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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(5): e35764, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Latino communities are among the most heavily impacted populations by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States due to intersectional barriers to care. Crowdsourcing open contests can be an effective means of community engagement but have not been well studied in Latino populations nor in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to (1) implement and evaluate a crowdsourcing open contest to solicit a name for a COVID-19 social marketing campaign for Latino populations in Maryland and (2) conduct a thematic analysis of submitted entries to guide campaign messaging. METHODS: To assess the level of community engagement in this crowdsourcing open contest, we used descriptive statistics to analyze data on entries, votes, and demographic characteristics of participants. The submitted text was analyzed through inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: We received 74 entries within a 2-week period. The top 10 entries were chosen by community judges and the winner was decided by popular vote. We received 383 votes within 1 week. The most common themes were collective efficacy, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits of COVID-19 testing. We used these themes to directly inform our social marketing intervention and found that advertisements based on these themes became the highest performing. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing open contests are an effective means of community engagement and an agile tool for guiding interventions to address COVID-19, including in populations impacted by health care disparities, such as Latino communities. The thematic analysis of contest entries can be a valuable strategy to inform the development of social marketing campaign materials.

2.
IEEE Transactions on Automation Science & Engineering ; 19(2):646-662, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1788781

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic causing millions of deaths, devastating social and economic disruptions. Testing individuals for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, is critical for mitigating and containing COVID-19. Many countries are implementing group testing strategies against COVID-19 to improve testing capacity and efficiency while saving required workloads and consumables. A group of individuals’ nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab samples is mixed to conduct one test. However, existing group testing methods neglect the fact that mixing samples usually leads to substantial dilution of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2, which seriously impacts the sensitivity of tests. In this paper, we aim to screen individuals infected with COVID-19 with as few tests as possible, under the premise that the sensitivity of tests is high enough. To achieve this goal, we propose an Adaptive Group Testing (AdaGT) method. By collecting information on the number of positive and negative samples that have been identified during the screening process, the AdaGT method can estimate the ratio of positive samples in real-time. Based on this ratio, the AdaGT algorithm adjusts its testing strategy adaptively between an individual testing strategy and a group testing strategy. The group size of the group testing strategy is carefully selected to guarantee that the sensitivity of each test is higher than a predetermined threshold and that this group contains at most one positive sample on average. Theoretical performance analysis on the AdaGT algorithm is provided and then validated in experiments. Experimental results also show that the AdaGT algorithm outperforms existing methods in terms of efficiency and sensitivity. Note to Practitioners—Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) tests provide scope for automation and are one of the most widely used laboratory methods for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This paper is motivated by the following challenges: (1) Many countries are experiencing an acute shortage of professionals and consumables for conducting rRT-PCR tests;(2) Group sizes of existing group testing methods against COVID-19 may not be optimal, which adversely impacts the efficiency of the screening of the SARS-CoV-2 virus;(3) Existing group testing methods do not consider the fact that the sensitivity of rRT-PCR tests usually decreases with the group size. The objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of large-scale screening against COVID-19. For achieving this goal, we propose an Adaptive Group Testing (AdaGT) algorithm, which has the following advantages: (1) It can improve the efficiency for screening the SARS-CoV-2 virus, mainly by adaptively adjusting its testing strategy between an individual testing strategy and a group testing strategy based upon an estimated ratio of positive samples during the screening process;(2) It can guarantee a high sensitivity of the rRT-PCR tests by determining the group sizes of the group testing strategy based upon some constraints;(3) We derive an appropriate threshold for the estimated ratio of positive samples such that the AdaGT algorithm can achieve a minimum average number of rRT-PCR tests and can be directly employed in practical applications. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of IEEE Transactions on Automation Science & Engineering is the property of IEEE and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262472, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some of community mitigation efforts on COVID-19 created challenges to ongoing public health programs, including HIV care and prevention services among men who have sex with men (MSM). The goal of the current study was to explore sociodemographic factors and the impact of COVID-19 on HIV testing among Chinese MSM during state-enforced quarantine. METHODS: We conducted a community based survey between May 1st to June 30th, 2020 on COVID-19 related impacts on HIV testing among 436 China MSM during the COVID-19 state-enforced quarantine. RESULTS: One-third (33.7%) of MSM received HIV testing during the quarantine period. Few participants reported difficulty accessing facility-based testing (n = 13, 3.0%) or obtaining HIV self-test kit online (n = 22, 5.0%). However, 12.1% of participants reported being afraid of getting facility-based HIV test due to concerns about the risk of COVID-19. In the multivariate logistic regression model, participants who were married (aOR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.19-3.01), reported increased quality of sleep (aOR: 2.07, 95%CI: 1.11-3.86), and increased difficulty in accessing health care (aOR: 2.34, 95%CI: 1.37-3.99) were more likely to get an HIV test during the state-enforced quarantine. CONCLUSION: The mitigation measures of COVID-19 have created various barriers to access HIV related prevention services in China, including HIV testing. To mitigate these impacts on HIV prevention and care services, future programs need to address barriers to HIV-related services, such as providing high-quality HIV self-testing. Meanwhile, psychological services or other social services are needed to those experiencing mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211072149, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625804

