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1.
Lancet Microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The H3N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) has been circulating in wild birds, with occasional interspecies transmission to mammals. The first human infection of H3N8 subtype occurred in Henan Province, China, in April, 2022. We aimed to investigate clinical, epidemiological, and virological data related to a second case identified soon afterwards in Hunan Province, China. METHODS: We analysed clinical, epidemiological, and virological data for a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with H3N8 AIV infection in May, 2022, during influenza-like illness surveillance in Changsha City, Hunan Province, China. H3N8 virus strains from chicken flocks from January, 2021, to April, 2022, were retrospectively investigated in China. The genomes of the viruses were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis of all the eight gene segments. We evaluated the receptor-binding properties of the H3N8 viruses by using a solid-phase binding assay. We used sequence alignment and homology-modelling methods to study the effect of specific mutations on the human receptor-binding properties. We also conducted serological surveillance to detect the H3N8 infections among poultry workers in the two provinces with H3N8 cases. FINDINGS: The clinical symptoms of the patient were mild, including fever, sore throat, chills, and a runny nose. The patient's fever subsided on the same day of hospitalisation, and these symptoms disappeared 7 days later, presenting mild influenza symptoms, with no pneumonia. An H3N8 virus was isolated from the patient's throat swab specimen. The novel H3N8 virus causing human infection was first detected in a chicken farm in Guangdong Province in December, 2021, and subsequently emerged in several provinces. Sequence analyses revealed the novel H3N8 AIVs originated from multiple reassortment events. The haemagglutinin gene could have originated from H3Ny AIVs of duck origin. The neuraminidase gene belongs to North American lineage, and might have originated in Alaska (USA) and been transferred by migratory birds along the east Asian flyway. The six internal genes had originated from G57 genotype H9N2 AIVs that were endemic in chicken flocks. Reassortment events might have occurred in domestic ducks or chickens in the Pearl River Delta area in southern China. The novel H3N8 viruses possess the ability to bind to both avian-type and human-type sialic acid receptors, which pose a threat to human health. No poultry worker in our study was positive for antibodies against the H3N8 virus. INTERPRETATION: The novel H3N8 virus that caused human infection had originated from chickens, a typical spillover. The virus is a triple reassortment strain with the Eurasian avian H3 gene, North American avian N8 gene, and dynamic internal genes of the H9N2 viruses. The virus already possesses binding ability to human-type receptors, though the risk of the H3N8 virus infection in humans was low, and the cases are rare and sporadic at present. Considering the pandemic potential, comprehensive surveillance of the H3N8 virus in poultry flocks and the environment is imperative, and poultry-to-human transmission should be closely monitored. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan Provincial Innovative Construction Special Fund: Emergency response to COVID-19 outbreak, Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Health Department, and the Hunan Provincial Health Commission Foundation.

3.
Health Secur ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028992

ABSTRACT

From April 23 to November 2021, a wave of COVID-19 infections caused by a new Alpha variant swept across Taiwan, resulting in 14,458 positive cases and 830 deaths among over 3.8 million people tested. To cope with the sudden increase in sample volume, as of December 14, 2021, a network of 249 laboratories with a total diagnostic capacity of 158,492 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests per day was established in 22 administrative regions. As of April 2022, over 9.5 million specimens were tested. Fully automated high-throughput and point-of-care nucleic acid testing, and rapid antigen testing, were simultaneously implemented to expand the country's daily diagnostic capacity. Saliva testing and sample pooling were also introduced to increase screening efficiency in certain situations. Antibody testing and genomic sequencing were also adopted for more precise epidemic investigation. Other challenges encountered and overcome include a lack of resources and interfacing of laboratory information management systems for case reporting, limited specimen allocation and delivery, and limited staff for diagnostic processing.

