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1.
Soc Work Health Care ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134034

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 struck the world violently and cause negative psychological consequences on health professionals. The preparedness of social workers for the pandemic is critical while facing these challenges and pressures. The study aimed to explore what are the roles of demographic, employment, and proximity to Covid-19 in predicting preparedness for the next wave of COVID among social workers in Taiwan. A total of 158 participants were conveniently sampled and multiple regression, univariate analysis, and two-way ANOVA were conducted. The results demonstrated that the demographic and employment variables significantly predicted preparedness, and there were significant differences among demographics on preparedness and an interaction effect between seniority and age. Consequently, middle-aged social workers with junior seniority years may have more difficulties in their preparation for the current situation. The implication of our findings is also discussed.

2.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 114, 2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is known as an important imaging indicator for cardiovascular risk stratification. The present study aimed to determine whether the EAT volume (EV) and mean EAT attenuation (mEA) measured by non-contrast routine chest CT (RCCT) could be more consistent with those measured by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by adjusting the threshold of fatty attenuation. METHODS: In total, 83 subjects who simultaneously underwent CCTA and RCCT were enrolled. EV and mEA were quantified by CCTA using a threshold of (N30) (- 190 HU, - 30 HU) as a reference and measured by RCCT using thresholds of N30, N40 (- 190 HU, - 40 HU), and N45 (- 190 HU, - 45 HU). The correlation and agreement of EAT metrics between the two imaging modalities and differences between patients with coronary plaques (plaque ( +)) and without plaques (plaque ( -)) were analyzed. RESULTS: EV obtained from RCCT showed very strong correlation with the reference (r = 0.974, 0.976, 0.972 (N30, N40, N45), P < 0.001), whereas mEA showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.516, 0.500, 0.477 (N30, N40, N45), P < 0.001). Threshold adjustment was able to reduce the bias of EV, while increase the bias of mEA. Data obtained by CCTA and RCCT both demonstrated a significantly larger EV in the plaque ( +) group than in the plaque ( -) group (P < 0.05). A significant difference in mEA was shown only by RCCT using a threshold of N30 (plaque ( +) vs ( -): - 80.0 ± 4.4 HU vs - 78.0 ± 4.0 HU, P = 0.030). The mEA measured on RCCT using threshold of N40 and N45 showed no significant statistical difference between the two groups (P = 0.092 and 0.075), which was consistent with the result obtained on CCTA (P = 0.204). CONCLUSION: Applying more negative threshold, the consistency of EV measurements between the two techniques improves and a consistent result can be obtained when comparing EF measurements between groups, although the bias of mEA increases. Threshold adjustment is necessary when measuring EF with non-contrast RCCT.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911333

ABSTRACT

Existing literature on the associations between use of mobile applications (i.e., mobile apps) and loneliness among older adults (OAs) has been mainly conducted before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Since mobile apps have been increasingly used by OAs during the pandemic, subsequent effects on social and emotional loneliness need updated investigation. This paper examines the relationship between mobile app use and loneliness among Hong Kong's OAs during the pandemic. In our research, 364 OAs with current use experience of mobile apps were interviewed through a questionnaire survey conducted during July and August 2021, which assessed the use frequency and duration of 14 mobile app types and levels of emotional and social loneliness. The survey illustrated communication (e.g., WhatsApp) and information apps were the most commonly used. Emotional loneliness was associated with the use of video entertainment (frequency and duration), instant communication (duration), and information apps (duration). Association between video entertainment apps' use and emotional loneliness was stronger among older and less educated OAs. Our findings highlight the distinctive relationships between different types of apps and loneliness among Hong Kong's OAs during the pandemic, which warrant further exploration via research into post-pandemic patterns and comparative studies in other regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 232, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878520

ABSTRACT

During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is universally susceptible to all types of populations. In addition to the elderly and children becoming the groups of great concern, pregnant women carrying new lives need to be even more alert to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Studies have shown that pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 can lead to brain damage and post-birth psychiatric disorders in offspring. It has been widely recognized that SARS-CoV-2 can affect the development of the fetal nervous system directly or indirectly. Pregnant women are recommended to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on the fetus through vaccination, nutritional supplements, and psychological support. This review summarizes the possible mechanisms of the nervous system effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on their offspring during the pregnancy and analyzes the available prophylactic and treatment strategies to improve the prognosis of fetal-related neuropsychiatric diseases after birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Nervous System , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anal Chem ; 94(22): 8041-8049, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864719

