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1.
Vaccines ; 11(1):5, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166979

ABSTRACT

Recovery from COVID-19 is associated with production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, but it is uncertain whether these confer immunity. We describe viral RNA shedding duration in hospitalized patients and identify patients with recurrent shedding. We sequenced viruses from two distinct episodes of symptomatic COVID-19 separated by 144 days in a single patient, to conclusively describe reinfection with a different strain harboring the spike variant D614G. This case of reinfection was one of the first cases of reinfection reported in 2020. With antibody, B cell and T cell analytics, we show correlates of adaptive immunity at reinfection, including a differential response in neutralizing antibodies to a D614G pseudovirus. Finally, we discuss implications for vaccine programs and begin to define benchmarks for protection against reinfection from SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Child Abuse & Neglect ; : 105992, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158583

ABSTRACT

Background The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been extensive and drastic during the twenty-first century. The increasing phenomenon of child maltreatment during the pandemic is a significant public health concern. Objective This study is the first systematic review to analyze and summarize the prevalence rates, risk factors, and protective factors related to child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase) were systematically searched. Some potential studies were also identified from the reference lists of previously included articles. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool and Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) Quality Assessment Tool. Results A total of 35 articles were included in the analysis, with 16 having prevalence information and 22 having factor information. Sixteen studies were conducted in the US, the other 17 studies were from 12 countries, and only two studies contained mixed countries. The prevalences of child maltreatment during the pandemic varied widely in different types and measurements. The pandemic rates of physical abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse were 0.1 %–71.2 %, and 4.9 %–61.8 %, 7.3 %–40 % and 1.4 %–19.5 %, respectively. There was a decline in allegations of child maltreatment and an increase in severe cases of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lockdown measures and their side effects were the main risk factors contributing to child maltreatment. Conclusions This review calls for targeted measures to prevent child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic and current and future lockdowns and more future replication studies conducted in countries other than the US.

3.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2(1): 151, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with chronic disease, particularly seniors (≥60 years old), made up of most severe symptom and death cases among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. However, they are lagging behind in the national COVID-19 vaccination campaign in China due to the uncertainty of vaccine safety and effectiveness. Safety and immunogenicity data of COVID-19 vaccines in people with underlying medical conditions are needed to address the vaccine hesitation in this population. METHODS: We included participants (≥40 years old) who received two doses of CoronaVac inactivated vaccines (at a 3-5 week interval) and were healthy or had at least one of 6 common chronic diseases. The incidence of adverse events after vaccination was monitored. Vaccine immunogenicity was studied by determining neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses post vaccination. RESULTS: Here we show that chronic diseases are associated with a higher rate of mild fatigue following the first dose of CoronaVac. By day 14-28 post vaccination, the neutralizing antibody level shows no significant difference between disease groups and healthy controls, except for people with coronary artery disease (p = 0.0287) and chronic respiratory disease (p = 0.0416), who show moderate reductions. Such differences diminish by day 90 and 180. Most people show detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses at day 90 and day 180 without significant differences between disease groups and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the comparable safety, immunogenicity and cellular immunity memory of CoronaVac in seniors and people living with chronic diseases. This data should reduce vaccine hesitancy in this population.


People living with chronic diseases, particularly those over the age of 60, are more likely to have severe symptoms and die following SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, many have not been vaccinated during the national COVID-19 vaccination campaign in China due to concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness. Here we show that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, is as safe in older people with chronic diseases as it is for healthy people. Also, only slightly differences are seen in the immune response of people with diseases compared to healthy people. Overall, our results highlight that the CoronaVac vaccine is safe and effective in people living with chronic diseases.

