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1.
Psychology in the Schools ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1772834

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the compensating mediating mechanism of resilience in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in Thai and Chinese college students during a risk period of coronavirus disease 2019 transmission. A total of 262 Thai and 247 Chinese college students were enrolled in the study between December 2020 and January 2021. A measurement model was constructed with the items of loneliness, resilience, and life satisfaction by using structural equation models. Subsequently, structural mediating models were constructed according to the valid items and a multigroup comparison was performed. The relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction differed significantly between Thai and Chinese college students as a result of the mediating effect of resilience. Resilience in Thai college students partly compensated for the negative influence of loneliness on life satisfaction, and resilience in Chinese college students compensated completely for the negative influence of loneliness on life satisfaction.

2.
J Virol ; : e0016922, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330238

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, China. It has since put global public health institutions on high alert. People reduced their traveling, and production has stopped nationwide during the epidemic. This paper explores the effect of these COVID-19-derived changes on the air quality in China. Air quality data of 367 cities around China were included. The daily air pollutants concentration (AQI,CO, O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , PM10, and PM2.5) were collected. We compared the air quality changes between three periods (23.1.2019-23.3.2019, 22.11.2019-22.1.2020, and 23.1.2020–23.3.2020). To compare, we calculated the daily average number of cities with pollution, and the trend in air quality index change. Furthermore, Air quality in the top 50 cities with confirmed cases and Wuhan was analyzed. During the period between 23.1.2020 and 23.3.2020, the number of cities with excellent air quality was significantly higher than that in another two periods. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and O 3 decreased significantly during the COVID-19 epidemic. The most significant decreases were in PM10 and NO 2 . The number of cities with good air quality in the later period was significantly higher than that a year before. The air quality has improved significantly during the COVID-19 outbreak, The reason for this change may be human activities such as reduced transportation and production stoppage.

5.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733073

ABSTRACT

Due to the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and consequent confinement measures, young people are vulnerable to mental health problems. The current study compared a group of 440 young adolescents (10–12 years) and a group of 330 emerging adults (18–25 years) to investigate the extent to which perceived social support and psychological capital (PsyCap) were differentially associated with mental health problems. Participants were asked to report their current psychosocial adaptation status during the COVID-19 pandemic, and data were collected via online questionnaires during a relatively severe period of COVID-19 in China. Results of the multi-group path analysis indicated that the effect of perceived social support on mental health problems was mediated by PsyCap for young adolescents, but not for emerging adults. These results were discussed with respect to the mechanism of how social support and PsyCap serve as protective mental health factors for youth in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324830

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic coronaviruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1,2 , Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 3,4 , and SARS-CoV-1 5 vary in their transmissibility and pathogenicity. However, infection by all three viruses result in substantial apoptosis in cell culture 6-8 and in patient samples 9-11 , suggesting a potential link between apoptosis and the pathogenesis of coronaviruses. To date, the underlying mechanism of how apoptosis modulates coronavirus pathogenesis is unknown. Here we show that a cysteine-aspartic protease of the apoptosis cascade, caspase-6, serves as an essential host factor for efficient coronavirus replication. We demonstrate that caspase-6 cleaves coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) proteins, generating N fragments that serve as interferon (IFN) antagonists, thus facilitating virus replication. Inhibition of caspase-6 substantially attenuates the lung pathology and body weight loss of SARS-CoV-2-infected golden Syrian hamsters and improves the survival of mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERS-CoV MA )-infected human DPP4 knock-in (hDPP4 KI) mice. Overall, our study reveals how coronaviruses exploit a component of the host apoptosis cascade to facilitate their replication. These results further suggest caspase-6 as a potential target of intervention for the treatment of highly pathogenic coronavirus infections including COVID-19 and MERS.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324450

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has led to urgent needs for reliable diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a complimentary tool, chest CT has been shown to be able to reveal visual patterns characteristic for COVID-19, which has definite value at several stages during the disease course. To facilitate CT analysis, recent efforts have focused on computer-aided characterization and diagnosis, which has shown promising results. However, domain shift of data across clinical data centers poses a serious challenge when deploying learning-based models. In this work, we attempt to find a solution for this challenge via federated and semi-supervised learning. A multi-national database consisting of 1704 scans from three countries is adopted to study the performance gap, when training a model with one dataset and applying it to another. Expert radiologists manually delineated 945 scans for COVID-19 findings. In handling the variability in both the data and annotations, a novel federated semi-supervised learning technique is proposed to fully utilize all available data (with or without annotations). Federated learning avoids the need for sensitive data-sharing, which makes it favorable for institutions and nations with strict regulatory policy on data privacy. Moreover, semi-supervision potentially reduces the annotation burden under a distributed setting. The proposed framework is shown to be effective compared to fully supervised scenarios with conventional data sharing instead of model weight sharing.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324449

