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J Med Virol ; 94(12): 6111-6115, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990499


Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) can cause acute respiratory diseases (ARDs) worldwide, and HAdV-55 is a reemergent pathogen in recent years. In the study, we investigated an outbreak of ARD at a school due to HAdV-55 in Beijing, China, during the early outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The epidemic prevention team was dispatched to the school to collect epidemiologic data and nasopharyngeal samples. Then, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and other respiratory pathogens, respectively. One representative HAdV-55 isolate was selected and submitted for whole-genome sequencing using a MiSeq system and the whole-genome phylogenetic tree was conducted based on the maximum likelihood method. The outbreak lasted from January 27 to February 6, 2020, and 108 students developed fever, among whom 60 (55.56%) cases were diagnosed with HAdV-55 infection in the laboratory using real-time PCR and 56 cases were hospitalized. All the confirmed cases had a fever and 11 cases (18.33%) presented with a fever above 39°C. Other main clinical symptoms included sore throat (43.33%) and headache (43.33%). We obtained and assembled the full genome of one isolate, BJ-446, with 34 761 nucleotides in length. HAdV-55 isolate BJ-446 was 99.85% identical to strain QS-DLL, which was the first HAdV-55 strain in China isolated from an ARD outbreak in Shanxi in 2006. One and four amino acid mutations were observed in the hexon gene and the coding region of L2 pV 40.1 kDa protein, respectively. We identified the first HAdV-55 infection associated with the ARD outbreak in Beijing since the emergence of COVID-19. The study suggests that improved surveillance of HAdV is needed, although COVID-19 is still prevalent in the world.

Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Amino Acids , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2782-2789, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882353


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. A total of 1578 patients admitted into a newly built hospital specialized for COVID-19 treatment in Wuhan, China, were enrolled. Clinical features and the levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG were analyzed. In total, 1532 patients (97.2%) were identified as laboratory-confirmed cases. Seventy-seven patients were identified as asymptomatic carriers (n = 64) or SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive before symptom onset (n = 13). The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were 80.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The median of IgM and IgG titers were 37.0A U/ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.4-81.1 AU/ml) and 156.9 AU/ml (IQR: 102.8-183.3 AU/ml), respectively. The IgM and IgG levels of asymptomatic patients (median titers, 8.3 AU/ml and 100.3 AU/ml) were much lower than those in symptomatic patients (median titers, 38.0 AU/ml and 158.2 AU/ml). A much lower IgG level was observed in critically ill patients 42-60 days after symptom onset. There were 153 patients with viral RNA shedding after IgG detection. These patients had a higher proportion of critical illness during hospitalization (p < .001) and a longer hospital stay (p < .001) compared to patients with viral clearance after IgG detection. Coronary heart disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.89 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.24]; p = .020), and intensive care unit admission (OR, 2.47 [95% CI, 1.31-4.66]; p = .005) were independent risk factors associated with viral RNA shedding after IgG detection. Symptomatic patients produced more antibodies than asymptomatic patients. The patients who had SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding after developing IgG were more likely to be sicker patients.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21865, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733317


RATIONALE: Recently, patients with COVID-19 who showed persistently positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results despite resolved clinical symptoms have attracted a lot of attention. We report the case of a patient with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), who achieved clinical recovery but showed persistently positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results until Day 92 after disease onset. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient is a 50-year-old man with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). DIAGNOSES: COVID-19 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was quarantined for 105 days. Of these, inpatient quarantine lasted for 75 days. When the nucleic acid test results were negative for 3 consecutive days, the patient was discharged at Day 75 after disease onset. During this period, multiple samples were collected from the patient's body surface, the surrounding environment, and physical surfaces, but none of these tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. These samples included those from anal swabs, hands, inner surface of mask, cell phone, bed rails, floor around the bed, and toilet bowl surface. However, nucleic acid retest results on Day 80 and Day 92 after disease onset were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. OUTCOMES: The patient continued with quarantine and observation at home. After the test results on Days 101 and 105 after disease onset were negative, quarantine was terminated at last. LESSONS: Per our knowledge, this is the longest known time that a patient has tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. No symptoms were observed during follow-up. During hospitalization, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positivity was not observed in samples from the body surface and surrounding environment, and no verified transmission event occurred during the quarantine at home. After undergoing clinical recovery a minority of patients with COVID-19 have shown long-term positive results for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. This has provided new understanding and research directions for coronavirus infection. Long-term follow-up and quarantine measures have been employed for such patients. Further studies are required to analyze potential infectivity in such patients and determine whether more effective antiviral drugs or regimens to enable these patients to completely clear viral infection should be researched.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors