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1.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189229

ABSTRACT

Common lung diseases are first diagnosed using chest X-rays. Here, we show that a fully automated deep-learning pipeline for the standardization of chest X-ray images, for the visualization of lesions and for disease diagnosis can identify viral pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and assess its severity, and can also discriminate between viral pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia. The deep-learning system was developed using a heterogeneous multicentre dataset of 145,202 images, and tested retrospectively and prospectively with thousands of additional images across four patient cohorts and multiple countries. The system generalized across settings, discriminating between viral pneumonia, other types of pneumonia and the absence of disease with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.94-0.98; between severe and non-severe COVID-19 with an AUC of 0.87; and between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral or non-viral pneumonia with AUCs of 0.87-0.97. In an independent set of 440 chest X-rays, the system performed comparably to senior radiologists and improved the performance of junior radiologists. Automated deep-learning systems for the assessment of pneumonia could facilitate early intervention and provide support for clinical decision-making.

2.
Small Methods ; : 2001108, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160984

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D Ti3C2T x MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.

3.
Br J Surg ; 107(13): e651-e652, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130465
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 207, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. METHODS: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27 and February 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shannxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected; cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). RESULTS: Nine (9/13) COVID-19 patients exhibited mild disease severity, and defined as second-generation human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P > 0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms; however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P > 0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19 infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P < 0.05). Twelve of 13 COVID-19 patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Most cases of COVID-19 infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 varied. Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19 disease lacked typical characteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.


Subject(s)
/complications , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Clinics ; 75:e1910-e1910, 2020.
Article in English | Grey literature | ID: grc-743031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the concordance between CT and nucleic acid testing in diagnosing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outside its district of origin (Wuhan, China) METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients with COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid testing, were enrolled from two designated hospitals outside the district of disease origin We collected clinical, laboratory, and CT data and assessed the concordance between CT manifestations and nucleic acid test results by comparing the percentage of patients with and without abnormal CT findings Furthermore, using Chi-square tests, we analyzed the differences in CT manifestations between patients with and without an exposure history or symptoms RESULTS: Multiple ground-glass opacities (GGOs), with or without consolidation, were observed on the initial CT scans of 19 patients (82 6%), whereas the remaining 4 (17 4%) showed no CT abnormalities, indicating that the initial chest CT findings were not entirely concordant with the nucleic acid test results in diagnosing COVID-19 Among the latter 4 patients, we observed multiple GGOs with and without consolidation in 2 patients on the follow-up chest CT scans taken on days 7 and 14 after admission, respectively The remaining 2 patients showed no abnormalities on the follow-up CT scans Furthermore, abnormal CT findings were found more frequently in patients who had been exposed to COVID-19 in its district of origin than in those who had not been exposed and in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients (all p&lt;0 05) CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive results on nucleic acid testing may or may not have the abnormal CT manifestations that are frequently found in symptomatic patients with a history of exposure to the district of COVID-19 origin

