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1.
Industrial Management & Data Systems ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070225

ABSTRACT

Purpose The aim of this paper is to explore the changes in the ICT and global value chains (GVCs) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach This study compared the difference between Korea' domestic ICT industries, ICT imports and ICT exports before and after the COVID-19 outbreak by using trade data of ICT products and national economic indicators, and presents growth strategy for the ICT industry in the post-COVID 19 era. For this purpose, this study determined the causalities between Korea's imports/exports of ICT products and composite Indexes before and after COVID-19, and derived implications in the ICT industry environment after the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings Analysis results showed the following changes in Korea's ICT industry in the post-COVID-19 world. (1) Non-face-to-face and contact-free technologies related sectors in the ICT industry, such as the semiconductor sector, have grown exponentially;(2) as the USA has grown as the new key player, the causal relationship with China, a key player of the GVC in the pre-COVID-19 era, disappeared;and (3) the GVC of the ICT industry is not a rigid one-way vertical structure, but is changing to a flexible structure influenced by cooperation and competition between countries. Originality/value The results indicate that it is essential to constantly develop new ICT sectors that make use of non-face-to-face and contact-free technologies in the post-COVID-19 era, and the main strategies in response to the changed GVC would be taking the initiative by securing source technologies and expanding through cooperation with other GVCs and resource sharing.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The goal of public health in combatting COVID-19 is to increase herd immunity. However, vaccine reluctance makes attaining herd immunity a worldwide challenge. This investigation aimed to identify negative and positive attitudes and intentions about COVID-19 vaccinations. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted once free COVID-19 vaccines became available in Pakistan in 2021. 4392 Pakistanis aged 18 and older were surveyed from seven administrative units between 1 July and 30 August 2021. Online structured questionnaires were utilized to collect data using a simple sampling procedure. The questionnaires were divided into three major sections: sociodemographic, health factors, and attitudes toward COVID-19. RESULTS: The survey link was shared with approximately 4500 participants. 97.6%(4392) completed the survey once begun. Frequency, percentage and Chi-square tests were used to analyze statistical data. Most of the participants in the research were men (2703 (61.54%)), 3277 (74.61%) were aged 18-29 years, and 1824 (41.53%) were residents of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. (18.69%) Respondents expressed COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, whereas 36.66% of participants liked getting the Sinopharm and Sinovac vaccines and (35.84%) of participants preferred the Pfizer vaccine. A significant number of participants (38.05%) were concerned about the vaccine's unexpected side effects Thus, it is essential to realize that many participants were concerned about the vaccine's unexpected side effects. CONCLUSIONS: The overall high level of concern about the unforeseen side effects of COVID-19 vaccines, as well as widespread vaccine hesitancy among Pakistani populations and its predictors, should be taken into account if public health intervention campaigns in Pakistan are changing negative attitudes and improving compliance with regard to COVID-19 vaccines.

4.
J Food Biochem ; 46(10): e14354, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved; however, variants of concern (VOCs) can evade vaccine protection. Therefore, developing small compound drugs that directly block the interaction between the viral spike glycoprotein and ACE2 is urgently needed to provide a complementary or alternative treatment for COVID-19 patients. We developed a viral infection assay to screen a library of approximately 126 small molecules and showed that peimine inhibits VOCs viral infections. In addition, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay showed that peimine suppresses the interaction of spike and ACE2. Molecular docking analysis revealed that peimine exhibits a higher binding affinity for variant spike proteins and is able to form hydrogen bonds with N501Y in the spike protein. These results suggest that peimine, a compound isolated from Fritillaria, may be a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In this study, we identified a naturally derived compound of peimine, a major bioactive alkaloid extracted from Fritillaria, that could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) viral infection in 293T/ACE2 and Calu-3 lung cells. In addition, peimine blocks viral entry through interruption of spike and ACE2 interaction. Moreover, molecular docking analysis demonstrates that peimine has a higher binding affinity on N501Y in the spike protein. Furthermore, we found that Fritillaria significantly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. These results suggested that peimine and Fritillaria could be a potential functional drug and food for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cevanes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Glycoproteins , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 12(1): 73-89, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters cells through the binding of the viral spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), resulting in the development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, few antiviral drugs are available that can effectively block viral infection. This study aimed to identify potential natural products from Taiwan Database of Extracts and Compounds (TDEC) that may prevent the binding of viral spike proteins with human ACE2 proteins. METHODS: The structure-based virtual screening was performed using the AutoDock Vina program within PyRX software, the binding affinities of compounds were verified using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), the inhibitions of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection efficacy were examined by lentivirus particles pseudotyped (Vpp) infection assay, and the cell viability was tested by 293T cell in MTT assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified 39 natural products targeting the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in silico. In ITC binding assay, dioscin, celastrol, saikosaponin C, epimedin C, torvoside K, and amentoflavone showed dissociation constant (K d) = 0.468 µM, 1.712 µM, 6.650 µM, 2.86 µM, 3.761 µM and 4.27 µM, respectively. In Vpp infection assay, the compounds have significantly and consistently inhibition with the 50-90% inhibition of viral infection efficacy. In cell viability, torvoside K, epimedin, amentoflavone, and saikosaponin C showed IC50 > 100 µM; dioscin and celastrol showed IC50 = 1.5625 µM and 0.9866 µM, respectively. These natural products may bind to the viral spike protein, preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells. SECTION 1: Natural Products. TAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION BY EVISE: SARS-CoV-2, Structure-Based Virtual Screening, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Lentivirus Particles Pseudotyped (Vpp) Infection Assay, in silico and in vitro study.