ABSTRACT

It is intriguing to modulate the fluorescence emission of DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) via confined strand displacement and transient concatenate ligation for amplifiable biosensing of a DNA segment related to SARS-CoV-2 (s2DNA). Herein, three stem-loop structural hairpins for signaling, recognizing, and assisting are designed to assemble a variant three-way DNA device (3WDD) with the aid of two linkers, in which orange-emitting AgNC (oAgNC) is stably clustered and populated in the closed loop of a hairpin reporter. The presence of s2DNA initiates the toehold-mediated strand displacement that is confined in this 3WDD for repeatable recycling amplification, outputting numerous hybrid DNA-duplex conformers that are implemented for a transient "head-tail-head" tandem ligation one by one. As a result, the oAgNC-hosted hairpin loops are quickly opened in loose coil motifs, bringing a significant fluorescence decay of multiple clusters dependent on s2DNA. Demonstrations and understanding of the tunable spectral performance of a hairpin loop-wrapped AgNC via switching 3WDD conformation would be highly beneficial to open a new avenue for applicable biosensing, bioanalysis, or clinical diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , DNA/chemistry , DNA/genetics , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2076523, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852829

ABSTRACT

Vaccine uptake rate is crucial for herd immunity. Medical care workers (MCWs) can serve as ambassadors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to assess MCWs' willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and to explore the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. A multicenter study among medical care workers was conducted in seven selected hospitals from seven geographical territories of China, and data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine hesitancy, and health beliefs on COVID-19 vaccination among participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to explore the correlations between individual factors and the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the 2681 subjects, 82.5% of the participants were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that individuals with more cues to action about the vaccination, higher level of confidence about the vaccine, and higher level of trust in the recommendations of COVID-19 vaccine from the government and the healthcare system were more likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast, subjects with higher level of perceived barriers and complacency were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, MCWs in China showed a high willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine. The governmental recommendation is an important driver and lead of vaccination. Relevant institutions could increase MCWs' willingness to COVID-19 vaccines by increasing MCWs' perception of confidence about COVID-19 vaccines and cues to action through various strategies and channels. Meanwhile, it can also provide evidence in similar circumstances in the future to develop vaccine promotion strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
7.
Anal Chem ; 94(18): 6703-6710, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815468

ABSTRACT

Ratiometric assays of label-free dual-signaling reporters with enzyme-free amplification are intriguing yet challenging. Herein, yellow- and red-silver nanocluster (yH-AgNC and rH-AgNC) acting as bicolor ratiometric emitters are guided to site-specifically cluster in two template signaling hairpins (yH and rH), respectively, and originally, both of them are almost non-fluorescent. The predesigned complement tethered in yH is recognizable to a DNA trigger (TOC) related to SARS-CoV-2. With the help of an enhancer strand (G15E) tethering G-rich bases (G15) and a linker strand (LS), a switchable DNA construct is assembled via their complementary hybridizing with yH and rH, in which the harbored yH-AgNC close to G15 is lighted-up. Upon introducing TOC, its affinity ligating with yH is further implemented to unfold rH and induce the DNA construct switching into closed conformation, causing TOC-repeatable recycling amplification through competitive strand displacement. Consequently, the harbored rH-AgNC is also placed adjacent to G15 for turning on its red fluorescence, while the yH-AgNC is retainable. As demonstrated, the intensity ratio dependent on varying TOC is reliable with high sensitivity down to 0.27 pM. By lighting-up dual-cluster emitters using one G15 enhancer, it would be promising to exploit a simpler ratiometric biosensing format for bioassays or clinical theranostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 103: 19-27, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773120

ABSTRACT

The global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the lasting pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the post-acute phase sequelae of heterogeneous negative impacts in multiple systems known as the "long COVID." The mechanisms of neuropsychiatric complications of long COVID are multifactorial, including long-term tissue damages from direct CNS viral involvement, unresolved systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, maladaptation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and coagulation system, dysregulated immunity, the dysfunction of neurotransmitters and hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, and the psychosocial stress imposed by societal changes in response to this pandemic. The strength of safety, well-acceptance, and accumulating scientific evidence has now afforded nutritional medicine a place in the mainstream of neuropsychiatric intervention and prophylaxis. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 or n-3 PUFAs) might have favorable effects on immunity, inflammation, oxidative stress and psychoneuroimmunity at different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omega-3 PUFAs, particularly EPA, have shown effects in treating mood and neurocognitive disorders by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, altering the HPA axis, and modulating neurotransmission via lipid rafts. In addition, omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, including specialized pro-resolvin mediators, accelerate the process of cleansing chronic inflammation and restoring tissue homeostasis, and therefore offer a promising strategy for Long COVID. In this article, we explore in a systematic review the putative molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites counteract the negative effects of long COVID on the brain, behavior, and immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , COVID-19/complications , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pituitary-Adrenal System , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(3): 102, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766335