ABSTRACT

Many countries worldwide have implemented dedicated measures, such as shelter at home, to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. However, those mitigation measures may have major implications for individuals living with someone abusive or controlling. Domestic violence (DV) may be one of the unintended consequences of public health measures due to increased various stressors and reduced access to support and services. There has been a lack of empirical research on DV victimization among gender and sexual minorities, a population vulnerable to interpersonal violence and its associated adverse health outcomes. This study investigates the prevalence of DV victimization among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jiangsu Province, China, during the COVID-19 lockdown and its correlates with COVID-19-related psychosocial and health stressors. A total of 413 MSM were recruited via snowball sampling, venue-based, and internet-based sampling from four cities in Jiangsu Province. After providing informed consent, all participants completed study questionnaires, followed by HIV testing. Over a quarter of the participants (27.4%) reported DV victimization during the COVID-19 lockdown, including experience of verbal, physical, or sexual abuse. After adjusting sociodemographic factors, DV victimization was associated with various adverse experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown, including increased stress or anxiety level, increased alcohol use, and housing instability. Study findings underscore the prevalence of DV victimization among MSM during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The results can inform public health efforts to raise awareness and address DV victimization among MSM in the low- and middle-income country context during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adequate health and social services and economic resources are also critical to address the needs of MSM experiencing DV victimization.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295297

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of new variants in the COVID-19 pandemic has led to new requirements for vaccines, with a focus on the capacity of vaccines to elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies with specific recognition of S antigen variants based on the characterized vaccines licensed for use. A new strategy involving a heterologous vaccine composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a boost with the S1 protein with mutations (K-S) administered via the intradermal route was designed in this work and was found to improve immune efficacy by increasing neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against 5 variants of the RBD peptide. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that the both schedules of “1+1” and “2+1” administration ensured a clinical protective effect against this strain. All of these results not only suggested the feasibility of our strategy for protecting against new variants but also provided a technical pathway to enhance the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.

7.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(12): 2769-2773, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330368

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thromboembolic complications due to COVID-19 are common in patients requiring critical care and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical manifestations and postoperative outcomes after colectomy for COVID-19-associated colonic ischemia in the first versus the second wave of the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 at our institution between 1 March 2020 and 31 January 2021 was performed. All patients with severe COVID-19, requiring critical care and surgical treatment of colonic ischemia, were included. The main outcomes were surgical complications and mortality rate. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were included of whom 20 (10.5%) patients underwent surgery for colon ischemia. Preoperatively, D-dimer was elevated, especially in the first wave (median 15.24 (interquartile range 6.00-32.00) vs. 2.09 (1.42-4.28) mg/L, p = 0.025). Twelve (60%) patients underwent a (sub)total colectomy, 7 (35%) a right hemicolectomy, and one patient (5%) an ileocecal resection. Grade 3b complications occurred in one of 5 patients (20%) in the first and in 9 of 15 patients (60%) in the second wave. The overall in-hospital mortality was similar in both waves (40% vs. 47%), with death occurring after a median stay of 21 days. CONCLUSION: In this cohort study of patients with severe COVID-19 and colonic ischemia, clinical presentation and laboratory findings varied. However, the majority of patients required (sub)total colectomy. Despite a lower threshold to surgery in the second wave, mortality remained high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Colectomy , Colon/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Prev Sci ; 22(8): 1013-1022, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315354

