope with this global pandemic and its ramifications. The aims of the study are to understand the attitude and perceptions of non-infected pregnant women towards the COVID-19 outbreak in Singapore. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of COVID-19 awareness among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Singapore was conducted. An internet link was provided to complete an online electronic survey on Google platform using a quick response (QR) code on mobile devices. The online survey consists of 34 questions that were categorized into 4 main sections, namely 1) social demographics 2) attitude on safe distancing measures 3) precaution practices and 4) perceptions of COVID-19. Results: A total of 167 survey responses were obtained over eight weeks from April to June 2020. The majority of women were aged ≤35 years (76%, n=127), were of Chinese ethnicity (55%, n=91), attained tertiary education (62%, n=104) and were not working as frontline staff (70%). Using multiple linear regression models, Malay ethnicity (vs. Chinese, β 0.24;95% CI 0.04, 0.44) was associated with higher frequency of practicing social distancing. Malay women (β 0.48;95% CI 0.16, 0.80) and those who worked as frontline staff (β 0.28;95% CI 0.01, 0.56) sanitized their hands at higher frequencies. Age of ≥36 years (vs. ≤30 years, β 0.24;95% CI 0.01, 0.46), Malay (vs. Chinese, β 0.27;95% CI 0.06, 0.48) and Indian ethnicity (vs. Chinese, β 0.41;95% CI 0.02, 0.80), and attendance at high-risk clinic (vs. general clinic, β 0.20;95% CI 0.01, 0.39) were associated with higher frequency of staying-at-home. Conclusion: It is important for clinicians to render appropriate counselling and focused clarification on the effect of COVID-19 among pregnant women for psychological support and mental wellbeing.

7.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 15(2):51, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1648873

ABSTRACT

Since spring 2020, in response to the global threat of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several governments implemented emergency policies and regulations to prevent further transmission of the disease (Portegijs et al [...]

8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 19(2): 85-91, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574039

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the psychosocial characteristics of the employees working at a university hospital and investigated the factors affecting their quality of life (QOL) under COVID-19. METHODS: This study enrolled 1,191 healthcare workers from a university hospital, including doctors, nurses, administrative officer and technicians. Besides demographic information, depression, anxiety, somatization, insomnia, resilience, and QOL were assessed. RESULTS: The nurses presented significantly higher scores for anxiety, depression and showed significantly higher insomnia scores and significantly lower resilience scores. The occupations showed significant differences in the QOL and sub-groups, including the overall quality of life and general health (F=4.774, p<0.001), psychological domain (F=6.230, p<0.001), and environment domain (F=5.254, p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the QOL and resilience (r=0.608, p<0.01). However, depression (r=-0.502, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.425, p<0.01), somatization (r=-0.364, p<0.01), and insomnia (r=-0.385, p<0.01) showed negative correlations with the QOL. Resilience was the most important factor influencing the QOL. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that low resilience adversely affected the QOL and the mental health of the healthcare workers, which consequently had a direct effect on the quality of medical care given to patients.

9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296344

ABSTRACT

The safety of students worldwide remains a key issue during COVID-19. The reopening of universities in high risk countries during Fall 2020 resulted in numerous outbreaks. While regular screening and testing on campus can prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they are extremely challenging to implement due to various reasons such as cost and logistics. However, for low risk countries with minimal to no community spread, our study suggests that universities can fully reopen without testing, if students self-quarantine for 14 days on arrival and adopt proper nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). This alternative strategy might save institutions millions of dollars. We adopt agent-based simulation to model virus transmission on campus and test the effectiveness of several NPIs when school reopens. Assuming one initially infected student, results indicate that transmission between roommates causes the most infections with visitors, ground floors, and elevators, being the next main contributors. Limiting density and/or population are not impactful at flattening the curve. However, adopting masks, minimizing movement, and increasing the frequency of cleaning can effectively minimize infection and prevent outbreak, allowing for classes and activities to resume as normal.

10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 220, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387194
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 771-780, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315591