ABSTRACT

At present, there are seven known types of human coronaviruses (HCoVs), which can be further divided into two categories: low pathogenic and highly pathogenic. The low pathogenic HCoVs infect the upper respiratory tract, mainly causing mild, cold-like respiratory diseases. By contrast, highly pathogenic HCoVs mainly infect the lower respiratory tract and cause fatal types of pneumonia, which include severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), as well as the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Highly pathogenic HCoV infection has a high morbidity and mortality, which is usually related to the strong immune response induced by highly proinflammatory cytokines, which is also known as "cytokine storm". Therefore, it is particularly important to explore the role of cytokine storm in the process of highly pathogenic HCoV infection. We review the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of highly pathogenic HCoV infection, and reveal the pathology of cytokine storm and its role in the process of highly pathogenic HCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(11): 2356-2359, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650411

ABSTRACT

An outbreak occurred in Wanhua District of Taipei City. It was traced to a cluster infection originating from a teahouse. To prevent further large-scaled community spread, the Taipei City Government established the first community rapid test screening station. This report describes the station's strategy and performance and key factors that contributed to its operation. The project involves collaboration among various departments of Taipei City Government, including the health, environmental, police, transportation, and fire departments. The station provides rapid screening, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and immediate isolation and follow-up medical services upon the detection of a positive case. These services are accessible to local residents and are intended to ease hospitals' burdens. In 36 days, a total of 8532 people were tested, and 419 confirmed cases were identified. Over the same period, the weekly number of positive cases in Wanhua District decreased from 356 to 40, and the PCR positive rate decreased from 21.7% to 1.2%. The policy of establishing rapid screening station, contact tracing and mask wearing policy are key strategies for interrupting chains of transmission of COVID-19. This intervention has become a model for preventing the spread of the epidemic and establishing community rapid screening stations in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening , Policy
12.
Health Commun ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649252

ABSTRACT

Motivation-based message appeals and incidental emotions have the potential to encourage COVID-19 vaccination, especially when the motivation components of the two agree. Risk perception may also interact with self vs. other-oriented message appeals. Results from a 2 (message appeal) × 4 (incidental emotion) online experiment (N = 306) indicate that when exposed to an altruistic message, those who experienced self-transcendent emotions reported higher COVID vaccination intention than those amused or not induced with emotions. This effect, however, was not identified in the egoistic message condition. Risk perception was positively associated with self-vaccination intention but did not interact with message appeals. The main effect of risk perception and interaction effects between incidental emotions and message appeals provide important implications for addressing vaccine hesitancy and increasing vaccine uptake.

13.
Agriculture ; 12(1):99, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1639253

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, global food production and transportation have been largely impacted. Meanwhile, consumers have purchased and stockpiled large quantities of foods due to panic in the early stage of the pandemic, which has resulted in a lot of uneaten, expired foods and has reduced the varieties of foods available in the markets. Due to the lower prices, some consumers have chosen to buy those foods with an earlier production time or inferior quality (suboptimal foods), and the purchase rate of suboptimal foods has increased. Therefore, this study investigated consumer behavior during the pandemic as the research focus, explored the main dimensions that affect consumers’ purchasing of suboptimal foods during the COVID-19 pandemic, tested their correlations, and proposed suggestions for improvement. The results of this study showed that the impacts of Perceived Benefits on Attitude Toward Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Subject Norm rank 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in importance, respectively, which are all higher than the related impact of Environmental Concerns. For consumers, the most important thing is whether suboptimal foods have consumption motivation for them, which is also the most direct way to make consumers feel the value of suboptimal foods. Furthermore, for consumers, while the environmentally friendly attributes of suboptimal foods are less perceptible than the economic motivations, they still have considerable influence on consumers, and this is even more prominent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many families have experienced a shock to their income during the pandemic, and consumers are more sensitive and concerned about commodity prices, which also makes lower-priced and more abundant suboptimal foods more popular. However, in the long term, suboptimal foods can have a positive impact on reducing food waste and protecting the environment. When consumers realize this, they will be more motivated to purchase and try suboptimal foods.

