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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3001-3006, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679287

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is a newly emerged and highly contagious respiratory disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has both systematism theory knowledge and clinical practical value in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, it was particularly important to examine the effect of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The patents of TCM might reflect the latest progression of scientific research. We aimed to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by extracting and analyzing the TCM patents from the Patent Information Sharing Platform of COVID-19. The antiviral TCM patents were screened and exported from the Patent Information Sharing Platform. VOSviewer 1.6.14 was used to visualize and analyze the network of TCM in these patents. There were total 292 TCM patents, including 52 patents for etiological treatment and 240 patents for symptomatic treatment. Thirty-two provinces and 1 076 inventors were involved, mainly from Beijing, Guangdong and Jiangsu. Overall, there were 356 TCMs, 71 single prescriptions, and 221 compound prescriptions. The patents for treatment of coronavirus mainly focused on the treatment of coronavirus, while the patents for symptomatic treatment mainly focuses on the improvement of respiratory symptoms, such as fever and cough. There were 14 highly frequently used TCMs, including Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Forsythiae Fructus, Isatidis Radix, Astragali Radix, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, Gypsum Fibrosum, Houttuyniae Herba, Isatidis Folium, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Gardeniae Fructus, Platycodonis Radix, Armeniacae Semen Amarum. The analyzed results of the TCM patents from the patent information sharing platform of COVID-19 were consistent with the Guideline of Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19(7th edition), and the combination of TCM in each cluster may also provide future directions for drug compatibility.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Beijing , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Information Dissemination , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657344

ABSTRACT

Tracing and isolation of close contacts is used to control outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, risk factors associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 among close contacts have not been well described. A total of 106 household contacts were included in this study, of whom 19 developed into COVID-19 cases, and the secondary attack rate was 17.9%. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing risk of occurrence of COVID-19 among household contacts was associated with female index patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.07-13.78), critical disease index patients (aHR = 7.58, 95% CI = 1.66-34.66), effective contact duration with index patients > 2 days (aHR = 4.21, 95% CI = 1.29-13.73), and effective contact duration > 11 days (aHR = 17.88, 95% CI = 3.26-98.01). The sex and disease severity of index patients with COVID-19 and longer effective contact duration with patients with confirmed COVID-19 could help epidemiologists to identify potential COVID-19 cases among household contacts at an early stage.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636311

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia is a newly recognized disease, and its diagnosis is primarily confirmed by routine RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, we report a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with routine RT-PCR negative. This case has been finally diagnosed by Nanopore sequencing combined with antibody of SARS-CoV-2. Simultaneously, the ORF and NP gene variation of SARS-CoV-2 were found. This case has highlighted that false negative results could be present in the routine RT-PCR diagnosis, especially with virus variation. At the moment, Nanopore pathogen sequencing and antibody detection have been found effective in clinical diagnosis.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110500, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)2 has emerged as a global pandemic. However, as effective treatments for this disease are still unclear, safe and efficient therapies are urgently needed. Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD)3 is strongly recommended in the Chinese Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Provisional 6th Edition). However, clinical research data on the effects of QPD on COVID-19 are scarce. Our study aimed to explore the effects of combined treatment with QPD and Western medicine on COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. During the first 14 days of hospitalization, patients with deteriorating symptoms were administered QPD along with Western medicine therapy (the antiviral medicine selected from interferon, lopinavir, or arbidol). The clinical characteristics and blood laboratory indices (blood routine, inflammatory factors, and multi-organ biochemical indices) were examined, and the total lung severity scores were evaluated in each patient by reviewing chest computed tomography before treatment and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Before QPD treatment, the combined treatment group showed higher blood C-reactive protein levels and more severe pulmonary inflammation and clinical symptoms than the Western medicine treatment group. Both groups met the discharge criteria after a similar length of hospitalization. At the end of treatment, circulating white blood cells, total lymphocyte count, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels improved dramatically in both groups (P <  0.05). In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P <  0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P <  0.01). Compared with baseline, at the end of treatment, the proportion of patients with normal values of C-reactive protein, total lymphocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase were increased in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed in the Western medicine treatment group (P >  0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of QPD with Western medicine demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects compared with those of only Western medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19; however, neither mortality nor length of hospitalization was affected. Moreover, the combined treatment tended to mitigate the extent of multi-organ impairment. Long-term randomized controlled trials with follow-up evaluations are required to confirm the results presented here.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Interferons/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20098426