6.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 4259669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775009

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the effects of Biyeom-go (BYG, an herbal formula) on immune biomarkers present in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis under exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), and on changes in goblet cells and immune biomarkers in mice under exposure to Korea diesel particulate matter (KDP20). Thirty patients showing characteristic allergic rhinitis symptoms were enrolled in Jeonju-si, Korea, and treated with BYG thrice a day for four weeks. Changes in the expression of immune biomarkers (interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-8, IL-13, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mRNA), total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), mini-rhinitis-specific quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) results, and visual analog scale scores were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Additionally, the difference in PM2.5 concentrations in the air in Jeonju-si, Korea (November, 2019 ∼ March, 2020), was analyzed to determine the change in TNSS. KDP20 (100 µg/mL) was exposed to C57BL/6 mice for 10 days; 0.05% Nasonex (a positive control, mometasone furoate), or BYG was administrated for 5 days twice a day. The expression of inflammatory factors was detected via qRT-PCR using nasopharynx tissue samples of mice. BYG treatment was found to be associated with significant improvement in total nasal symptoms, especially itching and sneezing (p < 0.0001), and mini-RQLQ after 4 weeks. IL-8 (p < 0.01), IL-33 (p < 0.01), and TSLP (p < 0.001) expression levels decreased after BYG treatment. In mice, administration of BYG reduced the number of goblet cells increased through KDP20 treatment. KDP20-induced immune biomarkers (IL-33, TSLP, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-8) were also significantly downregulated in the nasopharynx tissue after BYG treatment. Therefore, BYG may show therapeutic effects against allergic rhinitis in humans, and it was confirmed that the expression of PM-induced inflammatory factors in mice was decreased via BYG treatment.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329417

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 400 million people around the globe and caused millions of deaths. Since its identification in November 2021, Omicron, a highly transmissible variant, has become the dominant variant in most countries. Omicron highly mutated spike protein, the main target of vaccine development, significantly compromises the immune protection from current vaccination. We develop an mRNA vaccine (SOmicron-6P) based on an Omicron-specific sequence. In mice, SOmicron-6P shows superior neutralizing antibodies inducing abilities to a clinically approved inactivated virus vaccine, a clinically approved protein subunit vaccine, and an mRNA vaccine (SWT-2P) with the same sequence of BNT162b2 RNA. Significantly, SOmicron-6P induces a 14.4~27.7-fold and a 28.3~50.3-fold increase of neutralizing activity against the pseudovirus of Omicron and authentic Omicron compared to SWT-2P, respectively. In addition, two doses SOmicron-6P significantly protects Syrian hamsters against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and elicits high titers of nAbs in a dose-dependent manner in macaques. Our results suggest that SOmicron-6P offers advantages over current vaccines, and it will be helpful for those with weak immunity.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329211

ABSTRACT

Numerous mutations in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 Omicron variant pose a crisis for antibody-based immunotherapies. The efficacy of emergency use authorized (EUA) antibodies that developed in early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic seems to be in flounder. In this work, we examined the Omicron variant neutralization using an early B cell antibody repertoire as well as several EUA antibodies in pseudovirus and authentic virus systems. More than half of the antibodies in the repertoire that showed good activity against WA1/2020 previously had completely lost neutralizing activity against Omicron, while antibody 8G3 from our early B cell repertoire displayed non-regressive activity. EUA antibodies Etesevimab, Casirivimab, Imdevimab and Bamlanivimab neutralized authentic WA1/2020 virus with low half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values, but were entirely desensitized by Omicron. Only Sotrovimab targeting the non-ACE2 overlap epitope showed activity but with a dramatic decrease. Interestingly, antibody 8G3 efficiently neutralized Omicron in pseudovirus and authentic virus systems. 8G3 also showed excellent activity against other variants of concern (VOCs). Collectively, our results suggest that neutralizing antibodies with breadth remains broad neutralizing activity in tackling SARS-CoV-2 infection despite the universal evasion from EUA antibodies by Omicron variant.