4.
Diagnostics ; 12(12):2921, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2123545

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to explore the predictive values of quantitative CT indices of the total lung and lung lobe tissue at discharge for the pulmonary diffusion function of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at 5 months after symptom onset. Methods: A total of 90 patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 underwent CT scans at discharge, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed 5 months after symptom onset. The differences in quantitative CT and PFT results between Group 1 (patients with abnormal diffusion function) and Group 2 (patients with normal diffusion function) were compared by the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Univariate analysis, stepwise linear regression and logistic regression were used to determine the predictors of diffusion function in convalescent patients. Results: A total of 37.80% (34/90) of patients presented diffusion dysfunction at 5 months after symptom onset. The mean lung density (MLD) of the total lung tissue in Group 1 was higher than that in Group 2, and the percentage of the well-aerated lung (WAL) tissue volume (WAL%) of Group 1 was lower than that of Group 2 (all p < 0.05). Multiple stepwise linear regression identified only WAL and WAL% of the left upper lobe (LUL) as parameters that positively correlated with the percent of the predicted value of diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (WAL: p = 0.002;WAL%: p = 0.004), and multiple stepwise logistic regression identified MLD and MLDLUL as independent predictors of diffusion dysfunction (MLD: OR (95%CI): 1.011 (1.001, 1.02), p = 0.035;MLDLUL: OR (95%CI): 1.016 (1.004, 1.027), p = 0.008). Conclusion: At five months after symptom onset, more than one-third of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients presented with diffusion dysfunction. The well-aerated lung and mean lung density quantified by CT at discharge could be predictors of diffusion function in convalesce.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123498

ABSTRACT

As a kind of medicine and food homologous plant, kudzu root (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi) is called an "official medicine" in Chinese folk medicine. Puerarin is the main active component extracted from kudzu root, and its structural formula is 8-ß-D-grapes pyranose-4, 7-dihydroxy isoflavone, with a white needle crystal; it is slightly soluble in water, and its aqueous solution is colorless or light yellow. Puerarin is a natural antioxidant with high health value and has a series of biological activities such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor effects, immunity improvement, and cardio-cerebrovascular and nerve cell protection. In particular, for the past few years, it has also been extensively used in clinical study. This review focuses on the antioxidant activity of puerarin, the therapy of diverse types of inflammatory diseases, various new drug delivery systems of puerarin, the "structure-activity relationship" of puerarin and its derivatives, and pharmacokinetic and clinical studies, which can provide a new perspective for the puerarin-related drug research and development, clinical application, and further development and utilization.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1023847, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123429

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 have been circulated in the human population worldwide, and they are associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases with varying severity. However, there are neither effective therapeutic drugs nor licensed vaccines available for the treatment and prevention of infections by the four HCoVs. In this study, we collected nasopharyngeal aspirates of children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection in China during 2014-2018 and conducted next-generation sequencing. Sequences of four HCoVs were then selected for an in-depth analysis. Genome sequences of 2 HCoV-NL63, 8 HCoV-229E, 2 HCoV-HKU1, and 6 HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Based on the full-length S gene, a strong temporal signal was found in HCoV-229E and the molecular evolutionary rate was 6 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. Based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree of complete S gene, we designated H78 as a new sub-genotype C2 of HCoV-HKU1, and the obtained P43 sequence was grouped into the reported novel genotype K of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Guangzhou, China. Based on the complete genome, potential recombination events were found to occur as two phenomena, namely intraspecies and interspecies. Moreover, we observed two amino acid substitutions in the S1 subunit of obtained HCoV-NL63 (G534V) and HCoV-HKU1 (H512R), while residues 534 and 512 are important for the binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Our findings might provide a clue for the molecular evolution of the four HCoVs and help in the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of broad-spectrum HCoV infection.

7.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(12):1612-1616, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2112056

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic of highly contagious caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the infectivity of various clinical samples and its transmission routes have been the main focus of current researches since the causative pathogens was identified. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the viral shedding from different clinical samples and reveal that infectious virus may be mainly discharged through respiratory and digestive systems. Also, SARS-CoV-2 showed a potential tropism for eyes, kidney, testis, placenta and other extrapulmonary tissues and high viral loads correlated with severe conditions. A better understanding of viral shedding may help the studies on pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and provide suggestions for the disease control.

