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1.
The International Sports Law Journal ; 22(3):259-270, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118668

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of sports service contracts in China from a legal and judicial perspective. It attempts to contribute to the discussion on the applicability of the doctrines of force majeure and change of circumstances in the cases of impracticability of performance or obstructed performance due to COVID-19 and consequent government enforced pandemic control policies and measures. It reveals that courts in China have adopted a differentiated, pluralist, and practical approach according to the degree of the impact of COVID-19 preventive and control measures on the performance of contracts. The juridical responses by judges tend to favour the amendment of contract under the principle of changed circumstances with a view to balancing the interests of both parties to the contract and reducing the impact on the operations of the sport service industry. China’s experience suggests that it is important that courts adhere to the principle of fairness, the principle of balance of interests, and the principle of encouraging transaction in dealing with contract performance disputes caused by COVID-19, while the applicability of force majeure should be carefully examined in judicial practice.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 962101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099176

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic the interindividual variability in the course of the disease has been reported, indicating a wide range of factors influencing it. Factors which were the most often associated with increased COVID-19 severity include higher age, obesity and diabetes. The influence of cytokine storm is complex, reflecting the complexity of the immunological processes triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. A modern challenge such as a worldwide pandemic requires modern solutions, which in this case is harnessing the machine learning for the purpose of analysing the differences in the clinical properties of the populations affected by the disease, followed by grading its significance, consequently leading to creation of tool applicable for assessing the individual risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Biochemical and morphological parameters values of 5,000 patients (Curisin Healthcare (India) were gathered and used for calculation of eGFR, SII index and N/L ratio. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient formula was used for assessment of correlations between each of the features in the population and the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Feature importance was evaluated by fitting a Random Forest machine learning model to the data and examining their predictive value. Its accuracy was measured as the F1 Score. Results: The parameters which showed the highest correlation coefficient were age, random serum glucose, serum urea, gender and serum cholesterol, whereas the highest inverse correlation coefficient was assessed for alanine transaminase, red blood cells count and serum creatinine. The accuracy of created model for differentiating positive from negative SARS-CoV-2 cases was 97%. Features of highest importance were age, alanine transaminase, random serum glucose and red blood cells count. Conclusion: The current analysis indicates a number of parameters available for a routine screening in clinical setting. It also presents a tool created on the basis of these parameters, useful for assessing the individual risk of developing COVID-19 in patients. The limitation of the study is the demographic specificity of the studied population, which might restrict its general applicability.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022737

ABSTRACT

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive "cytokines storm", main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Proteomics
4.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 86, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008267

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has continued to affect millions of lives worldwide, leading to the urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies. G-quadruplexes (G4s) have been demonstrated to regulate life cycle of multiple viruses. Here, we identify several highly conservative and stable G4s in SARS-CoV-2 and clarify their dual-function of inhibition of the viral replication and translation processes. Furthermore, the cationic porphyrin compound 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) targeting SARS-CoV-2 G4s shows excellent antiviral activity, while its N-methyl-2-pyridyl positional isomer TMPyP2 with low affinity for G4 has no effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the antiviral activity of TMPyP4 attributes to targeting SARS-CoV-2 G4s. In the Syrian hamster and transgenic mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, administration of TMPyP4 at nontoxic doses significantly suppresses SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in reduced viral loads and lung lesions. Worth to note, the anti-COVID-19 activity of TMPyP4 is more potent than remdesivir evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Our findings highlight SARS-CoV-2 G4s as a novel druggable target and the compelling potential of TMPyP4 for COVID-19 therapy. Different from the existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic strategies, our work provides another alternative therapeutic tactic for SARS-CoV-2 infection focusing on targeting the secondary structures within SARS-CoV-2 genome, and would open a new avenue for design and synthesis of drug candidates with high selectivity toward the new targets.