14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 443-452, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599196

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness about various environmental issues, including PM2.5 pollution. Here, PM2.5 pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown was traced and analyzed to clarify the sources and factors influencing PM2.5 in Guangzhou, with an emphasis on heavy pollution. The lockdown led to large reductions in industrial and traffic emissions, which significantly reduced PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou. Interestingly, the trend of PM2.5 concentrations was not consistent with traffic and industrial emissions, as minimum concentrations were observed in the fourth period (3/01-3/31, 22.45 µg/m3) of the lockdown. However, the concentrations of other gaseous pollutants, e.g., SO2, NO2 and CO, were correlated with industrial and traffic emissions, and the lowest values were noticed in the second period (1/24-2/03) of the lockdown. Meteorological correlation analysis revealed that the decreased PM2.5 concentrations during COVID-19 can be mainly attributed to decreased industrial and traffic emissions rather than meteorological conditions. When meteorological factors were included in the PM2.5 composition and backward trajectory analyses, we found that long-distance transportation and secondary pollution offset the reduction of primary emissions in the second and third stages of the pandemic. Notably, industrial PM2.5 emissions from western, southern and southeastern Guangzhou play an important role in the formation of heavy pollution events. Our results not only verify the importance of controlling traffic and industrial emissions, but also provide targets for further improvements in PM2.5 pollution.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009704, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484866

ABSTRACT

Development of effective therapeutics for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing global need. Neutralizing antibodies are known to be effective antivirals, as they can be rapidly deployed to prevent disease progression and can accelerate patient recovery without the need for fully developed host immunity. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a series of chimeric antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Some of these antibodies exhibit exceptionally potent neutralization activities in vitro and in vivo, and the most potent of our antibodies target three distinct non-overlapping epitopes within the RBD. Cryo-electron microscopy analyses of two highly potent antibodies in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein suggested they may be particularly useful when combined in a cocktail therapy. The efficacy of this antibody cocktail was confirmed in SARS-CoV-2-infected mouse and hamster models as prophylactic and post-infection treatments. With the emergence of more contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2, cocktail antibody therapies hold great promise to control disease and prevent drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mice
16.
Journal of Risk Research ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1334093
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 671663, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323088

ABSTRACT

Career sustainability is a well-researched issue in academics and other sectors. Technology advancements and COVID-19 have jeopardized career sustainability. Numerous studies have explored the influence of individual characteristics on career sustainability, but few have focused on leadership. In addition, cultural factors must be considered because leadership is rooted in culture. In particular, inclusive leadership reflects traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, based on self-determination social exchange theories, we analyzed the effects of inclusive leadership on career sustainability as well as the roles of thriving at work and supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) in career sustainability. In total, 363 samples were collected from China. The results revealed that inclusive leadership improves career sustainability through SDF and thriving at work. Theoretically, our study fills the research gap and establishes a mechanism and theoretical framework for inclusive leadership and career sustainability. Practically, we offer guidance for enterprises to cultivate inclusive leadership and improve career sustainability.

18.
Science Communication ; 42(5):616-642, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1309886

ABSTRACT

The study examined the psychological drivers of information-seeking behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Employing a two-wave (from April 16, 2020, to April 27, 2020) survey design (N = 381), the study confirmed that both risk perceptions and uncertainty were important antecedents to information seeking and that their effects were linked to emotional appraisals of the risk situation. Findings revealed nuanced relationships between these two constructs and emotional appraisals. Danger appraisal was positively associated with perceived susceptibility and susceptibility uncertainty but negatively related to severity uncertainty;hope appraisal depended on the interaction between uncertainty and risk perceptions. Implications of the study findings on risk and health communication were discussed.

19.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 694446, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295669

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is one of the most devastating pandemics in history. SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 100 million people worldwide, leading to more than 3.5 million deaths. Initially, the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection were thought to be restricted to the respiratory system. However, further studies have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 can also afflict multiple other organs, including the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. The number of gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations after SARS-CoV-2 infection has been rapidly increasing. Most importantly, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 often exhibit comorbid symptoms in the gastrointestinal and neurological systems. This review aims to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms of neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 may affect the nervous system by invading the gastrointestinal system. We hope that this review can provide novel ideas for the clinical treatment of the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and references for developing prevention and treatment strategies.

20.
Sustainability ; 13(9):4937, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1238975

ABSTRACT

To discover how the lacquerware industry realizes its core competency, it is important to explore its upgrading strategies in the global value chains. The purpose of this study is to discuss the upgrading strategies applied during the lacquerware industry’s four economic stages and the approach to realize the industry’s sustainability. Results show that (1) OEM enterprises reach process upgrading with four strategies, ODM enterprises reach product upgrading with five strategies, OBM enterprises reach functional upgrading with four strategies, and OSM enterprises reach chain upgrading with two strategies;(2) the lacquerware industry‘s main elements in SSCM include the long-standing relations, reprocessing of defective products, employing the local community, and participation in regional and transregional development initiatives, wherein the design sector is the main link in the SSCM of the lacquerware. The result and implications provided by this study can serve as a reference for other lacquerware and local traditional handicraft industries that are seeking to upgrade and achieve sustainability during their economic development.

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