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can induce acute inflammatory response like acute lung inflammation (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to severe progression and mortality. Therapeutics for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-triggered respiratory inflammation are urgent to be discovered. Our previous study shows that Salvianolic acid C potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of a Salvia miltiorrhiza compound, Danshensu, in vitro and in vivo, including the mechanism of S protein-mediated virus attachment and entry into target cells. In authentic and pseudo-typed virus assays in vitro, Danshensu displayed a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 of 0.97 µM, and potently inhibited the entry of SARS-CoV-2 S protein-pseudo-typed virus (SARS-CoV-2 S) into ACE2-overexpressed HEK-293T cells (IC50 = 0.31 µM) and Vero-E6 cell (IC50 = 4.97 µM). Mice received SARS-CoV-2 S via trachea to induce ALI, while the VSV-G treated mice served as controls. The mice were administered Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, i.v., once) or Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1, oral administration, for 7 days) before SARS-CoV-2 S infection. We showed that SARS-CoV-2 S infection induced severe inflammatory cell infiltration, severely damaged lung tissue structure, highly expressed levels of inflammatory cytokines, and activated TLR4 and hyperphosphorylation of the NF-κB p65; the high expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) and low expression of ACE2 at the mRNA level in the lung tissue were also observed. Both oral and intravenous pretreatment with Danshensu dose-dependently alleviated the pathological alterations in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 S. This study not only establishes a mouse model of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2 S) induced ALI, but also demonstrates that Danshensu is a potential treatment for COVID-19 patients to inhibit the lung inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lactates , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1002-1015, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231006

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTCOVID-19 vaccines are being developed urgently worldwide. Here, we constructed two adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine candidates of Sad23L-nCoV-S and Ad49L-nCoV-S carrying the full-length gene of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The immunogenicity of two vaccines was individually evaluated in mice. Specific immune responses were observed by priming in a dose-dependent manner, and stronger responses were obtained by boosting. Furthermore, five rhesus macaques were primed with 5 × 109 PFU Sad23L-nCoV-S, followed by boosting with 5 × 109 PFU Ad49L-nCoV-S at 4-week interval. Both mice and macaques well tolerated the vaccine inoculations without detectable clinical or pathologic changes. In macaques, prime-boost regimen induced high titers of 103.16 anti-S, 102.75 anti-RBD binding antibody and 102.38 pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (pNAb) at 2 months, while pNAb decreased gradually to 101.45 at 7 months post-priming. Robust T-cell response of IFN-γ (712.6 SFCs/106 cells), IL-2 (334 SFCs/106 cells) and intracellular IFN-γ in CD4+/CD8+ T cell (0.39%/0.55%) to S peptides were detected in vaccinated macaques. It was concluded that prime-boost immunization with Sad23L-nCoV-S and Ad49L-nCoV-S can safely elicit strong immunity in animals in preparation of clinical phase 1/2 trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 435-448, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222728

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2, the disease has spread rapidly worldwide and developed into a global pandemic, causing a significant impact on the global health system and economic development. Scientists have been racing to find effective drugs and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. However, due to the diversity of clinical manifestations caused by COVID-19, no standard antiviral regimen beyond supportive therapy has been established. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of drugs that primarily act on the viral replication cycle or enhanced immunity of patients. This chapter will summarize the currently used antiviral and adjuvant therapies in clinical practice and provide a theoretical basis for the future treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Psychiatry Investig ; 18(4): 332-339, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has psychological effects such as anxiety and depression as well as direct infection in people. The Fear of COVID-19 scale is a scale that can measure anxiety related to COVID-19 in a short time. The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability and validity the Korean version of Fear of COVID-19 scale (KF-COVID-19S). METHODS: The data of total 186 normal adults and 17 patients were finally used for the statistical analysis. For internal consistency, Cronbach's α was calculated. For concurrent and discriminant validity, the correlations with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOLBREF) were analyzed. For construct validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. RESULTS: Cronbach alpha was 0.88. The two-factor model (factor 1: Physical fear, factor 2: Emotional fear) showed significantly positive correlations and appeared to be "good" fitness (CFI=0.906, IFI=0.907, NFI=0.902). CONCLUSION: The KF-COVID-19S can be a useful scale that can measure the physical and emotional fears associated with COVID-19 in a short time. Because the psychiatric patients are a more vulnerable group to the fear, it is thought that the KF-COVID-19S will help to determine the patient's level of anxiety and make a therapeutic plan for the underlying mental disorder.

15.
Adv Ther (Weinh) ; : 2000224, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095226

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused the emerging epidemic of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there are more than 82.9 million confirmed cases worldwide, there is no clinically effective drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The conserved properties of the membrane fusion domain of the spike (S) protein across SARS-CoV-2 make it a promising target to develop pan-CoV therapeutics. Herein, two clinically approved drugs, Itraconazole (ITZ) and Estradiol benzoate (EB), are found to inhibit viral entry by targeting the six-helix (6-HB) fusion core of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Further studies shed light on the mechanism that ITZ and EB can interact with the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) region of the spike protein, to present anti-SARS-CoV-2 infections in vitro, indicating they are novel potential therapeutic remedies for COVID-19 treatment. Furthermore, ITZ shows broad-spectrum activity targeting 6-HB in the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV S protein, inspiring that ITZ have the potential for development as a pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor.