9.
Gut ; 71(2): 238-253, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.


Subject(s)
Family Health , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter pylori , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult
10.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 51, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416822

ABSTRACT

To determine the prevalence and clinical features of olfactory and taste disorders among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in China. A cross-sectional study was performed in Wuhan from April 3, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-ups. We found that the prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly lower in the Chinese cohort than in foreign COVID-19 cohorts. Females were more prone to olfactory and taste disorders. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders precede other symptoms and can be used as early screening and warning signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360797

ABSTRACT

Hesperidin (HD) is a common flavanone glycoside isolated from citrus fruits and possesses great potential for cardiovascular protection. Hesperetin (HT) is an aglycone metabolite of HD with high bioavailability. Through the docking simulation, HD and HT have shown their potential to bind to two cellular proteins: transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which are required for the cellular entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Our results further found that HT and HD suppressed the infection of VeroE6 cells using lentiviral-based pseudo-particles with wild types and variants of SARS-CoV-2 with spike (S) proteins, by blocking the interaction between the S protein and cellular receptor ACE2 and reducing ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. In summary, hesperidin is a potential TMPRSS2 inhibitor for the reduction of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hesperidin/chemistry , Hesperidin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
13.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-426436

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to limit and stop the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic via quick development of efficient and safe vaccination methods. Plasmid DNA vaccines are one of the most remarkable vaccines that can be developed in a short term. pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co, which is a plasmid DNA vaccine, was designed to express severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. The produced antibodies lead to Immunoreactions against S protein, anti-receptor-binding-domain, and neutralizing action of pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co, as confirmed in a previous study. To promote the efficacy of the pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co vaccine, a pyro-drive jet injector (PJI) was employed. PJI is an injection device that can adjust the injection pressure depending on various target tissues. Intradermally-adjusted PJI demonstrated that pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co vaccine injection caused a strong production of anti-S protein antibodies, triggered immunoreactions and neutralizing actions against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, a high dose of pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co intradermal injection via PJI did not cause any serious disorders in the rat model. Finally, virus infection challenge in mice, confirmed that intradermally immunized (via PJI) mice were potently protected from COVID-19 infection. Thus, pVAX1-SARS-CoV2-co intradermal injection via PJI is a safe and promising vaccination method to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-170639

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters into the cells through its spike proteins binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein and causes virus infection in host cells. Until now, there are no available antiviral drugs have been reported that can effectively block virus infection. The study aimed to discover the potential compounds to prevent viral spike proteins to bind to the human ACE2 proteins from Taiwan Database of Extracts and Compounds (TDEC) by structure-based virtual screening. In this study, to rapidly discover potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, the molecular docking calculation was performed by AutoDock Vina program. Herein, we found that 39 potential compounds may have good binding affinities and can respectively bind to the viral receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein in the prefusion conformation and spike-ACE2 complex protein in silico. Among those compounds, especially natural products thioflexibilolide A and candidine that were respectively isolated from the soft corals Sinularia flexibilis and Phaius mishmensis may have better binding affinity than others. This study provided the predictions that these compounds may have the potential to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from entry into cells.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4327, 2020 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13346

ABSTRACT

Network analysis to examine infectious contact relations provides an important means to uncover the topologies of individual infectious contact networks. This study aims to investigate the spread of diseases among individuals over contact networks by exploring the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea. We present several distinct features of MERS transmission by employing a comprehensive approach in network research to examine both the traced relationship matrix of infected individuals and their bipartite transmission routes among healthcare facilities visited for treatment. The results indicate that a few super-spreaders were more likely to hold certain structural advantages by linking to an exceptional number of other individuals, causing several ongoing transmission events in neighbourhoods without the aid of any intermediary. Thus, the infectious contact network exhibited small-world dynamics characterised by locally clustered contacts exposed to transmission paths via short path lengths. In addition, nosocomial infection analysis shows the pattern of a common-source outbreak followed by secondary person-to-person transmission of the disease. Based on the results, we suggest policy implications related to the redesign of prevention and control strategies against the spread of epidemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Cross Infection/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
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