8.
J Integr Med ; 20(6): 488-496, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105445

ABSTRACT

At present, a variety of vaccines have been approved, and existing antiviral drugs are being tested to find an effective treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no standardized treatment has yet been approved by the World Health Organization. The virally encoded chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which facilitates the replication of SARS-CoV in the host cells, is one potential pharmacological target for the development of anti-SARS drugs. Online search engines, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed, were used to retrieve data on the traditional uses of medicinal plants and their inhibitory effects against the SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Various pure compounds, including polyphenols, terpenoids, chalcones, alkaloids, biflavonoids, flavanones, anthraquinones and glycosides, have shown potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 2-44 µg/mL. Interestingly, most of these active compounds, including xanthoangelol E (isolated from Angelica keiskei), dieckol 1 (isolated from Ecklonia cava), amentoflavone (isolated from Torreya nucifera), celastrol, pristimerin, tingenone and iguesterin (isolated from Tripterygium regelii), tannic acid (isolated from Camellia sinensis), and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, 3-isotheaflav1in-3 gallate and dihydrotanshinone I (isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza), had IC50 values of less than 15 µg/mL. Kinetic mechanistic studies of several active compounds revealed that their mode of inhibition was dose-dependent and competitive, with Ki values ranging from 2.4-43.8 µmol/L. Given the significance of plant-based compounds and the many promising results obtained, there is still need to explore the phytochemical and mechanistic potentials of plants and their products. These medicinal plants could serve as an effective inexpensive nutraceutical for the general public to help manage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; : 100618, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069449

ABSTRACT

Summary Background With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), nurses have won well-deserved recognition for their indispensable roles in providing humane and professional healthcare for patients. However, by the nature of their role working at the forefront of patient care, nurses are prone to experiencing mental health consequences. Therefore, we pay attention to measuring the magnitude of psychological symptoms and identifying associated factors among nurses in China. Methods We launched a nationwide, cross-sectional survey of nurses who worked in secondary or tertiary hospitals and public or private hospitals from 30 provinces in China. The prevalence and severity of symptoms of burnout, depression, and anxiety were investigated, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with each psychological symptom. Findings A total of 138 279 respondents who worked in 243 hospitals completed this survey. A substantial proportion of nurses reported symptoms of burnout (34%), depression (55·5%), and anxiety (41·8%). In line with the disproportionality of economic development, we noted that the middle or western region was an independent risk factor for depression and anxiety. Compared with those working in the secondary hospital, nurses who worked in tertiary hospitals were associated with a higher likelihood of burnout and depression. Interpretation Nurses are experiencing emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion during the COVID-19 epidemic. Governments and health policymakers need to draw attention to reinforcing prevention and ameliorating countermeasures to safeguard nurses' health. Funding The strategic consulting project of the Chinese Academy of Engineering [2021-32-5]. Advanced Institute of Infomation Technology, Peking University, Zhejiang Province [2020-Z-17]

10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1406-1412, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a coronavirus-based infectious illness that was first detected at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. The novel virus induces severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) and has spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. There is still a lack of evidence for direct comparison of favipiravir therapy. Network meta-analysis (NMA), may incorporate direct and indirect comparisons in a pooled computation while depending on strong assumptions and premises. This study provides evidence-based recommendations on the safety of currently used clinical pharmacological treatments compared to favipiravir for COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review and Bayesian NMA. We searched the primary databases and clinical trials center for reports of short-term, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of favipiravir for COVID-19 treatment. The primary endpoints here considered were any adverse events observed or reported during the treatment cycle with estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), until November 6, 2021. RESULTS: Between January 2020 and July 2021, 908 individuals were randomly assigned to one of the seven active prescription medication regimens or placebo in this study, generating seven direct comparisons on 12 data points. The safety of favipiravir over the four clinically efficacious monotherapies or combinations including tocilizumab, arbidol, lopinavir + ritonavir, and chloroquine remained unknown due to the lack of a significant difference and the limited sample size. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, comparative rankings could assist doctors and guideline developers in decision-making. We have also concluded that the safety of favipiravir requires further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Network Meta-Analysis , Pyrazines , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation ; 114:103026, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061418