5.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989801

ABSTRACT

Background Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic the interindividual variability in the course of the disease has been reported, indicating a wide range of factors influencing it. Factors which were the most often associated with increased COVID-19 severity include higher age, obesity and diabetes. The influence of cytokine storm is complex, reflecting the complexity of the immunological processes triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. A modern challenge such as a worldwide pandemic requires modern solutions, which in this case is harnessing the machine learning for the purpose of analysing the differences in the clinical properties of the populations affected by the disease, followed by grading its significance, consequently leading to creation of tool applicable for assessing the individual risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods Biochemical and morphological parameters values of 5,000 patients (Curisin Healthcare (India) were gathered and used for calculation of eGFR, SII index and N/L ratio. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient formula was used for assessment of correlations between each of the features in the population and the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Feature importance was evaluated by fitting a Random Forest machine learning model to the data and examining their predictive value. Its accuracy was measured as the F1 Score. Results The parameters which showed the highest correlation coefficient were age, random serum glucose, serum urea, gender and serum cholesterol, whereas the highest inverse correlation coefficient was assessed for alanine transaminase, red blood cells count and serum creatinine. The accuracy of created model for differentiating positive from negative SARS-CoV-2 cases was 97%. Features of highest importance were age, alanine transaminase, random serum glucose and red blood cells count. Conclusion The current analysis indicates a number of parameters available for a routine screening in clinical setting. It also presents a tool created on the basis of these parameters, useful for assessing the individual risk of developing COVID-19 in patients. The limitation of the study is the demographic specificity of the studied population, which might restrict its general applicability.

6.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958481

ABSTRACT

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive “cytokines storm”, main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Current Psychology ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935866

ABSTRACT

While generational differences in coping with the threat of the global COVID-19 crisis were widely discussed in Western societies, a more careful look from the family level is needed in collectivistic societies like China. This study conducted an online survey among three generations of Chinese families between late January and late March in 2020. The study examined 1380 individuals (college students [G1]: N = 762, M-age = 20.47 + 2.45, 78.1% female;parents [G2]: N = 386, M-age = 47.64 + 4.08, 51.3% female;grandparents [G3]: N = 232, M-age = 73.50 + 8.57, 54.3% female) and their cognitions, affect, and preventive intentions toward COVID-19. The investigation ultimately yielded 226 pairs of family data. The results showed generational differences in the above variables. Perceived severity showed a significant total effect on preventive intention for all three generations, and perceived societal risk showed a significant (total) effect on preventive intention only for G3. Perceived severity was linked to preventive intentions through negative affect for those with lower self-efficacy in G1 and G2. Perceived societal risk was also linked to preventive intention through negative affect for those with low self-efficacy for G2. Moreover, cluster analyses identified three types of families with different epidemic coping patterns: stand-by families (48.23%), precautious families (35.40%), and insensitive families (16.37%). This research provides theoretical and practical implications for understanding the disparities in epidemic prevention between different generations and families. Findings show insights for improving the government's communication strategies.

8.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(7): 1367-1375, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908085

ABSTRACT

With the global pandemic of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a safe, effective, and affordable mass-produced vaccine remains the current focus of research. Herein, we designed an adjuvant-protein conjugate vaccine candidate, in which the TLR7 agonist (TLR7a) was conjugated to S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and systematically compared the effect of different numbers of built-in TLR7a on the immune activity for the first time. As the number of built-in TLR7a increased, a bell-shaped reaction was observed in three TLR7a-S1 conjugates, with TLR7a(10)-S1 (with around 10 built-in adjuvant molecules on one S1 protein) eliciting a more potent immune response than TLR7a(2)-S1 and TLR7a(18)-S1. This adjuvant-protein conjugate strategy allows the built-in adjuvant to provide cluster effects and prevents systemic toxicity and facilitates the co-delivery of adjuvant and antigen. Vaccination of mice with TLR7a(10)-S1 triggered a potent humoral and cellular immunity and a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Meanwhile, the vaccine induces effective neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and all variants of concern (B.1.1.7/alpha, B.1.351/beta, P.1/gamma, B.1.617.2/delta, and B.1.1.529/omicron). It is expected that the adjuvant-protein conjugate strategy has great potential to construct a potent recombinant protein vaccine candidate against various types of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Vaccines, Conjugate
9.
J Med Chem ; 65(3): 2558-2570, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895561

