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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 468, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is now a common complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but it remains unclear whether cardiac injury-related biomarkers can be independent predictors of mortality and severe disease development or intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: Two investigators searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, MedRxiv, and ChinaXiv databases for articles published through March 30, 2020. Retrospective studies assessing the relationship between the prognosis of COVID-19 patients and levels of troponin I (TnI) and other cardiac injury biomarkers (creatine kinase [CK], CK myocardial band [CK-MB], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) were included. The data were extracted independently by two investigators. RESULTS: The analysis included 23 studies with 4631 total individuals. The proportions of severe disease, ICU admission, or death among patients with non-elevated TnI (or troponin T [TnT]), and those with elevated TnI (or TnT) were 12.0% and 64.5%, 11.8% and 56.0%, and 8.2% and. 59.3%, respectively. Patients with elevated TnI levels had significantly higher risks of severe disease, ICU admission, and death (RR 5.57, 95% CI 3.04 to 10.22, P < 0.001; RR 6.20, 95% CI 2.52 to 15.29, P < 0.001; RR 5.64, 95% CI 2.69 to 11.83, P < 0.001). Patients with an elevated CK level were at significantly increased risk of severe disease or ICU admission (RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.61, P < 0.001). Patients with elevated CK-MB levels were at a higher risk of developing severe disease or requiring ICU admission (RR 3.24, 95% CI 1.66 to 6.34, P = 0.001). Patients with newly occurring arrhythmias were at higher risk of developing severe disease or requiring ICU admission (RR 13.09, 95% CI 7.00 to 24.47, P < 0.001). An elevated IL-6 level was associated with a higher risk of developing severe disease, requiring ICU admission, or death. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with elevated TnI levels are at significantly higher risk of severe disease, ICU admission, and death. Elevated CK, CK-MB, LDH, and IL-6 levels and emerging arrhythmia are associated with the development of severe disease and need for ICU admission, and the mortality is significantly higher in patients with elevated LDH and IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Heart Injuries/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Injuries/blood , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Troponin I/blood
2.
Non-conventional | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-664895

ABSTRACT

During virus infection B cells are critical for the production of antibodies and protective immunity Here we show that the human B cell compartment in patients with diagnostically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and clinical COVID-19 is rapidly altered with the early recruitment of B cells expressing a limited subset of IGHV genes, progressing to a highly polyclonal response of B cells with broader IGHV gene usage and extensive class switching to IgG and IgA subclasses with limited somatic hypermutation in the initial weeks of infection We identify extensive convergence of antibody sequences across SARS-CoV-2 patients, highlighting stereotyped naive responses to this virus Notably, sequence-based detection in COVID-19 patients of convergent B cell clonotypes previously reported in SARS-CoV infection predicts the presence of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibody titers specific for the receptor-binding domain These findings offer molecular insights into shared features of human B cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other zoonotic spillover coronaviruses

3.
Phytother Res ; 2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401716

ABSTRACT

The recent and ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a huge global challenge. The outbreak, which first occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and then rapidly spread to other provinces and to more than 200 countries abroad, has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Those with compromised immune systems and/or existing respiratory, metabolic or cardiac problems are more susceptible to the infection and are at higher risk of serious illness or even death. The present review was designed to report important functional food plants with immunomodulatory and anti-viral properties. Data on medicinal food plants were retrieved and downloaded from English-language journals using online search engines. The functional food plants herein documented might not only enhance the immune system and cure respiratory tract infections but can also greatly impact the overall health of the general public. As many people in the world are now confined to their homes, inclusion of these easily accessible plants in the daily diet may help to strengthen the immune system and guard against infection by SARS-CoV-2. This might reduce the risk of COVID-19 and initiate a rapid recovery in cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 33, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-268764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, in December 2019; the outbreak was caused by a novel coronavirus previously never observed in humans. China has imposed the strictest quarantine and closed management measures in history to control the spread of the disease. However, a high level of evidence to support the surgical management of potential trauma patients during the novel coronavirus outbreak is still lacking. To regulate the emergency treatment of trauma patients during the outbreak, we drafted this paper from a trauma surgeon perspective according to practical experience in Wuhan. MAIN BODY: The article illustrates the general principles for the triage and evaluation of trauma patients during the outbreak of COVID-19, indications for emergency surgery, and infection prevention and control for medical personnel, providing a practical algorithm for trauma care providers during the outbreak period. CONCLUSIONS: The measures of emergency trauma care that we have provided can protect the medical personnel involved in emergency care and ensure the timeliness of effective interventions during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Algorithms , Anesthesia/standards , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Emergencies , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Triage/standards
5.
Open Forum Infect. Dis. ; 6(7)20200516.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-276237