4.
Journal of Medical Economics ; 25(1):1039-1050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028893

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the public health impact of the UK COVID-19 booster vaccination program in autumn 2021, during a period of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant predominance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A compartmental Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to compare age-stratified health outcomes for adult booster vaccination versus no booster vaccination in the UK over a time horizon of September-December 2021, when boosters were introduced in the UK and the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was predominant. Model input data were sourced from targeted literature reviews and publicly available data. Outcomes were predicted COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) cases, deaths, and productivity losses averted, and predicted healthcare resources saved. Scenario analyses varied booster coverage, virus infectivity and severity, and time horizon parameters. RESULTS: Booster vaccination was estimated to have averted approximately 547,000 COVID-19 cases, 36,000 hospitalizations, 147,000 PASC cases, and 4,200 deaths in the UK between September and December 2021. It saved over 316,000 hospital bed-days and prevented the loss of approximately 16.5 million paid and unpaid patient work days. In a scenario of accelerated uptake, the booster rollout would have averted approximately 3,400 additional deaths and 25,500 additional hospitalizations versus the base case. A scenario analysis assuming four-fold greater virus infectivity and lower severity estimated that booster vaccination would have averted over 105,000 deaths and over 41,000 hospitalizations versus the base case. A scenario analysis assuming pediatric primary series vaccination prior to adult booster vaccination estimated that expanding vaccination to children aged >=5 years would have averted approximately 51,000 additional hospitalizations and 5,400 additional deaths relative to adult booster vaccination only. LIMITATIONS: The model did not include the wider economic burden of COVID-19, hospital capacity constraints, booster implementation costs, or non-pharmaceutical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Booster vaccination during Delta variant predominance reduced the health burden of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK, releasing substantial NHS capacity.

5.
JAMA Network Open ; 5(9):e2231334, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027278

ABSTRACT

Importance: West Virginia prioritized SARS-CoV-2 vaccine delivery to nursing home facilities because of increased risk of severe illness in elderly populations. However, the persistence and protective role of antibody levels remain unclear. Objective: To examine the persistence of humoral immunity after COVID-19 vaccination and the association of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and subsequent infection among nursing home residents and staff. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were procured between September 13 and November 30, 2021, from vaccinated residents and staff at participating nursing home facilities in the state of West Virginia for measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibody (anti-receptor binding domain [RBD] IgG). SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination history were documented during specimen collection and through query of the state SARS-CoV-2 surveillance system through January 16, 2022. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (with BNT162b2, messenger RNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S). Main Outcomes and Measures: Anti-RBD IgG levels were assessed using multivariate analysis to examine associations between time since vaccination or infection, age, sex, booster doses, and vaccine type. Antibody levels from participants who became infected after specimen collection were compared with those without infection to correlate antibody levels with subsequent infection. Results: Among 2139 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated residents and staff from participating West Virginia nursing facilities (median [range] age, 67 [18-103] years;1660 [78%] female;2045 [96%] White), anti-RBD IgG antibody levels decreased with time after vaccination or infection (mean [SE] estimated coefficient, -0.025 [0.0015];P < .001). Multivariate regression modeling of participants with (n = 608) and without (n = 1223) a known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection demonstrated significantly higher mean (SE) antibody indexes with a third (booster) vaccination (with infection: 11.250 [1.2260];P < .001;without infection: 8.056 [0.5333];P < .001). Antibody levels (calculated by dividing the sample signal by the mean calibrator signal) were significantly lower among participants who later experienced breakthrough infection during the Delta surge (median, 2.3;95% CI, 1.8-2.9) compared with those without breakthrough infection (median, 5.8;95% CI, 5.5-6.1) (P = .002);however, no difference in absorbance indexes was observed in participants with breakthrough infections occurring after specimen collection (median, 5.9;95% CI, 3.7-11.1) compared with those without breakthrough infection during the Omicron surge (median, 5.8;95% CI, 5.6-6.2) (P = .70). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, anti-RBD IgG levels decreased after vaccination or infection. Higher antibody responses were found in individuals who received a third (booster) vaccination. Although lower antibody levels were associated with breakthrough infection during the Delta surge, no significant association was found between antibody level and infection observed during the Omicron surge. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that among nursing home residents, COVID-19 vaccine boosters are important and updated vaccines effective against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed.