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study are to (1) characterize patterns of preventive behaviors 3 months after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared a national emergency in the USA and (2) identify how health beliefs (e.g., perceived risk of infection, perceived risk of death upon infection, and perceived effectiveness of CDC-recommended preventive behaviors) and sociodemographic characteristics are associated with preventive behaviors. Data were obtained from two waves of the Understanding America Study (UAS) conducted in March (wave 1) and May to June of 2020 (wave 2) (n = 4445); UAS is a nationally representative panel of US adults. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) using wave 2 data to identify our outcome, patterns of 10 COVID-preventive behaviors (e.g., wearing a facemask, handwashing, social distancing), and then used a three-step regression (R3STEP) to test associations between the likelihood of class membership with (1) health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment) in bivariate models and (2) health beliefs adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics in multivariate models. The LCA identified a three-class model of preventive behaviors characterized by high likelihood of engagement in the set of preventive behaviors ("high"), low likelihood of the preventive behaviors ("low"), or engagement in some behaviors ("mixed"). Respondents of older age (i.e., age 50 or older) and those with higher levels of educational attainment (i.e., a 4-year college degree or higher) were less likely to be in the low engagement versus the mixed engagement class compared to those who are younger (18-29) and have lower levels of educational attainment (i.e., high school), respectively. Women (compared to men) and respondents who were Black and/or Hispanic/Latinx (compared to White) were more likely to be in the high (vs. mixed) engagement class. In separate models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, respondents with a high perceived risk of infection, high perceived risk of death, and high perceived effectiveness of COVID-preventive behaviors were statistically significantly less likely to be in the low engagement relative to the mixed engagement class. Engagement in COVID-preventive behaviors varies by sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment) and health beliefs (i.e., perceived risk of infection, perceived risk of death, and perceived effectiveness of CDC-recommended behaviors). Our findings highlight the potential utility of using health beliefs to inform targeted prevention efforts to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194608

ABSTRACT

There is a critical need for the public to have trusted sources of vaccine information. A longitudinal online study assessed trust in COVID-19 vaccine information from 10 sources. A factor analysis for data reduction revealed two factors. The first factor contained politically conservative sources (PCS) of information. The second factor included eight news sources representing mainstream sources (MS). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. Trust in Dr. Fauci was also examined. High trust in MS was associated with intention to encourage family members to get COVID-19 vaccines, altruistic beliefs that more vulnerable people should have vaccine priority, and belief that racial minorities with higher rates of COVID-19 deaths should have priority. High trust in PCS was associated with intention to discourage friends from getting vaccinated. Higher trust in PCS was also associated with participants more likely to disagree that minorities with higher rates of COVID-19 deaths should have priority for a vaccine. High trust in Dr. Fauci as a source of COVID-19 vaccine information was associated with factors similar to high trust in MS. Fair, equitable, and transparent access and distribution are essential to ensure trust in public health systems' abilities to serve the population.

10.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 161-169, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070034

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to impact countries worldwide. At present, inadequate diagnosis and unreliable evaluation systems hinder the implementation and development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Here, we conducted a horizontal and longitudinal study comparing the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different types of samples collected from COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys. We also detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the above clinical and animal model samples to identify a reliable approach for the accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that, regardless of clinical symptoms, the highest detection levels of viral nucleic acid were found in sputum and tracheal brush samples, resulting in a high and stable diagnosis rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies were not detected in 6.90% of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, integration of nucleic acid detection results from the various sample types did not improve the diagnosis rate. Moreover, dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral load were more obvious in sputum and tracheal brushes than in nasal and throat swabs. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in sputum and tracheal brushes was the least affected by infection route, disease progression, and individual differences. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using lower respiratory tract samples alone is reliable for COVID-19 diagnosis and study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/veterinary , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Disease Models, Animal , Haplorhini , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pharynx/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Specimen Handling , Sputum/virology
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 294, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997816

ABSTRACT

Understanding the processes of immune regulation in patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for improving treatment. Here, we performed longitudinal whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from 18 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during their treatment, convalescence, and rehabilitation. After analyzing the regulatory networks of differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) between the different clinical stages, we found that humoral immunity and type I interferon response were significantly downregulated, while robust T-cell activation and differentiation at the whole transcriptome level constituted the main events that occurred during recovery from COVID-19. The formation of this T cell immune response might be driven by the activation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) related signaling pathway and was weakly affected by other clinical features. These findings uncovered the dynamic pattern of immune responses and indicated the key role of T cell immunity in the creation of immune protection against this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics
13.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-618

ABSTRACT

Background: Until now, the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused wide dissemination in China and other 72 countries, affecting more than 90,000 peoples

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