ABSTRACT

An accurate estimation of trophic state of lakes with satellite remote sensing is a challenge due to the optical complexity and variability associated with inland waters. Match-up data from 393 sampling stations that has concurrent Sentinel-3 OLCI images were acquired across Wuhan lakes. Trophic Level Index (TLI) algorithms were developed within a global Optical Water Type (OWT) classification system. The performance of algorithms with limited training data gathered by using spectral similarity of highest Sowt was not improved compared with that on basis of no classification. In contrast, using spectral similarity of Sowt > 0.9 rather than the highest Sowt to group more training data with similar traits for each OWT can help build more robust algorithms, which performance is better than that on basis of no classification. Algorithm performance statistics of the test dataset for the stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) method were the following: Mean Absolute Error (MAE) = 5.56;Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) = 11.02 %;Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 7.24 and for the back propagation neural network on the basis of the Levenberg-Marquardt-Bayesian regularization algorithm (LMBR-BPNN) method MAE = 4.56;MAPE = 8.33 %;RMSE = 5.98. We detected 8 different OWTs (2,3,4,5,9,10,11,12) in Wuhan lakes and clear spatio-temporal patterns of the trophic state between 2018 and 2020.Our results revealed that the trophic state of Wuhan lakes did not decrease as expected during the COVID-19 lockdown period.

12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(10): 1484-1492, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has low seasonal influenza vaccination rates among priority populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a pay-it-forward strategy to increase influenza vaccine uptake in rural, suburban, and urban settings in China. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pragmatic trial to examine the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward intervention (a free influenza vaccine and an opportunity to donate financially to support vaccination of other individuals) to increase influenza vaccine uptake compared with standard-of-care user-paid vaccination among children (aged between 6 months and 8 years) and older people (≥60 years) in China. Recruitment took place in the standard-of-care group until the expected sample size was reached and then in the pay-it-forward group in primary care clinics from a rural site (Yangshan), a suburban site (Zengcheng), and an urban site (Tianhe). Participants were introduced to the influenza vaccine by project staff using a pamphlet about influenza vaccination and were either asked to pay out-of-pocket at the standard market price (US$8·5-23·2; standard-of-care group) or to donate any amount anonymously (pay-it-forward group). Participants had to be eligible to receive an influenza vaccine and to have not received an influenza vaccine in the past year. The primary outcome was vaccine uptake. Secondary outcomes were vaccine confidence and costs (from the health-care provider perspective). Regression methods compared influenza vaccine uptake and vaccine confidence between the two groups. This trial is registered with ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000040048. FINDINGS: From Sept 21, 2020, to March 3, 2021, 300 enrolees were recruited from patients visiting three primary care clinics. 55 (37%) of 150 people in the standard-of-care group (40 [53%] of 75 children and 15 [20%] of 75 older adults) and 111 (74%) of 150 in the pay-it-forward group (66 [88%] of 75 children and 45 [60%] of 75 older adults) received an influenza vaccine. People in the pay-it-forward group were more likely to receive an influenza vaccine compared with those in the standard-of-care group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6·7 [95% CI 2·7-16·6] among children and 5·0 [2·3-10·8] among older adults). People in the pay-it-forward group had greater confidence in vaccine safety (aOR 2·2 [95% CI 1·2-3·9]), importance (3·1 [1·6-5·9]), and effectiveness (3·1 [1·7-5·7]). In the pay-it-forward group, 107 (96%) of 111 participants donated money for subsequent vaccinations. The pay-it-forward group had a lower economic cost (calculated as the cost without subtraction of donations) per person vaccinated (US$45·60) than did the standard-of-care group ($64·67). INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward intervention seemed to be effective in improving influenza vaccine uptake and community engagement. Our data have implications for prosocial interventions to enhance influenza vaccine uptake in countries where influenza vaccines are available for a fee. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Child , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Odds Ratio , Vaccination
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 21(9): 103155, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003879

ABSTRACT

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) signaling pathway, as vital component of innate immune system, acts a vital role in distinguishing invasive pathogens and cytosolic DNA. Cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS first binds to cytosolic DNA and catalyzes synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), which is known as the second messenger. Next, cGAMP activates the adaptor protein STING, triggering a molecular chain reaction to stimulate cytokines including interferons (IFNs). Recently, many researches have revealed that the regulatory role of cGAS-STING signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases (AIDs) such as Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, accumulated evidence have showed inhibition of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway could remarkably suppress the joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration in RA mice. Therefore, in this review, we describe the molecular properties, biologic function and mechanisms of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in AIDs. In addition, potential clinical applications especially selective small molecule inhibitors targeting the cGAS-STING signaling pathway are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Products , Animals , DNA , Humans , Interferons , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997485