ABSTRACT

Safe and effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants are the best approach to successfully combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein is a major target to develop candidate vaccines. α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), a potent invariant natural killer T cell (iNKT) agonist, was site-specifically conjugated to the N-terminus of the RBD to form an adjuvant-protein conjugate, which was anchored on the liposome surface. This is the first time that an iNKT cell agonist was conjugated to the protein antigen. Compared to the unconjugated RBD/αGalCer mixture, the αGalCer-RBD conjugate induced significantly stronger humoral and cellular responses. The conjugate vaccine also showed effective cross-neutralization to all variants of concern (B.1.1.7/alpha, B.1.351/beta, P.1/gamma, B.1.617.2/delta, and B.1.1.529/omicron). These results suggest that the self-adjuvanting αGalCer-RBD has great potential to be an effective COVID-19 vaccine candidate, and this strategy might be useful for designing various subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Galactosylceramides/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Galactosylceramides/chemistry , Galactosylceramides/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Liposomes/chemistry , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Conjugate/chemistry , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e35557, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Online medical consultation is an important complementary approach to offline health care services. It not only increases patients' accessibility to medical care, but also encourages patients to actively participate in consultation, which can result in higher shared decision making, patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore multilevel factors that influence patient activeness in online medical consultations. METHODS: A data set comprising 40,505 patients from 300 physicians in 10 specialties was included for multilevel analysis. Patient activeness score (PAS) was calculated based on the frequency and the proportion of patient discourses to the total frequency of doctor-patient interactions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to identify between-group variations, and the final multilevel regression model included patient- and physician-level factors. RESULTS: Patients were not equally active in online medical consultations, with PASs varying from 0 to 125.73. Patient characteristics, consultation behavioral attributes, and physician professional characteristics constitute 3 dimensions that are associated with patient activeness. Specifically, young and female patients participated more actively. Patients' waiting times online (ß=-.17; P<.001) for physician responses were negatively correlated with activeness, whereas patients' initiation of conversation (ß=.83; P<.001) and patient consultation cost (ß=.52; P<.001) in online medical consultation were positively correlated. Physicians' online consultation volumes (ß=-.10; P=.01) were negatively associated with patient activeness, whereas physician online consultation fee (ß=.03; P=.01) was positively associated. The interaction effects between patient- and physician-level factors were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Patient activeness in online medical consultation requires more scholarly attention. Patient activeness is likely to be enhanced by reducing patients' waiting times and encouraging patients' initiation of conversation in online medical consultation. The findings have practical implications for patient-centered care and the improvement of online medical consultation services.


Subject(s)
Communication , Referral and Consultation , China , Female , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Patient Satisfaction
11.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-11, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871973

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has resulted in an ongoing worldwide pandemic since it was first recognized in December 2019. The kidney is one of the organs most easily affected by COVID-19. The injury of the kidney by COVID-19 manifested as hematuria, proteinuria, serum creatinine fluctuations, and even acute kidney injury (AKI). Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are much more prone to suffer from AKI. Moreover, AKI is related to poor outcomes in the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, early detection and active prevention of kidney injury are very important. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, pathogenesis, pathological manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of kidney injury in patients with COVID-19. It is expected to provide valuable insights for disease prevention and control from the perspective of nephrologists.

