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1.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610584

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has aggressed in more than 200 countries and territories since Dec 2019, and 30 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, including 950,000 deaths. Supportive treatment remains the mainstay of therapy for COVID-19. There are no small-molecule–specific antiviral drugs available to prevent and treat COVID-19 until recently. Herbal medicine can facilitate syndrome differentiation and treatment according to the clinical manifestations of patients and has demonstrated effectiveness in epidemic prevention and control. The National Health Commission (NHC) of China has recommended “three TCM prescriptions and three medicines,” as a group of six effective herbal formulas against COVID-19 in the released official file “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 Patients: Herbal Medicine for the Priority Treatment of COVID-19.” This study aimed to develop a collaborative filtering approach to signaling drug combinations that are similar to the six herbal formulas as potential therapeutic treatments for treating COVID-19. The results have been evaluated by herbal medicine experts’ domain knowledge.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may help to discover therapeutic targets. METHODS: To determine the metabolomic profile of circulating plasma from COVID-19 survivors with pulmonary sequelae 3 months after discharge, a random, outcome-stratified case-control sample was analyzed. We enrolled 103 recovered COVID-19 patients as well as 27 healthy donors, and performed pulmonary function tests, computerized tomography (CT) scans, laboratory examinations, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Plasma metabolite profiles of COVID-19 survivors with abnormal pulmonary function were evidently different from those of healthy donors or subjects with normal pulmonary function. These alterations were associated with disease severity and mainly involved amino acid, and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. Furthermore, increased levels of triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, prostaglandin E2, arginine, and decreased levels of betain and adenosine were associated with pulmonary CO diffusing capacity and total lung capacity. The global plasma metabolomic profile differed between subjects with abnormal and normal pulmonary function. CONCLUSIONS: Further metabolite-based analysis may help to identify the mechanisms underlying pulmonary dysfunction in COVID-19 survivors, and provide potential therapeutic targets in the future.

3.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1565028

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives Prevalent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) negatively affected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using network analyses, this study explored the construct of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China to identify similarities and differences in PTSD symptom network connectivity between the general Chinese population and individuals reporting PTSD. Methods We conducted an online survey recruiting 2858 Chinese adults. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PCL-5 and PTSD was determined according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results In the general population, self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average the most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) avoidance of thoughts and avoidance of reminders, 2) concentration difficulties and sleep disturbance, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours, and 5) hypervigilance and exaggerated startle responses. Besides, negative connections were found between intrusive thoughts and trauma-related amnesia and between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Among individuals reporting PTSD, symptoms such as flashbacks and self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, 2) intrusive thoughts and emotional cue reactivity, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviour, and 5) detachment and restricted affect. In addition, a negative connection was found between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Conclusion Our results indicate similarly positive connections between concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, and irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours in the general and PTSD-reported populations. We argue that self-destructive/reckless behaviours are a core symptom of COVID-19 related PTSD, worthy of more attention in future psychiatric programmers. HIGHLIGHTS The most central symptom for the general group was self-destructive/reckless behaviours and for the PTSD subgroup was flashbacks. Results matched the hybrid model of PTSD and were important for prevention and intervention for PTSD related to COVID-19.

4.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1997181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559184

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Prevalent Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) negatively affected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using network analyses, this study explored the construct of PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China to identify similarities and differences in PTSD symptom network connectivity between the general Chinese population and individuals reporting PTSD. Methods: We conducted an online survey recruiting 2858 Chinese adults. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PCL-5 and PTSD was determined according to the DSM-5 criteria. Results: In the general population, self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average the most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) avoidance of thoughts and avoidance of reminders, 2) concentration difficulties and sleep disturbance, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours, and 5) hypervigilance and exaggerated startle responses. Besides, negative connections were found between intrusive thoughts and trauma-related amnesia and between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Among individuals reporting PTSD, symptoms such as flashbacks and self-destructive/reckless behaviours were on average most strongly connected to other PTSD symptoms in the network. The five strongest positive connections were found between 1) concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, 2) intrusive thoughts and emotional cue reactivity, 3) negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, 4) irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviour, and 5) detachment and restricted affect. In addition, a negative connection was found between intrusive thoughts and self-destructive/reckless behaviours. Conclusion: Our results indicate similarly positive connections between concentration difficulty and sleep disturbance, negative beliefs and negative trauma-related emotions, and irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behaviours in the general and PTSD-reported populations. We argue that self-destructive/reckless behaviours are a core symptom of COVID-19 related PTSD, worthy of more attention in future psychiatric programmers.