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Numerous serologic immunoassays have been launched to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, including rapid tests. Here, we validate use of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) intended for rapid screening and qualitative detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in serum, plasma, and whole blood, and compare results with ELISA. We also seek to establish the value of LFI testing on blood obtained from a capillary blood sample. Methods: Samples collected by venous blood draw and capillary finger stick were obtained from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected by RT-qPCR and control patients negative for SARS-CoV-2. Samples were tested with the 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Detection Kit (Colloidal Gold) lateral flow immunoassay, and antibody calls were compared with results obtained by ELISA. Results: The Biolidics LFI kit shows clinical sensitivity of 92% at 7 days after PCR diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 on venous blood. Test specificity was 92% for IgM and 100% for IgG. There was no significant difference in detecting IgM and IgG with Biolidics LFI and ELISA at D0 and D7 (p=1.00), except for detection of IgM at D7 (p=0.04). Finger stick whole blood of SARS-CoV-2 patients showed 93% sensitivity for antibody detection. Conclusions: Clinical performance of Biolidics 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Detection Kit (Colloidal Gold) is comparable to ELISA and showed consistent results across different sample types. Furthermore, we show that capillary blood obtained by finger stick shows similar sensitivity for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies as venous blood samples. This provides an opportunity for decentralized rapid testing in the community and may allow point-of-care and longitudinal self-testing for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1242-1247, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-54035

ABSTRACT

To investigate the regularity of prescription and clinical syndromes by analyzing the diagnosis and treatment protocols of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) for coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), so as to provide references for syndrome differentiation and relevant researches. The diagnosis and treatment protocols of COVID-19 published by national and regional health authorities were searched, and information was extracted in regard to disease stages, type of syndromes, and prescriptions, etc. Frequency statistics and relative analysis were used to analyze the rule of syndrome differentiation and prescription with TCM, and further discussion on the pathogenesis and progress of the disease. A total of 26 diagnosis and treatment protocols of TCM for COVID-19 were retrieved after screening(including 1 national scheme and 25 regional ones), among which 16 contained aspects of both prevention and treatment, 7 only involved treatment contents and 3 were prevention schemes. The courses of COVID-19 can be divided into early stage, middle stage, severe stage and recovery stage. The pathogeny of COVID-19 in TCM is damp-toxin, with the core pathogenesis of damp-toxin retention in lung and Qi repression. Its pathological features can be summarized as "damp, toxin, obstruction, deficiency". The location of the disease is lung, always involving spleen and stomach, and may further affect heart and kidney in severe cases. The major treatments for each course are Fanghua Shizuo, Xuanfei Touxie(early stage); Qingre Jiedu, Xuanxie Feire(middle stage); Kaibi Gutuo, Huiyang Jiuni(severe stage); Qingjie Yure, Yiqi Yangyin(recovery stage). There were many diagnosis and treatment protocols for COVID-19 have been published, which generally followed the national edition, through with certain personalities in different regional protocols. There were common features with respect to the disease stage, syndrome differentiation, therapeutic principles and methods, as well as prescriptions; the treatment were generally carried out against the core pathogenesis and progress of the disease. Along with the deepening recognition of COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment protocols are still need further concretization and standardization. We hope researchers and decision-makers can pay more attention to the treatment of Huayu Tongluo in severe and recovery period.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1232-1241, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-53036