ABSTRACT

(1)Background: To perform a simulation-based analysis of 2019 COVID-19 outbreak and how would the electronic commerce indursty help China’s economy resilient. (2)Methods: As the epidemic continues, it is possible to use Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the economic consequences and analyse the role of electronic commerce industy in COVID-19 outbreak. (3)Results: Estimates and models produced at the time of the outbreak suggested that COVID-19 could have a catastrophic effect on China’s economy. National statistics were examined for anomalies that corresponded to the timing of COVID-19 outbreak and, where possible, the size of any gain or loss found estimated. Our analysis suggests that the electronic commerce industry could help China’s economy to recover by stimulating consumption, improving technological level and expanding investment. (4)Conclusions: This exercise holds important lessons for estimating the electronic commerce’s role of similar events – such as pandemic influenza – and measures to recover the economy. We suggest that electronic commerce industry should be paid more attention in economic development, especially in epidemic time. The implications of our findings are discussed in the light of a prospective epidemic.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324216

ABSTRACT

Federated learning (FL) enables collaborative model training while preserving each participant's privacy, which is particularly beneficial to the medical field. FedAvg is a standard algorithm that uses fixed weights, often originating from the dataset sizes at each client, to aggregate the distributed learned models on a server during the FL process. However, non-identical data distribution across clients, known as the non-i.i.d problem in FL, could make this assumption for setting fixed aggregation weights sub-optimal. In this work, we design a new data-driven approach, namely Auto-FedAvg, where aggregation weights are dynamically adjusted, depending on data distributions across data silos and the current training progress of the models. We disentangle the parameter set into two parts, local model parameters and global aggregation parameters, and update them iteratively with a communication-efficient algorithm. We first show the validity of our approach by outperforming state-of-the-art FL methods for image recognition on a heterogeneous data split of CIFAR-10. Furthermore, we demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness on two multi-institutional medical image analysis tasks, i.e., COVID-19 lesion segmentation in chest CT and pancreas segmentation in abdominal CT.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321467

ABSTRACT

Mice are not susceptible to wildtype SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and P.3 contain mutations in spike, which have been suggested to associate with an increased recognition of mouse ACE2, raising the postulation that they may have evolved to expand species tropism to rodents. Here, we investigated the capacity of B.1.1.7 and other emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants in infecting mouse (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) under in vitro and in vivo settings. Our results show that B.1.1.7 and P.3, but not B.1 or wildtype SARS-CoV-2, can utilize mouse and rat ACE2 for virus entry in vitro. High infectious virus titers, abundant viral antigen expression, and pathological changes are detected in the nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-inocluated mice and rats. Together, these results reveal that the current predominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant, B.1.1.7, has gained the capability to expand species tropism to rodents.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318205

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the utility of artificial intelligence in predicting disease progression. We analysed 194 patients with COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Among them, 31 patients had oxygen therapy administered after admission. To assess the utility of artificial intelligence in the prediction of disease progression, we used three machine learning models employing clinical features (patient’s background, laboratory data, and symptoms), one deep learning model employing computed tomography (CT) images, and one multimodal deep learning model employing a combination of clinical features and CT images. We also evaluated the predictive values of these models and analysed the important features required to predict worsening in cases of COVID-19. The multimodal deep learning model had the highest accuracy. The CT image was an important feature of multimodal deep learning model. The area under the curve of all machine learning models employing clinical features and the deep learning model employing CT images exceeded 90%, and sensitivity of these models exceeded 95%. C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase were important features of machine learning models. Our machine learning model, while slightly less accurate than the multimodal model, still provides a valuable medical triage tool for patients in the early stages of COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has affected over 9 million patients with more than 460,000 deaths in about 6 months. Understanding the factors that contribute to efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells, which are not previously reported, may provide insights on SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and pathogenesis, and reveal targets of intervention. Here, we reported key host and viral determinants that were essential for efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human lung. First, we identified heparan sulfate as an important attachment factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Second, we demonstrated that while cell surface sialic acids significantly restricted SARS-CoV infection, SARS-CoV-2 could largely overcome sialic acid-mediated restriction in both human lung epithelial cells and ex vivo human lung tissue explants. Third, we demonstrated that the inserted furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 spike was required for efficient virus replication in human lung but not intestine tissues. Overall, these findings contributed to our understanding on efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection of human lungs.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315176