Antecedentes y Objetivos: El Trastorno de Estrés Postraumático (TEPT) prevalente afectó negativamente a los individuos durante la pandemia del COVID-19. Usando análisis de redes, este estudio exploró el constructo de síntomas de TEPT durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en China para identificar las similitudes y diferencias en la conectividad de red de síntomas de TEPT entre la población general china y los individuos que reportan TEPT.Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en línea que reclutó 2.858 adultos chinos. Los síntomas de TEPT se midieron usando el PCL-5 y el TEPT se determinó de acuerdo a los criterios del DSM-5.Resultados: En la población general, las conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes fueron, en promedio, las más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) evitación de pensamientos y evitación de recordatorios, 2) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes y 5) hipervigilancia y respuestas de sobresalto exageradas. Además, se encontraron conexiones negativas entre pensamientos intrusivos y amnesia relacionada con el trauma y entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes. Entre los individuos que reportaron TEPT, los síntomas como flashbacks y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes estuvieron, en promedio, más fuertemente conectadas con otros síntomas de TEPT en la red. Las cinco conexiones positivas más fuertes se encontraron entre 1) dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, 2) pensamientos intrusivos y reactividad emocional a ciertas señales, 3) creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, 4) irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes, y 5) desapego y afecto restringido. Además, se encontró una conexión negativa entre pensamientos intrusivos y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes.Conclusión: Nuestros resultados indican conexiones igualmente positivas entre dificultades en la concentración y trastornos del sueño, creencias negativas y emociones negativas relacionadas con el trauma, e irritabilidad/ ira y conductas autodestructivas/ imprudentes en la población general y la que reporto TEPT. Argumentamos que las conductas autodestructivas/imprudentes son un síntoma central de TEPT relacionado con COVID-19, que merece más atención en futuros programas psiquiátricos.背景和目标: 创伤后应激障碍 (PTSD) 作为新冠全球大流行下发病较高的疾病, 给人们带来持续的痛苦体验, 警醒等负面影响。然而, 目前缺乏大样本下讨论 PTSD 症状之间的联系和其核心症状的研究, 且没有比较普通人群和达到诊断标准人群的症状学差异。因此, 本研究旨在通过网络分析揭示在不同人群中的新冠相关的 PTSD 症状间的联系, 并标记出其潜在的核心症状。方法: 通过网络调查收集到 2858 个年龄在 18 岁及以上的有效样本, 并根据 DSM-5 的评价标准将样本中达到诊断标准的人群标记为 PTSD 人群。结果: 在所有人群的症状学分析中, 避免思考和避免提醒; 难以集中注意力和睡眠障碍; 消极信念和消极的创伤相关情绪; 易怒/愤怒和自毁/鲁莽行为; 过度警觉和夸大惊吓反应之间存在很强的联系。侵入性思维与创伤相关健忘症; 侵入性的想法和自我毁灭/鲁莽的行为之间存在负相关。此外, 我们强调自毁/鲁莽行为是最核心的症状, 也是群体治疗和预防过程中的一个重要目标。在符合 PTSD 诊断标准人群的症状学分析中, 注意力不集中和睡眠障碍; 侵入性想法和情绪暗示反应; 消极信念和消极的创伤相关情绪; 易怒/愤怒和自毁/鲁莽行为存在强相关。此外, 分离和受限的情感, 以及侵入性思想和自我毁灭/鲁莽行为之间存在负向联系。我们强调, 针对 PTSD 人群的干预治疗, 闪回和自毁/鲁莽行为是两个重要的目标。结论: 注意力不集中和睡眠障碍, 消极信念和消极的创伤相关情绪, 易怒/愤怒和自毁/鲁莽行为在普通人群和符合 PTSD 诊断标准的人群中均存在强相关。自毁/鲁莽行在总样本和 PTSD 亚组分析中均是最核心的症状, 在未来的预防和干预治疗中应受到重点关注。.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294445