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to assess pulmonary involvement in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the correlation between chest CT and clinical features in COVID-19 suspected patients with or without fever. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 211 COVID-19 suspected patients who underwent both chest CT and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in Wuhan, China. The performance of CT in patients with relevant onset of symptoms, with fever (n = 141) and without fever (n = 70), was assessed respectively. Results: The sensitivity of CT for COVID-19 was 97.3%, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.76). There were 141 suspected patients with fever and 70 without fever. In the fever group, 4 variables were screened to establish the basic model: Age, monocyte, red blood cell, and hypertension. The AUC of the basic model was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.81), while the AUC of the CT-aided model was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68-0.85), a significant difference (P <. 05). In the nonfever group, only dry cough was screened out to establish the basic model. The AUC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.64-0.88), which was not significantly different than the CT-aided model (P =. 08). Conclusions: Chest CT has a high sensitivity in patients with COVID-19, and it can improve diagnostic accuracy for COVID-19 suspected patients with fever during the initial screen, whereas its value for nonfever patients remains questionable.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 41(22): 2070-2079, 2020 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232745

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the characteristics and clinical significance of myocardial injury in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 671 eligible hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 from 1 January to 23 February 2020, with a median age of 63 years. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and compared between patients who died and survivors. Risk factors of death and myocardial injury were analysed using multivariable regression models. A total of 62 patients (9.2%) died, who more often had myocardial injury (75.8% vs. 9.7%; P < 0.001) than survivors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.96; sensitivity, 0.86; specificity, 0.86; P < 0.001]. The single cut-off point and high level of cTnI predicted risk of in-hospital death, hazard ratio (HR) was 4.56 (95% CI, 1.28-16.28; P = 0.019) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.07-1.46; P = 0.004), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression, senior age, comorbidities (e.g. hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and high level of C-reactive protein were predictors of myocardial injury. CONCLUSION: The risk of in-hospital death among patients with severe COVID-19 can be predicted by markers of myocardial injury, and was significantly associated with senior age, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Heart Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
7.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(8): 2701-2710, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-182006

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus, has overwhelmed healthcare systems worldwide, putting medical professionals at a high risk of getting infected themselves due to a global shortage of personal protective equipment. This has in-turn led to understaffed hospitals unable to handle new patient influx. To help alleviate these problems, we design and develop a contactless patient positioning system that can enable scanning patients in a completely remote and contactless fashion. Our key design objective is to reduce the physical contact time with a patient as much as possible, which we achieve with our contactless workflow. Our system comprises automated calibration, positioning, and multi-view synthesis components that enable patient scan without physical proximity. Our calibration routine ensures system calibration at all times and can be executed without any manual intervention. Our patient positioning routine comprises a novel robust dynamic fusion (RDF) algorithm for accurate 3D patient body modeling. With its multi-modal inference capability, RDF can be trained once and used across different applications (without re-training) having various sensor choices, a key feature to enable system deployment at scale. Our multi-view synthesizer ensures multi-view positioning visualization for the technician to verify positioning accuracy prior to initiating the patient scan. We conduct extensive experiments with publicly available and proprietary datasets to demonstrate efficacy. Our system has already been used, and had a positive impact on, hospitals and technicians on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, and we expect to see its use increase substantially globally.

8.
J Med Virol ; 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175870

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aimed to analysis clinical characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Medical records, laboratory results and radiologic findings of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 were collected, clinical characteristics and outcomes were summarized. A total of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 were included. Median age of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 was 63 years (34-98). Thirty-three (63.5%) patients were mild and 19 (36.5%) were severe/critical. Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (10, 19.2%). The common symptoms were as follows: fever (25%), dry cough (17.3%), chest distress (11.5%), and fatigue (9.6%). There were 33 (63.5%) patients had comorbidities, the most common symptom was hypertension (17, 51.5%). Twenty-six (78.8%) patients developed pneumonia on admission. Lymphocytes (0.6 × 109/L) decreased in both mild and severe/critical patients. Median levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase were 2.8 mg/L, 70.5 mg/L, 0.3 ng/mL, and 318 U/L, respectively, which increased significantly in severe/critical patients compared with the mild patients. Interleukin-6 (12.6 pg/mL) increased in both mild and severe/critical patients, there was a significant difference between them. Complications were observed in 29 (55.8%) patients, such as liver injury (19, 36.5%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (9, 17.3%), sepsis (8, 15.4%), myocardial injury (8, 15.4%), renal insufficiency (4, 7.7%), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (3, 5.8%). Eleven (21.2%) patients with cancer died. The infection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with cancer was higher than the general population, cancer patients with COVID-19 showed deteriorating conditions and poor outcomes.

