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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 652868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760281

ABSTRACT

Although HIV caused one of the worst epidemics since the late twentieth century, China and the U.S. has made substantial progress to control the spread of HIV/AIDS. However, the trends of HIV/AIDS incidence remain unclear in both countries. Therefore, this study aimed to highlight the long-term trends of HIV/AIDS incidence by gender in China and the U.S. population. The data were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database since it would be helpful to assess the impact/role of designed policies in the control of HIV/AIDS incidence in both countries. The age-period-cohort (APC) model and join-point regression analysis were employed to estimate the age-period-cohort effect and the average annual percentage change (AAPC) on HIV incidence. Between 1994 and 2019, we observed an oscillating trend of the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) in China and an increasing ASIR trend in the U.S. Despite the period effect in China declined for both genders after peaked in 2004, the age effect in China grew among the young (from 15-19 to 25-29) and the old age groups (from 65-69 to 75-79). Similarly, the cohort effect increased among those born in the early (from 1924-1928 to 1934-1938) and the latest birth groups (from 1979-1983 to 2004-2009). In the case of the U.S., the age effect declined after it peaked in the 25-29 age group. People born in recent birth groups had a higher cohort effect than those born in early groups. In both countries, women were less infected by HIV than men. Therefore, besides effective strategies and awareness essential to protect the young age groups from HIV risk factors, the Chinese government should pay attention to the elderly who lacked family support and were exposed to HIV risk factors.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315882

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS CoV 2 caused significant threaten to global public health and economic consequences. It is extremely urgent that global people must take actions to develop safe and effective preventions and therapeutics. Nanobodies, which are derived from single‑chain camelid antibodies, had shown antiviral properties in various challenge viruses. In this study, multivalent nanobodies with high affinity blocking SARS CoV 2 spike interaction with ACE2 protein were developed. Results: Totally, four specific nanobodies against spike protein and its RBD domain were screened from a naïve VHH library. Among them, Nb91 hFc and Nb3 hFc demonstrated antiviral activity by neutralizing spike pseudotyped viruses in vitro. Subsequently, multivalent nanobodies were constructed to improve the neutralizing capacity. As a result, heterodimer nanobody Nb91 Nb3 hFc exhibited the strongest RBD binding affinity and neutralizing ability against SARS CoV 2 pseudoviruses with an IC50 value at approximately 1.54 nM. Conclusions: The present study indicated that naïve VHH library could be used as a potential resource for rapid acquisition and exploitation of antiviral nanobodies. Heterodimer nanobody Nb91 Nb3 hFc may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID 19.

3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak and pandemic of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused significant threaten to global public health and economic consequences. It is extremely urgent that global people must take actions to develop safe and effective preventions and therapeutics. Nanobodies, which are derived from single­chain camelid antibodies, had shown antiviral properties in various challenge viruses. In this study, multivalent nanobodies with high affinity blocking SARS-CoV-2 spike interaction with ACE2 protein were developed. RESULTS: Totally, four specific nanobodies against spike protein and its RBD domain were screened from a naïve VHH library. Among them, Nb91-hFc and Nb3-hFc demonstrated antiviral activity by neutralizing spike pseudotyped viruses in vitro. Subsequently, multivalent nanobodies were constructed to improve the neutralizing capacity. As a result, heterodimer nanobody Nb91-Nb3-hFc exhibited the strongest RBD-binding affinity and neutralizing ability against SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses with an IC50 value at approximately 1.54 nM. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that naïve VHH library could be used as a potential resource for rapid acquisition and exploitation of antiviral nanobodies. Heterodimer nanobody Nb91-Nb3-hFc may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
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