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) issued a significant and urgent threat to global health. The exact animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains obscure and understanding its host range is vital for preventing interspecies transmission. Previously, we have assessed the target cell profiles of SARS-CoV-2 in pets, livestock, poultry and wild animals. Herein, we expand this investigation to a wider range of animal species and viruses to provide a comprehensive source for large-scale screening of potential virus hosts. Single cell atlas for several mammalian species (alpaca, hamster, hedgehog, chinchilla etc.), as well as comparative atlas for lung, brain and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for various lineages of animals were constructed, from which we systemically analyzed the virus entry factors for 113 viruses over 20 species from mammalians, birds, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Conserved cellular connectomes and regulomes were also identified, revealing the fundamental cell-cell and gene-gene cross-talks between these species. Overall, our study could help identify the potential host range and tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and a diverse set of viruses and reveal the host-virus co-evolution footprints.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1473-1488, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postdischarge immunity and its correlation with clinical features among patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) are poorly described. This prospective cross-sectional study explored the inflammatory profiles and clinical recovery of patients with COVID-19 at 3 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 discharged from 4 hospitals in Wuhan, recovered asymptomatic patients (APs) from an isolation hotel, and uninfected healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Viral nucleic acid and antibody detection, laboratory examination, computed tomography, pulmonary function assessment, multiplex cytokine assay, and flow cytometry were performed. RESULTS: The72 age-, sex- and body mass index-matched participants included 19 patients with severe/critical COVID-19 (SPs), 20 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 (MPs), 16 APs, and 17 HCs. At 3 months after discharge, levels of proinflammatory cytokines and factors related to vascular injury/repair in patients recovered from COVID-19 had not returned to those of the HCs, especially among recovered SPs compared with recovered MPs and APs. These cytokines were significantly correlated with impaired pulmonary function and chest computed tomographic abnormalities. However, levels of immune cells had returned to nearly normal levels and were not significantly correlated with abnormal clinical features. CONCLUSION: Vascular injury, inflammation, and chemotaxis persisted in patients with COVID-19 and were correlated with abnormal clinical features 3 months after discharge, especially in recovered SPs.

7.
Urban Governance ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1510381

ABSTRACT

Communicating health knowledge effectively at the community level is essential for shaping resilient urban governance in a pandemic period. This paper examines how three styles of community health communication, namely traditional authoritative communication (TAC), authoritative communication via social media (ACSM), and interactive communication via social media (ICSM), were associated with public trust in different types of “institutions”, namely the community administration and scientists, in a context where the respondents were in strict lockdown. This research was conducted with an online survey in February 2020 of 4595 respondents in urban China not long after the strict lockdown was introduced. Embedded in the theory of public trust in institutions during pandemic, the regressions established that traditional authoritative communication played a significant role in maintaining the public's trust in both community administrators and scientists. Interactive communication via social media damaged trust in scientists and increased trust in administrators when used effectively. It is suggested that policymakers, government officials, and healthcare professionals should not abandon traditional authoritative health communication, and greater efforts can be devoted to quality improvement. Moreover, the study highlighted the need to gain a better understanding of what the targeted audience perceive to be “good communication” before communication.

8.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750507

ABSTRACT

During virus infection B cells are critical for the production of antibodies and protective immunity. Here we show that the human B cell compartment in patients with diagnostically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and clinical COVID-19 is rapidly altered with the early recruitment of B cells expressing a limited subset of IGHV genes, progressing to a highly polyclonal response of B cells with broader IGHV gene usage and extensive class switching to IgG and IgA subclasses with limited somatic hypermutation in the initial weeks of infection. We identify extensive convergence of antibody sequences across SARS-CoV-2 patients, highlighting stereotyped naive responses to this virus. Notably, sequence-based detection in COVID-19 patients of convergent B cell clonotypes previously reported in SARS-CoV infection predicts the presence of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibody titers specific for the receptor-binding domain. These findings offer molecular insights into shared features of human B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic spillover coronaviruses.