9.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; PP2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-162739

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world, resulting in a massive death toll. Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. Herein, we review the imaging characteristics and computing models that have been applied for the management of COVID-19. CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up. The quantitative analysis of imaging data using artificial intelligence (AI) is also explored. Our findings indicate that typical imaging characteristics and their changes can play crucial roles in the detection and management of COVID-19. In addition, AI or other quantitative image analysis methods are urgently needed to maximize the value of imaging in the management of COVID-19.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to analysis the clinical characteristics and complications in death cases with novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). METHOD: We collected the medical records of 92 patients with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University who died during January 6th to February 25th, 2020, summarized the clinical characteristics of complications. RESULTS: There were 91 death cases who developed different complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (73/91), myocardial injury (31/91), liver injury (15/91), renal insufficiency (14/91), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (14/91) and pneumothorax (1/91). Among these patients, 83 patients had at least one complication. While 1 patient who died of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding was not directly linked to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The main complications of deceased patients with COVID-19 were ARDS, myocardial injury, liver injury, renal insufficiency and MODS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 128-132, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-40978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to summarize the clinical characteristics of death cases with COVID-19 and to identify critically ill patients of COVID-19 early and reduce their mortality. METHODS: The clinical records, laboratory findings and radiological assessments included chest X-ray or computed tomography were extracted from electronic medical records of 25 died patients with COVID-19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from Jan 14 to Feb 13, 2020. Two experienced clinicians reviewed and abstracted the data. RESULTS: The age and underlying diseases (hypertension, diabetes, etc.) were the most important risk factors for death of COVID-19 pneumonia. Bacterial infections may play an important role in promoting the death of patients. Malnutrition was common to severe patients. Multiple organ dysfunction can be observed, the most common organ damage was lung, followed by heart, kidney and liver. The rising of neutrophils, SAA, PCT, CRP, cTnI, D-dimer, LDH and lactate levels can be used as indicators of disease progression, as well as the decline of lymphocytes counts. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of 25 death cases with COVID-19 we summarized, which would be helpful to identify critically ill patients of COVID-19 early and reduce their mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medical Records , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15397

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. However, information on cardiac injury in patients affected by COVID-19 is limited. Objective: To explore the association between cardiac injury and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted from January 20, 2020, to February 10, 2020, in a single center at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; the final date of follow-up was February 15, 2020. All consecutive inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in this study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of patients with and without cardiac injury were compared. The association between cardiac injury and mortality was analyzed. Results: A total of 416 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included in the final analysis; the median age was 64 years (range, 21-95 years), and 211 (50.7%) were female. Common symptoms included fever (334 patients [80.3%]), cough (144 [34.6%]), and shortness of breath (117 [28.1%]). A total of 82 patients (19.7%) had cardiac injury, and compared with patients without cardiac injury, these patients were older (median [range] age, 74 [34-95] vs 60 [21-90] years; P < .001); had more comorbidities (eg, hypertension in 49 of 82 [59.8%] vs 78 of 334 [23.4%]; P < .001); had higher leukocyte counts (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 9400 [6900-13 800] vs 5500 [4200-7400] cells/µL) and levels of C-reactive protein (median [IQR], 10.2 [6.4-17.0] vs 3.7 [1.0-7.3] mg/dL), procalcitonin (median [IQR], 0.27 [0.10-1.22] vs 0.06 [0.03-0.10] ng/mL), creatinine kinase-myocardial band (median [IQR], 3.2 [1.8-6.2] vs 0.9 [0.6-1.3] ng/mL), myohemoglobin (median [IQR], 128 [68-305] vs 39 [27-65] µg/L), high-sensitivity troponin I (median [IQR], 0.19 [0.08-1.12] vs <0.006 [<0.006-0.009] µg/L), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (median [IQR], 1689 [698-3327] vs 139 [51-335] pg/mL), aspartate aminotransferase (median [IQR], 40 [27-60] vs 29 [21-40] U/L), and creatinine (median [IQR], 1.15 [0.72-1.92] vs 0.64 [0.54-0.78] mg/dL); and had a higher proportion of multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity in radiographic findings (53 of 82 patients [64.6%] vs 15 of 334 patients [4.5%]). Greater proportions of patients with cardiac injury required noninvasive mechanical ventilation (38 of 82 [46.3%] vs 13 of 334 [3.9%]; P < .001) or invasive mechanical ventilation (18 of 82 [22.0%] vs 14 of 334 [4.2%]; P < .001) than those without cardiac injury. Complications were more common in patients with cardiac injury than those without cardiac injury and included acute respiratory distress syndrome (48 of 82 [58.5%] vs 49 of 334 [14.7%]; P < .001), acute kidney injury (7 of 82 [8.5%] vs 1 of 334 [0.3%]; P < .001), electrolyte disturbances (13 of 82 [15.9%] vs 17 of 334 [5.1%]; P = .003), hypoproteinemia (11 of 82 [13.4%] vs 16 of 334 [4.8%]; P = .01), and coagulation disorders (6 of 82 [7.3%] vs 6 of 334 [1.8%]; P = .02). Patients with cardiac injury had higher mortality than those without cardiac injury (42 of 82 [51.2%] vs 15 of 334 [4.5%]; P < .001). In a Cox regression model, patients with vs those without cardiac injury were at a higher risk of death, both during the time from symptom onset (hazard ratio, 4.26 [95% CI, 1.92-9.49]) and from admission to end point (hazard ratio, 3.41 [95% CI, 1.62-7.16]). Conclusions and Relevance: Cardiac injury is a common condition among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, and it is associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality.

13.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
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