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1.
Lancet ; 395(10236): 1569-1578, 2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. INTERPRETATION: In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits. However, the numerical reduction in time to clinical improvement in those treated earlier requires confirmation in larger studies. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19, National Key Research and Development Program of China, the Beijing Science and Technology Project.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Chest ; 158(1): 195-205, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, considerable attention has been focused on its elucidation. However, it is also important for clinicians and epidemiologists to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza viruses. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to explore the different clinical presentations between COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia in patients with ARDS. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis was a retrospective case-control study. Two independent cohorts of patients with ARDS infected with either COVID-19 (n = 73) or H1N1 (n = 75) were compared. Their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The median age of patients with COVID-19 was higher than that of patients with H1N1, and there was a higher proportion of male subjects among the H1N1 cohort (P < .05). Patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher proportions of nonproductive coughs, fatigue, and GI symptoms than those of patients with H1N1 (P < .05). Patients with H1N1 had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores than patients with COVID-19 (P < .05). The Pao2/Fio2 of 198.5 mm Hg in the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than the Pao2/Fio2 of 107.0 mm Hg in the H1N1 cohort (P < .001). Ground-glass opacities was more common in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with H1N1 (P < .001). There was a greater variety of antiviral therapies administered to COVID-19 patients than to H1N1 patients. The in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 was 28.8%, whereas that of patients with H1N1 was 34.7% (P = .483). SOFA score-adjusted mortality of H1N1 patients was significantly higher than that of COVID-19 patients, with a rate ratio of 2.009 (95% CI, 1.563-2.583; P < .001). INTERPRETATION: There were many differences in clinical presentations between patients with ARDS infected with either COVID-19 or H1N1. Compared with H1N1 patients, patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS had lower severity of illness scores at presentation and lower SOFA score-adjusted mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Hospital Mortality , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Symptom Assessment , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
5.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47800

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the death of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.All clinical and laboratory parameters were collected prospectively from a cohort of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were hospitalised to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China) between 25 December 2019 and 7 February 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥65 years (OR 3.765, 95% CI 1.146­17.394; p=0.023), pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases (OR 2.464, 95% CI 0.755­8.044; p=0.007), CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL−1 (OR 3.982, 95% CI 1.132­14.006; p<0.001) and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL−1 (OR 4.077, 95% CI 1.166­14.253; p<0.001) were associated with an increase in risk of mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia." has been corrected to: "Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥65 years (OR 3.765, 95% CI 1.201−11.803; p=0.023), pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases (OR 2.464, 95% CI 1.279−4.747; p=0.007), CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL−1 (OR 3.982, 95% CI 1.761­9.004; p<0.001) and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL−1 (OR 4.077, 95% CI 1.778­9.349; p<0.001) were associated with an increase in risk of mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia. In a sex-, age- and comorbid illness-matched case-control study, CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL-1 and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL-1 remained as predictors for high mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia.We identified four risk factors: age ≥65 years, pre-existing concurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, CD3+CD8+ T-cells ≤75 cells·µL-1 and cardiac troponin I ≥0.05 ng·mL-1 The latter two factors, especially, were predictors for mortality of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
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