6.
Biomedicine-Taiwan ; 12(3):56-71, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026734

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has been a global outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 virus) since 2019. Taiwan Chingguan Yihau (NRICM101) is the first traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) classic herbal formula and is widely used for COVID-19 patients in Taiwan and more than 50 nations. This study is to investigate in silico target fishing for the components of NRICM101 and to explore whether NRICM101 inhibits cytokines-induced normal human lung cell injury in vitro. Our results showed that network prediction of NRICM101 by a high throughput target screening platform showed that NRICM101 has multiple functions that may affect cytokine regulation to prevent human lung cell injury. In addition, NRICM101 revealed protective effects against TNF-alpha/IL-1 beta-induced normal human lung HEL 299 cell injury through JNK and p38MAPK kinase signaling. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of NRICM101 on TNF-alpha/IL-1 beta-injured HEL 299 cells indicated that inflammatory pathway, cell movement of macrophages, cellular infiltration by macrophages, and Th1/Th2 immuno-regulation pathways were included. Thus, NRICM101 is a therapeutic agent, and it can improve COVID-19 syndrome to confer beneficial effects through multiple targeting and multiple mechanisms.

8.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022982

ABSTRACT

Network meta-analysis of deaths from various underlying diseases after COVID-19 infection. This study included more than 10 research centers with the same level of care. In total, 1,676 subjects were included in our study, including 1,122 men and 554 women, patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and combined with underlying diseases;provided data on the number of deaths from related diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumor, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and respiratory disease. The comparison RR between hypertension and different diseases shows that it is (RR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.98) compared with diabetes, compared with coronary heart disease (RR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4), compared with cerebrovascular disease (RR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.87, 7.29), compared with malignant tumor (RR = 6.35, 95% CI: 3.45, 11.97), and compared with chronic kidney disease (RR = 5.53 95% CI: 3.04, 10.34), compared with chronic liver disease (RR = 15.51, 95% CI: 5.26, 50.98), compared with respiratory diseases (RR = 4.35, 95% CI: 2.37, 7.65), RR values are >1, which is statistically significant. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) showed that the ranking of disease mortality from high to low was hypertension> diabetes> heart disease> cerebrovascular disease> respiratory disease> chronic kidney disease> malignant tumor> chronic liver disease. The study that hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease are the top three risk factors for patients infected with COVID-19, and management of these patients should be strengthened to improve the prognosis of patients. Ethical approval and patient consent are not required as this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. The results of this network meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for the publication.

9.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022731

ABSTRACT

To cope with the decline in COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity caused by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, a heterologous immunization regimen using chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (ChAd-S) and an inactivated vaccine (IV) was tested in mice and non-human primates (NHPs). Heterologous regimen successfully enhanced or at least maintained antibody and T cell responses and effectively protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice and NHPs. An additional heterologous booster in mice further improved and prolonged the spike-specific antibody response and conferred effective neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Interestingly, priming with ChAd-S and boosting with IV reduced the lung injury risk caused by T cell over activation in NHPs compared to homologous ChAd-S regimen, meanwhile maintained the flexibility of antibody regulation system to react to virus invasion by upregulating or preserving antibody levels. This study demonstrated the satisfactory compatibility of ChAd-S and IV in prime-boost vaccination in animal models.

10.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:939311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022716