ABSTRACT

Background: Meteorological factors can affect the emergence of scrub typhus for a period lasting days to weeks after their occurrence. Furthermore, the relationship between meteorological factors and scrub typhus is complicated because of lagged and non-linear patterns. Investigating the lagged correlation patterns between meteorological variables and scrub typhus may promote an understanding of this association and be beneficial for preventing disease outbreaks. Methods: We extracted data on scrub typhus cases in rural areas of Panzhihua in Southwest China every week from 2008 to 2017 from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to study the temporal lagged correlation between weekly meteorological factors and weekly scrub typhus. Results: There were obvious lagged associations between some weather factors (rainfall, relative humidity, and air temperature) and scrub typhus with the same overall effect trend, an inverse-U shape; moreover, different meteorological factors had different significant delayed contributions compared with reference values in many cases. In addition, at the same lag time, the relative risk increased with the increase of exposure level for all weather variables when presenting a positive association. Conclusions: The results found that different meteorological factors have different patterns and magnitudes for the lagged correlation between weather factors and scrub typhus. The lag shape and association for meteorological information is applicable for developing an early warning system for scrub typhus.


Subject(s)
Scrub Typhus , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Meteorological Concepts , Nonlinear Dynamics , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology
15.
Multimed Tools Appl ; 81(21): 29785-29797, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990723

ABSTRACT

Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks in public areas has become an effective way to slow the spread of disease. However, it also brings some challenges to applications in daily life as half of the face is occluded. Therefore, the idea of removing masks by face inpainting appeared. Face inpainting has achieved promising performance but always fails to guarantee high-fidelity. In this paper, we present a novel mask removal inpainting network based on face attributes known in advance including nose, chubby, makeup, gender, mouth, beard and young, aiming to ensure the repaired face image is closer to ground truth. To achieve this, a dual pipeline network based on GANs has been proposed, one of which is a reconstructive path used in training that utilizes missing regions in ground truth to get prior distribution, while the other is a generative path for predicting information in the masked region. To establish the process of mask removal, we build a synthetic facial occlusion that mimics the real mask. Experiments show that our method not only generates faces more similarly aligned with real attributes, but also ensures semantic and structural rationality compared with state-of-the-art methods.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979254