ABSTRACT

Background: Public perception of the disposal of discarded face masks during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the cognition level and attitude of the public towards the disposal of discarded face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic, to provide a reference for a standardized disposal of discarded face masks. Methods: : The convenience sampling method was applied to conduct a questionnaire survey, assessing personal general information, as well as the management status of, attitudes towards and cognition of the disposal of discarded face masks. Results: : A total of 910 valid questionnaires were collected. The results showed that 47% of individuals had a low level of relevant knowledge about the disposal of discarded face masks, but more than 95% showed a positive attitude towards the cooperation with it. In addition, the participants had limited understanding of related regulations, and expected that the relevant departments should increase publicity and training to propagate the related information. Conclusions: : This study demonstrated variations in public cognition level and attitude towards the disposal of discarded face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, relevant departments should further clarify the refuse classification of and management regulations for discarded face masks, increase publicity, guide the public to correctly dispose of discarded face masks and enforce supervision, to prevent viral spread and secondary environmental contamination incidents, and to ensure public health and ecological environment safety.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 519-531, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642257

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTHost circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of viral infections. However, how viruses modulate the biogenesis of host proviral circRNAs to facilitate their replication remains unclear. We have recently shown that Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection increases co-expression of circRNAs and their cognate messenger RNAs (mRNAs), possibly by hijacking specific host RNA binding proteins (RBPs). In this study, we systemically analysed the interactions between the representative circRNA-mRNA pairs upregulated upon MERS-CoV infection and host RBPs. Our analysis identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP C) as a key host factor that governed the expression of numerous MERS-CoV-perturbed circRNAs, including hsa_circ_0002846, hsa_circ_0002061, and hsa_circ_0004445. RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that hnRNP C could bind physically to these circRNAs. Specific knockdown of hnRNP C by small interfering RNA significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.0001) suppressed MERS-CoV replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (Calu-3) and human small airway epithelial (HSAEC) cells. Both MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection increased the total and phosphorylated forms of hnRNP C to activate the downstream CRK-mTOR pathway. Treatment of MERS-CoV- (IC50: 0.618 µM) or SARS-CoV-2-infected (IC50: 1.233 µM) Calu-3 cells with the mTOR inhibitor OSI-027 resulted in significantly reduced viral loads. Collectively, our study identified hnRNP C as a key regulator of MERS-CoV-perturbed circRNAs and their cognate mRNAs, and the potential of targeting hnRNP C-related signalling pathways as an anticoronaviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , RNA, Circular/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , COVID-19 , Cognition , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 255, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639582

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of the doctor-patient relationship (DPR) in China and possible influencing factors during the COVID-19 period from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An online survey was carried out nationwide from March 12, 2020 to March 30, 2020 in China via a convenience sampling strategy. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding the quality of DPR, including sociodemographic information, the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), and influencing factors for DPR during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 1903 patients were included. Our result showed that participants had a higher PDRQ-9 score during the COVID-19 pandemic (4.18 ± 0.51) than that before the COVID-19 pandemic (3.86 ± 0.67). Importance-performance analysis (IPA) revealed that doctor-patient communication, patient satisfaction, consultation time, doctor's attitude, and medical knowledge were specific aspects that needed to be prioritized to improve the DPR. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that positive media reports, telemedicine, and national policies had a significantly positive effect on the DPR during the pandemic (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In general, the DPR had been improved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research found the key points that needed to be prioritized to improve the DPR during the pandemic, which may provide effective suggestions for building a harmonious DPR in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communication , Humans , Physician-Patient Relations , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e336, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572279

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread worldwide and remains an ongoing medical challenge. This case series reports on the clinical features and characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and confirmed COVID-19 infection. From February 2020 to March 2021, nine patients with IBD had confirmed COVID-19 across four hospitals in Korea. The median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 42 years. Six patients were male, and seven patients had ulcerative colitis (UC). No patients required oxygen therapy, intensive care unit hospitalizations, or died. The most common symptom was fever, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms developed as diarrhea in five patients with UC. Oral steroids were used to combat UC aggravation in two patients. In this case series of nine IBD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Korea, the clinical presentation was predominately a mild respiratory tract infection. Most patients with UC developed new GI symptoms including diarrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Administration, Oral , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Young Adult
17.
Chemosphere ; 291(Pt 3): 132995, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520761