12.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871289

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical features of elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to explore the relationship between COVID-19 patients and kidney injury. Methods: A total of 188 elderly patients with confirmed COVID-19 enrolled in this study were hospitalized for at least 1 week in the Central Theater Command General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army from January 3, 2020 to March 14, 2020. The recorded information included clinical data and results of kidney-related laboratory tests. Retrospective analysis was performed. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (interquartile range 65–78, range: 60–97 years);31.4% were 60–74 years old, and 68.6% were over 75 years old. A total of 12.8% and 18.6% of the patients were in critical and severe stages of COVID-19, respectively. The proportions of patients using mechanical ventilators and deaths were 9.5% and 8.5%, respectively. A total of 26.1% and 8.5% of the patients showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels at admission. A total of 18.6% and 5.9% of the patients had elevated BUN and SCr 1 week after admission, respectively. A total of 3.1% of the patients were diagnosed with acute kidney injury, and 75% of those patients had chronic kidney disease before admission. Compared with the patients aged 60–74 years, those over 75 years exhibited significantly increased proportions of elevated BUN levels, critical illness, use of mechanical ventilated, and death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an elevated BUN level at admission and 1 week after admission were independent risk factors for death in the elderly patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: There were more critical cases and a high mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19. An increased BUN level was an independent risk factor for death in elderly patients with COVID-19.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 151, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than one-third of the total world population is infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). T. gondii has been linked to various diseases, such as cancer, mental disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), etc. However, the effects of T. gondii infection on the risk of osteoporosis are unclear. Our study aimed to uncover evidence to determine whether patients exposed to T. gondii have an increased or decreased risk of osteoporosis in people with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) by using case-control study. METHODS: A total of 729 patients, including 316 osteopenia and 413 osteoporosis patients of Han Chinese ancestry were selected in the study. Their blood samples were collected and the levels of specific IgG antibodies against T. gondii were measured using ELISA assay. We obtained some information about the patients from the medical record that included demographic indexes and clinical data. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of T. gondii infection on femur osteoporosis, lumbar osteoporosis and compound osteoporosis. Potential interaction was analyzed using multifactor dimensionality reduction software 1.0.0 (MDR 1.0.0). RESULTS: 113 positive patients with T. gondii infections have been detected, including 80 cases of osteoporosis and 33 cases of osteopenia, the infection rates of T. gondii were 19.37% (80/413) and 10.44% (33/316), respectively. The patients with T.gondii infections were at a 2.60 times higher risk of suffering from compound osteoporosis than those without T. gondii infections (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.54-4.39, P < 0.001), but not associated with femur osteoporosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.43-2.34, P = 0.989) and lumbar osteoporosis (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.34-2.07, P = 0.705) after adjusting for the covariates. Moreover, a significantly higher risk of compound osteoporosis in the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, Female) was observed compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, male) under the interaction model (OR = 11.44, 95%CI = 5.44-24.05, P < 0.001). And the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, over 70 years) exhibited a 8.14-fold higher possibility of developing compound osteoporosis compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, under 70 years) (OR = 8.14, 95% CI 3.91-16.93, P < 0.001). We further stratified by age and sex, and found that women with T. gondii infection was more likely to develop compound osteoporosis than those without infection(OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.67-5.81, P < 0.001), but we not found the association between T. gondii infection and compound osteoporosis in males (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.37-4.94, P = 0.645). CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii infection is a risk factor for osteoporosis, especially compound osteoporosis. Meanwhile, it is very necessary for patients with osteoporosis to further diagnose and treat T. gondii infection, especially women.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Osteoporosis , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Risk Factors , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology
14.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5477, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820390

ABSTRACT

Currently, people in crowded indoor spaces are required to wear a variety of personal protective equipment to curb the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing four types of personal protective equipment (unprotected, wearing masks, wearing face shield and wearing medical protective clothing) on human thermal perception and physiological responses in indoor crowded spaces in summer. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber designed to simulate the indoor crowded spaces. Environmental parameters of climate chamber (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed), physiological parameters of subjects (wrist skin temperature and pulse rate), and subjective perceptions (thermal sensation and thermal comfort) were collected during the experiment. The experimental results showed that medical protective clothing has the most obvious blocking effect on heat exchange between human and environment. Thermal sensation in state 4 (wearing medical protective clothing) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in other states. The study of physiological parameters showed that the wrist skin temperature and pulse rate under different protection states increased with the increase of room temperature. Through regression analysis, the thermal sensation estimation model of protective personnel in indoor crowded spaces based on wrist skin temperature and pulse rate was established. The adjusted R2 and RMSE of all models were above 82% and less than 1, indicating that the established thermal sensation model had a good prediction effect.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 816619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809388

ABSTRACT

Infections during pregnancy can seriously damage fetal neurodevelopment by aberrantly activating the maternal immune system, directly impacting fetal neural cells. Increasing evidence suggests that these adverse impacts involve alterations in neural stem cell biology with long-term consequences for offspring, including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairment. Here we review how maternal infection with viruses such as Influenza A, Cytomegalovirus, and Zika during pregnancy can affect the brain development of offspring by promoting the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines, triggering neuroinflammation of the fetal brain, and/or directly infecting fetal neural cells. In addition, we review insights into how these infections impact human brain development from studies with animal models and brain organoids. Finally, we discuss how maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 may have consequences for neurodevelopment of the offspring.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology , Brain , Cytokines , Female , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/complications
16.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787520

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study is to investigate what topic indicators correlate with public sentiment during “coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic” and which indicators control the complex networks of the topic indicators. We obtained 68,098 Weibo, categorized them into 11 topic indicators, and grouped these indicators into three dimensions. Then, we constructed the complex networks model of Weibo's topics and examined the key indicators affecting the public's sentiment during the major public emergency. The results showed that “positive emotion” is positively correlated with “recordings of epidemic” and “foreign comparisons,” while “negative emotion” is negatively correlated with “government image,” “recordings of epidemic,” and “asking for help online.” In addition, the two vertexes of “recordings of epidemic” and “foreign comparisons” are the most important “bridges” which connect the government and the public. The “recordings of epidemic” is the main connection “hub” between the government and the media. In other words, the “recordings of epidemic” is the central topic indicator that controls the entire topic network. In conclusion, the government should publish the advance of the events through official media on time and transparent way and create a platform where everyone can speak directly to the government for advice and assistance during a major public emergency in the future.