9.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(16): 1832-1843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511929

ABSTRACT

ACE2 has long been known as an injury protective protein, which can protect against a variety of organ damage such as the heart, liver, kidney, and lung. Especially in cardiovascular diseases, as a negative regulator of RAAS, ACE2 is an extremely important protective factor that mainly plays a role by converting Ang II to Ang-(1-7). Nevertheless, with the recent outbreak of COVID-19, it is exposed that another identity of ACE2 is the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which previously serves as the entry receptor for SARS. With the in-depth clinical research, it is found that the severity and susceptibility of COVID-19 are related to cardiovascular diseases, and SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2 receptor is also potentially associated with heart injury symptoms. Therefore, in this article, we mainly summarize the relationship between ACE2, COVID-19, and cardiovascular diseases/heart injury.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Injuries , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Heart Injuries/virology , Humans
10.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 16-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world, resulting in a massive death toll. Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. Herein, we review the imaging characteristics and computing models that have been applied for the management of COVID-19. CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up. The quantitative analysis of imaging data using artificial intelligence (AI) is also explored. Our findings indicate that typical imaging characteristics and their changes can play crucial roles in the detection and management of COVID-19. In addition, AI or other quantitative image analysis methods are urgently needed to maximize the value of imaging in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
11.
Nanoscale ; 13(43): 18084-18088, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500761

ABSTRACT

This communication describes a novel water-soluble membrane prepared from chitosan intended for SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid collection and detection. The CSH membrane formed from nanofibers shows promising potential in the quantitative determination of the SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acids at a concentration of 102 copies per L in air. The sponge-like structure which allows gas to pass through for collection of viral nucleic acids potentially provides simple, fast, and reliable sampling as well as detection of various types of airborne viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Water
12.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; 8(21):15892-15905, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1494319

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) aims to exploit the Internet-of-Things (IoT) techniques to provide better medical treatment scheme for patients with smart, automatic, timely, and emotion-aware clinical services. One of the IoMT instances is applying IoT techniques to sleep-aware smartphones or wearable devices’ applications to provide better sleep healthcare services. As we all know, sleep is vital to our daily health. What is more, studies have shown a strong relationship between sleep difficulties and various diseases such as COVID-19. Therefore, leveraging IoT techniques to develop a longer lifetime sleep healthcare IoMT system, with a tradeoff between data transferring/processing speed and battery energy efficiency, to provide longer time services for bad sleep condition persons, especially the COVID-19 patients or survivors, is a meaningful research topic. In this study, we propose an IoT-enabled sleep data fusion networks (SDFN) module with a star topology Bluetooth network to fuse data of sleep-aware applications. A machine learning model is built to detect sleep events through an audio signal. We design two data reprocessing mechanisms running on our IoT devices to alleviate the data jam problem and save the IoT devices’ battery energy. The experiments manifest that the presented module and mechanisms can save the energy of the system and alleviate the data jam problem of the device.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide the quantitative volumetric data of the total lung and lobes in inspiration and expiration from healthy adults, and to explore the value of paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT scan in pulmonary ventilatory function and further explore the influence of each lobe on ventilation. METHODS: A total of 65 adults (29 males and 36 females) with normal clinical pulmonary function test (PFT) and paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT scan were retrospectively enrolled. The inspiratory and expiratory volumetric indexes of the total lung (TL) and 5 lobes (left upper lobe [LUL], left lower lobe [LLL], right upper lobe [RUL], right middle lobe [RML], and right lower lobe [RLL]) were obtained by Philips IntelliSpace Portal image postprocessing workstation, including inspiratory lung volume (LVin), expiratory lung volume (LVex), volume change (∆LV), and well-aerated lung volume (WAL, lung tissue with CT threshold between -950 and -750 HU in inspiratory scan). Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the correlation between CT quantitative indexes of the total lung and ventilatory function indexes (including total lung capacity [TLC], residual volume [RV], and force vital capacity [FVC]). Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to explore the influence of each lobe on ventilation. RESULTS: At end-inspiratory phase, the LVin-TL was 4664.6 (4282.7, 5916.2) mL, the WALTL was 4173 (3639.6, 5250.9) mL; both showed excellent correlation with TLC (LVin-TL: r = 0.890, p < 0.001; WALTL: r = 0.879, p < 0.001). From multiple linear regression analysis with lobar CT indexes as variables, the LVin and WAL of these two lobes, LLL and RUL, showed a significant relationship with TLC. At end-expiratory phase, the LVex-TL was 2325.2 (1969.7, 2722.5) mL with good correlation with RV (r = 0.811, p < 0.001), of which the LVex of RUL and RML had a significant relationship with RV. For the volumetric change within breathing, the ∆LVTL was 2485.6 (2169.8, 3078.1) mL with good correlation with FVC (r = 0.719, p < 0.001), moreover, WALTL showed a better correlation with FVC (r = 0.817, p < 0.001) than that of ∆LVTL. Likewise, there was also a strong association between ∆LV, WAL of these two lobes (LLL and RUL), and FVC. CONCLUSIONS: The quantitative indexes derived from paired inspiratory-expiratory chest CT could reflect the clinical pulmonary ventilatory function, LLL, and RUL give greater impact on ventilation. Thus, the pulmonary functional evaluation needs to be more precise and not limited to the total lung level.