ABSTRACT

The latent dangers of waterborne viral transmission have become a major public health concern. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were decorated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to adsorb severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike pseudovirus and three human enteric viruses (HuNoV, HRV, and HAdV). The successful combination of CTAB with rGO-Fe3O4 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, Brunner-Emmet-Teller, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The adsorption of HuNoV and HAdV followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, while that of HRV conformed to the pseudo-second-order model. CTAB-functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 exhibited exceptionally high adsorption of HuNoV, HRV, HAdV and SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus, with maximum adsorption capacities of 3.55 × 107, 7.01 × 107, 2.21 × 107 and 6.92 × 106 genome copies mg-1, respectively. Moreover, the composite could effectively adsorb the four types of virus particles from coastal, tap, and river water. In addition, concentrating the virions using CTAB functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites before qPCR analysis significantly improved the detection limit. The results indicate that viruses are captured on the surface of CTAB functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites through electrostatic interactions and the intrinsic adsorption ability of rGO. Overall, CTAB-functionalized rGO-Fe3O4 composites are promising materials for the adsorption and detection of human enteric viruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 from complex aqueous environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , Adsorption , Cetrimonium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 768089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518558

ABSTRACT

Background: Doctor-patient relationship (DPR) is very important for patient outcomes, especially during a public health emergency like the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few studies have evaluated DPR and related sentiments from medical professionals' perspectives. Thus, the aim of the study is to provide a better understanding of DPR from medical professionals' perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A total of 979 medical professionals, including doctors, nurses, technicians, and other workers have completed a series of questionnaires to evaluate their attitudes toward DPR, trust, violence against doctors, factors that affected and improved DPR, and the importance of these factors on DPR. Analyses of variances (ANOVA) and linear regressions were used to analyze the effects of the pandemic, demographic variables, and various elements on DPR. Results: One-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of education on recent DPR [F (2, 976) = 6.17, p < 0.001 and trust at F (2, 976) = 9.54, p < 0.001], indicating that individuals with higher level of education (bachelor's degree, Master's degree and above) showed poorer recent DPR and lower level of trust. The level of hospital also showed a significant effect on trust [F (5, 973) = 3.79, p = 0.0021]. Cochran's Q test revealed a significant difference in factors that affected [Q(11) = 3,997.83, p < 0.001] and improved [Q(8) = 3,304.53, p < 0.001] DPR. Backward stepwise linear regressions revealed predictors for changes during [F (9, 969) = 21.17, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.16], shortly after [F (7, 971) = 54.98, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.28], and long after [F (10, 968) = 37.83, p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.29] the pandemic. Conclusions: Medical professionals' perceptions of DPR is important as they provide basis for the improvement in working environment of medical professionals and hospital visiting experience of patients, as well as healthcare policy making and preparation for future public health emergencies.

19.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750627

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old male patient with coronavirus disease-2019 showed new onset ST-segment elevation in V1-V2 leads on electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme elevation in intensive care unit. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. He was receiving mechanical ventilation and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment for severe hypoxia. Two-D echocardiogram showed regional wall motion abnormalities. We performed primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction complicating cardiogenic shock under hemodynamic support. He expired on the 16th day of admission because of cardiogenic shock and multi-organ failure. Active surveillance and intensive treatment strategy are important for saving lives of COVID-19 patients with acute myocardial infarction.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103643, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wildtype mice are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and P.3, contain mutations in spike that has been suggested to associate with an increased recognition of mouse ACE2, raising the postulation that these SARS-CoV-2 variants may have evolved to expand species tropism to wildtype mouse and potentially other murines. Our study evaluated this possibility with substantial public health importance. METHODS: We investigated the capacity of wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 variants in infecting mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) under in vitro and in vivo settings. Susceptibility to infection was evaluated with RT-qPCR, plaque assays, immunohistological stainings, and neutralization assays. FINDINGS: Our results reveal that B.1.1.7 and other N501Y-carrying variants but not WT SARS-CoV-2 can infect wildtype mice. High viral genome copies and high infectious virus particle titres are recovered from the nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-inocluated mice for 4-to-7 days post infection. In agreement with these observations, robust expression of viral nucleocapsid protein and histopathological changes are detected from the nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-inocluated mice but not that of the WT SARS-CoV-2-inoculated mice. Similarly, B.1.1.7 readily infects wildtype rats with production of infectious virus particles. INTERPRETATION: Our study provides direct evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 variant, B.1.1.7, as well as other N501Y-carrying variants including B.1.351 and P.3, has gained the capability to expand species tropism to murines and public health measures including stringent murine control should be implemented to facilitate the control of the ongoing pandemic. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turbinates/pathology , Turbinates/virology , Virus Internalization
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