ABSTRACT

To analyze the registered clinical trial protocols of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), in order to provide information for improving the quality of research design. The website of the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry(www.chictr.org.cn) and the American Clinical Trial Registry(clinicaltrials.gov) were searched to collect protocols of TCM for COVID-19. Documents were screened following the inclusion criteria, and data were extracted in regard to registration date, study objective, type of design, sponsor, patient, sample size, intervention, and evaluation index. Descriptive analysis was conducted. A total of 49 clinical trial protocols of TCM for COVID-19 were included. Primary sponsors were mainly hospitals or universities in places like Hubei, Beijing, Zhejiang and other regions. The implementation units are mainly in Hubei, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Henan and other regional hospitals. The types of study design were mainly experimental studies(40), including 30 randomized parallel controlled trials, 7 non-randomized controlled trials, 2 single arm trials and 1 consecutively recruited trial; besides, there were also 6 observational studies, 2 health service studies and 1 preventive study. The sample size reached a total of 30 562 cases, with a maximum of 20 000 for a single study and a minimum of 30. The 49 trials subjects included healthy people(3), isolation and observation cases(1), suspected cases(10),confirmed COVID-19 patients(31) and COVID-19 recovery patients(4). Of the 31 trials planned to include confirmed COVID-19 patients, 16 protocols no definite disease classification, 3 with a clear exclusion of severe subjects, 4 with common subjects, 2 with light, common or severe subjects, 1 with light and common subjects, 1 with common or severe subjects, 3 with severe subjects, and 1 with severe or critical subjects. The experimental interventions included Chinese patent medicine(Lianhua Qingwen Capsules/Granules, Huoxiang Zhengqi Dropping Pills/Oral Liquid, Babao Dan, Gubiao Jiedu Ling, Jinhao Jiere Granules, Compound Yu-xingcao Mixture, Jinye Baidu Granules, Shufeng Jiedu Capsuless, Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid, Tanreqing Injection, Xuebijing Injection, Reduning Injection, Xiyanping Injection), Chinese medicinal decoction and taichi. The primary evaluation outcomes mainly included antipyretic time, clinical symptom relief, novel coronavirus nucleic acid turning to negative, conversion rate of severe cases and chest CT. There was a quick response of clinical research on the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 with TCM, with the current registered protocols covers the whole process of disease prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. However, issues need to be concerned, including unclear definition of patient's condition, unclear research objectives, unclear intervention process and inappropriate outcomes, etc. In addition, researchers should consider the actual difficulties and workload of doctors in epidemic response environment, and make effort to optimize the process and improve the operability of research protocols under the principle of medical ethics.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trial Protocols as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , China , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design
8.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20058313

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic spreads across the world, it is important to understand its features and responses to public health interventions in real-time. The field of infectious diseases epidemiology has highly advanced modeling strategies that yield relevant estimates. These include the doubling time of the epidemic and various other representations of the numbers of cases identified over time. Crude estimates of these quantities suffer from dependence on the underlying testing strategies within communities. We clarify the functional relationship between testing and the epidemic parameters, and thereby derive sensitivity analyses that explore the range of possible truths under various testing dynamics. We derive the required adjustment to the estimates of interest for New York City. We demonstrate that crude estimates that assume stable testing or complete testing can be biased.

9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As an emerging infectious disease, COVID-19 has involved many countries and regions. With the further development of the epidemic, the proportion of clusters has increased. METHODS: In our study, we collected information on COVID-19 clusters in Qingdao City. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations were analyzed. RESULTS: Eleven clusters of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao City between January 29, and February 23, 2020, involving 44 confirmed cases, which accounted for 73.33% of all confirmed cases. From January 19 to February 2, 2020, the cases mainly concentrated in the district that had many designated hospitals. Patients aged 20-59 y old accounted for the largest proportion (68.18%) of cases; the male-to-female sex ratio was 0.52:1. Three cases were infected from exposure to confirmed cases. The average incubation period was 6.28 d. The median number of cases per cluster was 4, and the median duration time was 6 d. The median cumulative number of exposed persons was 53. CONCLUSION: More attention should be paid to the epidemic of clusters in prevention and control of COVID-19. In addition to isolating patients, it is essential to track, screen, and isolate those who have come in close contact with patients. Self-isolation is the key especially for healthy people in the epidemic area.

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