17.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(5):663-665, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1756132

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVlD-l9) has a huge impact on traditional teaching mode, which also has provided new Opportunities and Challenges for teaching reform. Now the COVID-l9 epidemic has been effectively controlled in China. but global epidemic control is still continuing. Therefore many international students in China can't return to svhool on time which brings Challenges to the teaching of human parasitology. Through a summary of the teaching model under the COVID- 19 epidemic, the present paper will focus on the measure for teaching reform during the post-epidemic era. After learning from the teaching experience during the COVID- 19 epidemic overseas Chinese schools will strengthen biosafety education and adapt the "0nline+0ffline" mixed teaching model during the post-epidemic era;the teaching contents will change from mainly introducing life cycle to introducing both life cycle and prevention. These reforms will increase the ability of the university to respond to emergencies in the future teaching process and improve the shortcomings of the traditional education model, so that overseas Chinese schools can meet the new requirements of the development of the times on human parasitology to adapt the needs of talent training and talent reserve.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(24): 3925-3928, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730326

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are important components in vaccines to increase the immunogenicity of proteins and induce optimal immunity. In this study, we designed a novel ternary adjuvant system Alum + c-GAMP + poly(I:C) with STING agonist 3,3'-c-GAMP (c-GAMP) and TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) co-adsorbed on the conventional adjuvant aluminum gel (Alum), and further constructed an S1 protein vaccine. Two doses of vaccination with the ternary adjuvant vaccine were sufficient to induce a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response and robust humoral and cellular immunity. Additionally, the ternary adjuvant group had effective neutralizing activity against live virus SARS-CoV-2 and pseudovirus of all variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron). These results indicate that the ternary adjuvants have a significant synergistic effect and can rapidly trigger potent immune responses; the combination of the ternary adjuvant system with S1 protein is a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Alum Compounds , Aluminum , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Poly I
19.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728543

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose To investigate the effect of prior ischemic stroke on the outcomes of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to describe the incidence, clinical features, and risk factors of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) following COVID-19. Methods In this population-based retrospective study, we included all the hospitalized positive patients with COVID-19 at Wuhan City from December 29, 2019 to April 15, 2020. Clinical data were extracted from administrative datasets coordinated by the Wuhan Health Commission. The propensity score matching and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust the confounding factors. Results There are 36,358 patients in the final cohort, in which 1,160 (3.2%) had a prior stroke. After adjusting for available baseline characteristics, patients with prior stroke had a higher proportion of severe and critical illness and mortality. We found for the first time that the premorbid modified Rankin Scale (MRS) grouping (odds ratio [OR] = 1.796 [95% CI 1.334–2.435], p < 0.001) and older age (OR = 1.905 [95% CI 1.211–3.046], p = 0.006) imparted increased risk of death. AIS following COVID-19 occurred in 124 (0.34%) cases, and patients with prior stroke had a much higher incidence of AIS (3.4%). Logistic regression analyses confirmed an association between the severity of COVID-19 with the incidence of AIS. COVID-19 patients with AIS had a significantly higher mortality compared with COVID-19 patients without stroke and AIS patients without COVID-19. Conclusions Coronavirus disease 2019 patients with prior stroke, especially those with the higher premorbid MRS or aged, have worse clinical outcomes. Furthermore, COVID-19 increases the incidence of AIS, and the incidence is positively associated with the severity of COVID-19.

20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 306-309, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684435

ABSTRACT

Since the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was first reported from South Africa, it has rapidly spread in over 100 countries. Only two cases infected by the Omicron variant were recently identified in China. The one case in Guangzhou has a relatively long incubation time and mild symptoms. Analysis of the complete viral genome sequence shows three missing Omicron unique mutations and one additional mutation in the newly characterized genome. These unique mutations may be related to the clinical presentation in this case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Humans , South Africa
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