ABSTRACT

Background: Owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the emergency use of different types of COVID-19 vaccines, there is an urgent need to consider the effectiveness and persistence of different COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: We investigated the immunogenicity of CoronaVac and Covilo, two inactivated vaccines against COVID-19 that each contain inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The levels of neutralizing antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2 and the inhibition rates of neutralizing antibodies to pseudovirus, as well as the immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM responses towards the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 at 180 days after two-dose vaccination were detected. Results: The CoronaVac and Covilo vaccines induced similar antibody responses. Regarding neutralizing antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2, 77.9% of the CoronaVac vaccine recipients and 78.3% of the Covilo vaccine recipients (aged 18-59 years) seroconverted by 28 days after the second vaccine dose. Regarding SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, 97.1% of the CoronaVac vaccine recipients and 95.7% of the Covilo vaccine recipients seroconverted by 28 days after the second vaccine dose. The inhibition rates of neutralizing antibody against a pseudovirus of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant were significantly lower compared with those against a pseudovirus of wildtype SARS-CoV-2. Associated with participant characteristics and antibody levels, persons in the older age group and with basic disease, especially a chronic respiratory disease, tended to have lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion rates. Conclusion: Antibodies that were elicited by these two inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appeared to wane following their peak after the second vaccine dose, but they persisted at detectable levels through 6 months after the second vaccine dose, and the effectiveness of these antibodies against the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was lower than their effectiveness against wildtype SARS-CoV-2, which suggests that attention must be paid to the protective effectiveness, and its persistence, of COVID-19 vaccines on SARS-CoV-2 variants.

12.
Neonatology ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2020583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare neonatal outcomes and resource use of neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 positivity during pregnancy with neonates born to mothers without SARS-CoV-2 positivity. METHODS: We conducted a two-country cohort study of neonates admitted between January 1, 2020, and September 15, 2021, to tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Canada and Sweden. Neonates from mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive during pregnancy were compared with three randomly selected NICU neonates of mothers who were not test-positive, matched on gestational age, sex, and birth weight (±0.25 SD). Subgroup analyses were conducted for neonates born <33 weeks' gestation and mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive ≤10 days prior to birth. Primary outcome was duration of respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, neonatal morbidity, late-onset sepsis, receipt of breast milk at discharge, and length of stay. RESULTS: There were 163 exposed and 468 matched neonates in Canada, and 303 exposed and 903 matched neonates in Sweden. There was no statistically significant difference in invasive or noninvasive respiratory support durations, mortality, respiratory and other neonatal morbidities, or resource utilizations between two groups in both countries in entire cohort and in subgroup analyses. Receipt of breast milk at discharge was lower in the Canadian neonates of mothers who were SARS-CoV-2 positive ≤10 days before birth (risk ratio 0.68, 95% CI: 0.57-0.82). CONCLUSION: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with increased durations of respiratory support, morbidities, mortality, or length of hospital stay in Canada and Sweden among neonates admitted to tertiary NICU.

13.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0226322, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019798

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of mutated SARS-CoV-2 to clarify the association between virulence and the viral spreading ability of current and future circulating strains. Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain GD108 and Beta variant B.1.351 (B.1.351) and assessed for clinical signs, viral distribution, pathological changes, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that GD108 replicated more efficiently in the upper respiratory tract, whereas B.1.351 replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract and lung tissue, implying a reduced viral shedding and spreading ability of B.1.351 compared with that of GD108. Importantly, B.1.351 caused more severe lung injury and dramatically elevated the level of inflammatory cytokines compared with those observed after infection with GD108. Moreover, both B.1.351 and GD108 induced spike-specific T-cell responses at an early stage of infection, with higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the B.1.351 group and higher levels of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the GD108 group, indicating a divergent pattern in the T-cell-mediated inflammatory "cytokine storm." This study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs. IMPORTANCE One of the priorities of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and drug research strategy is to determine the changes in transmission ability, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In addition, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are suitable animal models for the study of the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and could contribute to the understanding of pathogenicity and transmission mechanisms. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continually emerge and the viral biological characteristics change frequently, the establishment of NHP infection models for different VOCs is urgently needed. In the study, the virulence and tissue distribution of B.1.351 and GD108 were comprehensively studied in NHPs. We concluded that the B.1.351 strain was more virulent but exhibited less viral shedding than the latter. This study provides a basis for determining the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs.