16.
J Nat Prod ; 84(2): 436-443, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072094

ABSTRACT

A new axial chiral binaphtoquinone, hypocrellone (1), and a new perylenequinone, hypomycin F (2), were isolated from the stromata of Hypocrella bambusae, together with five known compounds, 3-7. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned by spectroscopic and HRESIMS data analyses. The axial chirality of 1 was determined by electronic circular dichroism data analysis, and the absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The axial chirality of 7 was determined by UV-induced photooxidation from 4. Compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed inhibitory activity against pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 infection in 293T-ACE2 cells with IC50 values of 0.17, 0.038, and 0.12 µM. Compounds 4 and 5 were also active against live SARS-CoV-2 infection with EC50 values of 0.22 and 0.21 µM, respectively. Further cell-cell fusion assays, surface plasmon resonance assays, and molecular docking studies revealed that 4 and 5 could bind with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 S protein to prevent its interaction with human angiotensin-converting enzyme II receptor. Our results revealed that 4 and 5 are potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Hypocreales/chemistry , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Perylene/analogs & derivatives , Quinones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Perylene/chemistry , Perylene/pharmacology , Quinones/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Br Med Bull ; 136(1): 46-87, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Non-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a disease caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, are urgently needed. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM) framework, behavioural measures for droplet-borne communicable diseases and their enabling and limiting factors at various implementation levels were evaluated. SOURCES OF DATA: Keyword search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, Science Direct, WHO and CDC online publication databases. Using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine review criteria, 10 bottom-up, non-pharmaceutical prevention measures from 104 English-language articles, which published between January 2000 and May 2020, were identified and examined. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Evidence-guided behavioural measures against transmission of COVID-19 in global at-risk communities were identified, including regular handwashing, wearing face masks and avoiding crowds and gatherings. AREAS OF CONCERN: Strong evidence-based systematic behavioural studies for COVID-19 prevention are lacking. GROWING POINTS: Very limited research publications are available for non-pharmaceutical measures to facilitate pandemic response. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: Research with strong implementation feasibility that targets resource-poor settings with low baseline health-EDRM capacity is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Primary Prevention/methods , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Environ Res ; 193: 110576, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China. METHODS: The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number (Rt). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and Rt. RESULTS: There were 12,745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the associated effect of temperature on Rt is likely to be negative but not of statistical significance, which holds for most Chinese regions. CONCLUSIONS: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19. Since intensive control measures against the COVID-19 epidemics were implemented in China, we acknowledge this may impact the underlying effect size estimation, and thus cautiousness should be taken when interpreting our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
19.
J Emerg Nurs ; 46(6): 791-801.e7, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803566

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to rapidly quantify the safety measures regarding donning and doffing personal protective equipment, complaints of discomfort caused by wearing personal protective equipment, and the psychological perceptions of health care workers in hospitals in Wuhan, China, responding to the outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was used Data were collected from March 14, 2020, to March 16, 2020, in Wuhan, China. Descriptive statistics and χ2 analyses testing were used. RESULTS: Standard nosocomial infection training could significantly decrease the occurrence of infection (3.6% vs 13.0%, χ2 = 4.47, P < 0.05). Discomfort can be classified into 7 categories. Female sex (66.0% vs 50.5%, χ2 = 6.37), occupation (62.7% vs 30.8%, χ2 = 5.33), working at designated hospitals (44.8% vs 26.7%, χ2 = 5.17) or in intensive care units (70.4% vs 57.9%, χ2 = 3.88), and working in personal protective equipment for > 4 hours (62.2% vs 39.2%, χ2 = 9.17) led to more complaints about physical discomfort or increased occurrence of pressure sores (all P < 0.05). Psychologically, health care workers at designated hospitals (60.0% vs 42.1%, χ2 = 4.97) or intensive care units (55.9% vs 41.5%, χ2 = 4.40) (all P < 0.05) expressed different rates of pride. DISCUSSION: Active training on infection and protective equipment could reduce the infection risk. Working for long hours increased the occurrence of discomfort and skin erosion. Reducing the working hours and having adequate protective products and proper psychological interventions may be beneficial to relieve discomfort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1141-1149, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694139

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a newly emerging infectious disease currently spreading across the world. It is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, which plays a key role in the receptor recognition and cell membrane fusion process, is composed of two subunits, S1 and S2. The S1 subunit contains a receptor-binding domain that recognizes and binds to the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, while the S2 subunit mediates viral cell membrane fusion by forming a six-helical bundle via the two-heptad repeat domain. In this review, we highlight recent research advance in the structure, function and development of antivirus drugs targeting the S protein.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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