14.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(3): 177-184, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472379

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains to be the biggest public threat all over the world. Because of the rapid deterioration in some patients, markers that could predict poor clinical outcomes are urgently required. This study was to evaluate the predictive values of cardiac injury parameters, including cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, on mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVID-19 patients in Zhongfaxincheng branch of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) from February 8-28, 2020, were enrolled in this study. We followed up the patients for 30 days after admission. Results: A total of 134 patients were included in the study. Multivariate Cox regression showed that 1) patients with elevated cTnI levels had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 7.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56-21.00) than patients with normal cTnI levels; 2) patients with elevated NT-proBNP levels had a higher risk of death (HR 27.88, 95% CI 3.55-218.78) than patients with normal NT-proBNP levels; 3) patients with both elevated cTnI and NT-proBNP levels had a significantly higher risk of death (HR 53.87, 95% CI 6.31-459.91, P < 0.001) compared to patients without elevated cTnI or NT-proBNP levels; 4) the progressions of cTnI and NT-proBNP levels were also correlated with death (HR 12.70, 95% CI 3.94-40.88, P < 0.001 and HR 51.09, 95% CI 5.82-448.26, P < 0.001). Conclusions: In COVID-19 patients, cTnI and NT-proBNP levels could be monitored to identify patients at a high risk of death in their later course of disease.

15.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1472038

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting the world from many aspects. In this study, the impact of emission variations on PM2.5-bound elemental species and health risks associated to inhalation exposure has been analyzed based on real-time measurements at a remote coastal site in Shanghai during the pandemic. Most trace elemental species decreased significantly and displayed almost no diel peaks during the lockdown. After the lockdown, they rebounded rapidly, of which V and Ni even exceeded the levels before the lockdown, suggesting the recovery of both inland and shipping activities. Five sources were identified based on receptor modeling. Coal combustion accounted for more than 70% of the measured elemental concentrations before and during the lockdown. Shipping emissions, mineral/fugitive dust, and waste incineration all showed elevated contributions after the lockdown. The total non-carcinogenic risk (HQ) for the target elements exceeded the risk threshold for both children and adults with chloride as the predominant species contributing to HQ. Whereas, the total carcinogenic risk (TR) for adults was above the acceptable level and much higher than that for children. Waste incineration was the largest contributor to HQ, while manufacture processing and coal combustion were the main sources of TR. Lockdown control measures were beneficial for lowering the carcinogenic risk while unexpectedly increased the non-carcinogenic risk. From the perspective of health effects, priorities of control measures should be given to waste incineration, manufacture processing, and coal combustion. A balanced way should be reached between both lowering the levels of air pollutants and their health risks.