14.
22nd International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications , ICCSA 2022 ; 13377 LNCS:138-150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013907

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, fake news regarding the disease have spread at an increasing rate. Let’s think, for instance, to face masks wearing related news or various home-made treatments to cure the disease. To contrast this phenomenon, the fact-checking community has intensified its efforts by producing a large number of fact-checking reports. In this work, we focus on empowering knowledge-based approaches for misinformation identification with previous knowledge gathered from existing fact-checking reports. Very few works in literature have exploited the information regarding claims that have been already fact-checked. The main idea that we explore in this work is to exploit the detailed information in the COVID-19 fact check reports in order to create an extended Knowledge Graph. By analysing the graph information about the already checked claims, we can verify newly coming content more effectively. Another gap that we aim to fill is the temporal representation of the facts stored in the knowledge graph. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to associate the temporal validity to the KG relations. This additional information can be used to further enhance the validation of claims. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Applied Cognitive Computing ; : 263-276, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013836
16.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2013653

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a devastating impact on public health worldwide. However, details concerning the profound impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host cells remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of SARS-CoV-2-encoded viral proteins on the intracellular activity of long interspersed element 1 (L1) retrotransposons using well-established reporter systems. Several non-structural or accessory proteins (Nsps) of SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., Nsp1, Nsp3, Nsp5, and Nsp14) significantly suppress human L1 mobility, and these viral L1 inhibitors generate a complex network that modulates L1 transposition. Specifically, Nsp1 and Nsp14 inhibit the intracellular accumulation of L1 open reading frame proteins (ORF1p), whereas Nsp3, Nsp5, and Nsp14 repress the reverse transcriptase activity of L1 ORF2p. Given recent findings concerning the roles of L1 in antiviral immune activation and host genome instability, the anti-L1 activities mediated by SARS-CoV-2-encoded inhibitors suggest that SARS-CoV-2 employs different strategies to optimize the host genetic environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
18.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009895

ABSTRACT

Podocytes form a key component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Damage to podocytes is referred to as “podocyte disease.” There are many causes of podocyte injury, including primary injury, secondary injury, and gene mutations. Primary podocytosis mostly manifests as nephrotic syndrome. At present, first-line treatment is based on glucocorticoid administration combined with immunosuppressive therapy, but some patients still progress to end-stage renal disease. In Asia, especially in China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) still plays an important role in the treatment of kidney diseases. This study summarizes the potential mechanism of TCM and its active components in protecting podocytes, such as repairing podocyte injury, inhibiting podocyte proliferation, reducing podocyte apoptosis and excretion, maintaining podocyte skeleton structure, and upregulating podocyte-related protein expression. At the same time, the clinical efficacy of TCM in the treatment of primary podocytosis (including idiopathic membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) is summarized to support the development of new treatment strategies for primary podocytosis.

19.
Respiratory Research ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009400

ABSTRACT

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors would like to correct the article note of corresponding author information and equal contribution texts. It has been corrected in this correction. †Jin Yang, †Libing Ma and †Li Guo contributed equally to this work. *Lili Ren, *Weizhong Yang and *Chen Wang were the corresponding authors. The original article [1] has been corrected.

20.
Cell Discov ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008267

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has continued to affect millions of lives worldwide, leading to the urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies. G-quadruplexes (G4s) have been demonstrated to regulate life cycle of multiple viruses. Here, we identify several highly conservative and stable G4s in SARS-CoV-2 and clarify their dual-function of inhibition of the viral replication and translation processes. Furthermore, the cationic porphyrin compound 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (TMPyP4) targeting SARS-CoV-2 G4s shows excellent antiviral activity, while its N-methyl-2-pyridyl positional isomer TMPyP2 with low affinity for G4 has no effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the antiviral activity of TMPyP4 attributes to targeting SARS-CoV-2 G4s. In the Syrian hamster and transgenic mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, administration of TMPyP4 at nontoxic doses significantly suppresses SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in reduced viral loads and lung lesions. Worth to note, the anti-COVID-19 activity of TMPyP4 is more potent than remdesivir evidenced by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Our findings highlight SARS-CoV-2 G4s as a novel druggable target and the compelling potential of TMPyP4 for COVID-19 therapy. Different from the existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic strategies, our work provides another alternative therapeutic tactic for SARS-CoV-2 infection focusing on targeting the secondary structures within SARS-CoV-2 genome, and would open a new avenue for design and synthesis of drug candidates with high selectivity toward the new targets.

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