ABSTRACT

From the epidemic center in Wuhan to the entirety of China, with the growing infected population, people are seeking and processing health-related information both online and from traditional media outlets such as newspapers. Online misinformation regarding COVID-19 has been influencing a wide range of readers demonstrating general citizens' virus-related concerns, while press media have been actively participating in health communication in an attempt to build up a robust, harmonious, and healthy environment. Via a comparison between the news data with the misinformation data during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, from 1 January 2020 to 20 February 2020, we conducted an LDA topic-modeling analysis and a sentiment analysis. This study sheds light on the nature of people's methods of health communication with online and press media sources during the early period of the pandemic crisis and provides possible readable explanations for the driving force of misinformation and the emotional changes experienced by the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(8): e886, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exact animal origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains obscure and understanding its host range is vital for preventing interspecies transmission. METHODS: Herein, we applied single-cell sequencing to multiple tissues of 20 species (30 data sets) and integrated them with public resources (45 data sets covering 26 species) to expand the virus receptor distribution investigation. While the binding affinity between virus and receptor is essential for viral infectivity, understanding the receptor distribution could predict the permissive organs and tissues when infection occurs. RESULTS: Based on the transcriptomic data, the expression profiles of receptor or associated entry factors for viruses capable of causing respiratory, blood, and brain diseases were described in detail. Conserved cellular connectomes and regulomes were also identified, revealing fundamental cell-cell and gene-gene cross-talks from reptiles to humans. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study provides a resource of the single-cell atlas of the animal kingdom which could help to identify the potential host range and tissue tropism of viruses and reveal the host-virus co-evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269491, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuronal dysfunction plays an important role in the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in people with HIV (PWH). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-with its capability to improve neuronal function-may have the potential to serve as an alternative therapeutic approach for HAND. Brain imaging and neurobehavioral studies provide converging evidence that injury to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is highly prevalent and contributes to HAND in PWH, suggesting that ACC may serve as a potential neuromodulation target for HAND. Here we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, partial crossover pilot study to test the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of anodal tDCS over cingulate cortex in adults with HIV, with a focus on the dorsal ACC (dACC). METHODS: Eleven PWH (47-69 years old, 2 females, 100% African Americans, disease duration 16-36 years) participated in the study, which had two phases, Phase 1 and Phase 2. During Phase 1, participants were randomized to receive ten sessions of sham (n = 4) or cingulate tDCS (n = 7) over the course of 2-3 weeks. Treatment assignments were unknown to the participants and the technicians. Neuropsychology and MRI data were collected from four additional study visits to assess treatment effects, including one baseline visit (BL, prior to treatment) and three follow-up visits (FU1, FU2, and FU3, approximately 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after treatment, respectively). Treatment assignment was unblinded after FU3. Participants in the sham group repeated the study with open-label cingulate tDCS during Phase 2. Statistical analysis was limited to data from Phase 1. RESULTS: Compared to sham tDCS, cingulate tDCS led to a decrease in Perseverative Errors in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), but not Non-Perseverative Errors, as well as a decrease in the ratio score of Trail Making Test-Part B (TMT-B) to TMT-Part A (TMT-A). Seed-to-voxel analysis with resting state functional MRI data revealed an increase in functional connectivity between the bilateral dACC and a cluster in the right dorsal striatum after cingulate tDCS. There were no differences in self-reported discomfort ratings between sham and cingulate tDCS. CONCLUSIONS: Cingulate tDCS is safe and well-tolerated in PWH, and may have the potential to improve cognitive performance and brain function. A future study with a larger sample is warranted.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Female , Gyrus Cinguli/diagnostic imaging , Gyrus Cinguli/physiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods
19.
Front Genet ; 13: 904513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902956

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although unprecedented efforts are underway to develop therapeutic strategies against this disease, scientists have acquired only a little knowledge regarding the structures and functions of the CoV replication and transcription complex (RTC). Ascertaining all the RTC components and the arrangement of them is an indispensably step for the eventual determination of its global structure, leading to completely understanding all of its functions at the molecular level. Results: The main results include: 1) hairpins containing the canonical and non-canonical NSP15 cleavage motifs are canonical and non-canonical transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) hairpins; 2) TRS hairpins can be used to identify recombination regions in CoV genomes; 3) RNA methylation participates in the determination of the local RNA structures in CoVs by affecting the formation of base pairing; and 4) The eventual determination of the CoV RTC global structure needs to consider METTL3 in the experimental design. Conclusions: In the present study, we proposed the theoretical arrangement of NSP12-15 and METTL3 in the global RTC structure and constructed a model to answer how the RTC functions in the jumping transcription of CoVs. As the most important finding, TRS hairpins were reported for the first time to interpret NSP15 cleavage, RNA methylation of CoVs and their association at the molecular level. Our findings enrich fundamental knowledge in the field of gene expression and its regulation, providing a crucial basis for future studies.

20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e37, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted many aspects of society and has indirectly produced various psychological consequences. This systematic review aimed to estimate the worldwide prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify protective or risk factors contributing to child PTSD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in the PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases. We searched for studies published between January 1, 2020 and May 26, 2021, that reported the prevalence of child PTSD due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as factors contributing to child PTSD. Eighteen studies were included in our systematic review, of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of child PTSD after the COVID-19 outbreak was 28.15% (95% CI: 19.46-36.84%, I2 = 99.7%). In subgroup analyses for specific regions the estimated prevalence of post-pandemic child PTSD was 19.61% (95% CI: 11.23-27.98%) in China, 50.8% (95% CI: 34.12-67.49%) in the USA, and 50.08% in Italy (95% CI: 47.32-52.84%). CONCLUSIONS: Factors contributing to child PTSD were categorized into four aspects: personal factors, family factors, social factors and infectious diseases related factors. Based on this, we presented a new framework summarizing the occurrence and influence of the COVID-19 related child PTSD, which may contribute to a better understanding, prevention and development of interventions for child PTSD in forthcoming pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
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