16.
Liver Res ; 5(4): 209-216, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450177

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening disease that predominantly causes respiratory failure. The impact of COVID-19 on other organs remains elusive. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 on the hepatobiliary system. Methods: In the current study, we obtained the clinical records and laboratory results from 66 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 at the Wuhan Tongji Hospital between 10 February 2020 and 28 February 2020. The detailed clinical features and laboratory findings were collected for analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Results: In this cohort, 30 (51.7%) patients had abnormal liver function on admission, which was associated with disease severity and enriched in the male and diabetic patients. The elevated levels of direct bilirubin (P = 0.029) and GGT (P = 0.004) were common in patients with severe pneumonia when compared with those with mild pneumonia. In addition, elevated levels of GGT (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.007) were positively associated with longer hospital stay. The expression of ACE2 was closely associated with GGT in various human tissues because they shared the common transcriptional regulator hepatic nuclear factor-1ß (HNF1B). Conclusions: Increased GGT levels were common in severe cases and elevated GGT levels were positively associated with prolonged hospital stay and disease severity. Due to the consistent expression with ACE2, GGT is a potent biomarker indicating the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, our focus was on pulmonary sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to develop and validate CT-based radiomic models for predicting the presence of residual lung lesions in COVID-19 survivors at three months after discharge. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 162 COVID-19 confirmed patients in our hospital (84 patients with residual lung lesions and 78 patients without residual lung lesions, at three months after discharge). The patients were all randomly allocated to a training set (n = 114) or a test set (n = 48). Radiomic features were extracted from chest CT images in different regions (entire lung or lesion) and at different time points (at hospital admission or at discharge) to build different models, sequentially, or in combination, as follows: (1) Lesion_A model (based on the lesion region at admission CT); (2) Lesion_D model (based on the lesion region at discharge CT); (3) Δlesion model (based on the lesion region at admission CT and discharge CT); (4) Lung_A model (based on the lung region at admission CT); (5) Lung_D model (based on the lung region at discharge CT); (6) Δlung model (based on the lung region at admission CT and discharge CT). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the predictive performances of the radiomic models. RESULTS: Among the six models, the Lesion_D and the Δlesion models achieved better predictive efficacy, with AUCs of 0.907 and 0.927, sensitivity of 0.898 and 0.763, and specificity of 0.855 and 0.964 in the training set, and AUCs of 0.875 and 0.837, sensitivity of 0.920 and 0.680, and specificity of 0.826 and 0.913 in the test set, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CT-based radiomic models showed good predictive effects on the presence of residual lung lesions in COVID-19 survivors at three months after discharge, which may help doctors to plan follow-up work and to reduce the psychological burden of COVID-19 survivors.

18.
Brain Res Bull ; 177: 155-163, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433004

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its threat to humans have drawn worldwide attention. The acute and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the nervous system pose major public health challenges. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 present diverse symptoms of the central nervous system. Exploring the mechanism of coronavirus damage to the nervous system is essential for reducing the long-term neurological complications of COVID-19. Despite rapid progress in characterizing SARS-CoV-2, the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the brain remain unclear. The possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 injury to the central nervous system include: 1) direct injury of nerve cells, 2) activation of the immune system and inflammatory cytokines caused by systemic infection, 3) a high affinity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein for the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2, 4) cerebrovascular disease caused by hypoxia and coagulation dysfunction, and 5) a systemic inflammatory response that promotes cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases. Although we do not fully understand the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 causes nerve injury, we hope to provide a framework by reviewing the clinical manifestations, complications, and possible mechanisms of neurological damage caused by SARS-CoV-2. With hope, this will facilitate the early identification, diagnosis, and treatment of possible neurological sequelae, which could contribute toward improving patient prognosis and preventing transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1343-1344, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431105

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:128-132, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409650

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to summarize the clinical characteristics of death cases with COVID-19 and to identify critically ill patients of COVID-19 early and reduce their mortality. Methods The clinical records, laboratory findings and radiological assessments included chest X-ray or computed tomography were extracted from electronic medical records of 25 died patients with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from Jan 14 to Feb 13, 2020. Two experienced clinicians reviewed and abstracted the data. Results The age and underlying diseases (hypertension, diabetes, etc.) were the most important risk factors for death of COVID-19 pneumonia. Bacterial infections may play an important role in promoting the death of patients. Malnutrition was common to severe patients. Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver. The rising of neutrophils, SAA, PCT, CRP, cTnI, D-dimer, LDH and lactate levels can be used as indicators of disease progression, as well as the decline of lymphocytes counts. Conclusions The clinical characteristics of 25 death cases with COVID-19 we summarized, which would be helpful to identify critically ill patients of COVID-19 early and reduce their mortality.

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