7.
Nature ; 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971937

ABSTRACT

Host-mediated lung inflammation is present,1 and drives mortality,2 in critical illness caused by Covid-19. Host genetic variants associated with critical illness may identify mechanistic targets for therapeutic development.3 Here we report the results of the GenOMICC (Genetics Of Mortality In Critical Care) genome-wide association study(GWAS) in 2244 critically ill Covid-19 patients from 208 UK intensive care units (ICUs). We identify and replicate novel genome-wide significant associations, on chr12q24.13 (rs10735079, p=1.65 [Formula: see text] 10-8) in a gene cluster encoding antiviral restriction enzyme activators (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3), on chr19p13.2 (rs2109069, p=2.3 [Formula: see text] 10-12) near the gene encoding tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2), on chr19p13.3 (rs2109069, p=3.98 [Formula: see text] 10-12) within the gene encoding dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9), and on chr21q22.1 (rs2236757, p=4.99 [Formula: see text] 10-8) in the interferon receptor gene IFNAR2. We identify potential targets for repurposing of licensed medications: using Mendelian randomisation we found evidence in support of a causal link from low expression of IFNAR2, and high expression of TYK2, to life-threatening disease; transcriptome-wide association in lung tissue revealed that high expression of the monocyte/macrophage chemotactic receptor CCR2 is associated with severe Covid-19. Our results identify robust genetic signals relating to key host antiviral defence mechanisms, and mediators of inflammatory organ damage in Covid-19. Both mechanisms may be amenable to targeted treatment with existing drugs. Large-scale randomised clinical trials will be essential before any change to clinical practice.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240347, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a pandemic, a most-common pattern resembled organizing pneumonia (OP) has been identified by CT findings in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to delineate the evolution of CT findings and outcome in OP of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 106 COVID-19 patients with OP based on CT findings were retrospectively included and categorized into non-severe (mild/common) and severe (severe/critical) groups. CT features including lobar distribution, presence of ground glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, linear opacities and total severity CT score were evaluated at three time intervals from symptom-onset to CT scan (day 0-7, day 8-14, day > 14). Discharge or adverse outcome (admission to ICU or death), and pulmonary sequelae (complete absorption or lesion residuals) on CT after discharge were analyzed based on the CT features at different time interval. RESULTS: 79 (74.5%) patients were non-severe and 103 (97.2%) were discharged at median day 25 (range, day 8-50) after symptom-onset. Of 67 patients with revisit CT at 2-4 weeks after discharge, 20 (29.9%) had complete absorption of lesions at median day 38 (range, day 30-53) after symptom-onset. Significant differences between complete absorption and residuals groups were found in percentages of consolidation (1.5% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.010), number of involved lobe > 3 (40.0% vs. 72.5%, P = 0.030), CT score > 4 (20.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.010) at day 8-14. CONCLUSION: Most OP cases had good prognosis. Approximately one-third of cases had complete absorption of lesions during 1-2 months after symptom-onset while those with increased frequency of consolidation, number of involved lobe > 3, and CT score > 4 at week 2 after symptom-onset may indicate lesion residuals on CT.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 567672, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854056

ABSTRACT

Background: As global healthcare system is overwhelmed by novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), early identification of risks of adverse outcomes becomes the key to optimize management and improve survival. This study aimed to provide a CT-based pattern categorization to predict outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: One hundred and sixty-five patients with COVID-19 (91 men, 4-89 years) underwent chest CT were retrospectively enrolled. CT findings were categorized as Pattern 0 (negative), Pattern 1 (bronchopneumonia pattern), Pattern 2 (organizing pneumonia pattern), Pattern 3 (progressive organizing pneumonia pattern), and Pattern 4 (diffuse alveolar damage pattern). Clinical findings were compared across different categories. Time-dependent progression of CT patterns and correlations with clinical outcomes, i.e." discharge or adverse outcome (admission to ICU, requiring mechanical ventilation, or death), with pulmonary sequelae (complete absorption or residuals) on CT after discharge were analyzed. Results: Of 94 patients with outcome, 81 (86.2%) were discharged, 3 (3.2%) were admitted to ICU, 4 (4.3%) required mechanical ventilation, 6 (6.4%) died. 31 (38.3%) had complete absorption at median day 37 after symptom onset. Significant differences between pattern-categories were found in age, disease severity, comorbidity and laboratory results (all P < 0.05). Remarkable evolution was observed in Pattern 0-2 and Pattern 3-4 within 3 and 2 weeks after symptom-onset, respectively; most of patterns remained thereafter. After controlling for age, CT pattern significantly correlated with adverse outcomes [Pattern 4 vs. Pattern 0-3 [reference]; hazard-ratio [95% CI], 18.90 [1.91-186.60], P = 0.012]. CT pattern [Pattern 3-4 vs. Pattern 0-2 [reference]; 0.26 [0.08-0.88], P = 0.030] and C-reactive protein [>10 vs. ≤ 10 mg/L [reference]; 0.31 [0.13-0.72], P = 0.006] were risk factors associated with pulmonary residuals. Conclusion: CT pattern categorization allied with clinical characteristics within 2 weeks after symptom onset would facilitate early prognostic stratification in COVID-19 pneumonia.

13.
Phytomedicine ; : 153315, 2020 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) was the most widely used prescription in China's campaign to contain COVID-19, which has exhibited positive effects. However, the underlying mode of action is largely unknown. PURPOSE: A systems pharmacology strategy was proposed to investigate the mechanisms of QFPDD against COVID-19 from molecule, pathway and network levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The systems pharmacological approach consisted of text mining, target prediction, data integration, network study, bioinformatics analysis, molecular docking, and pharmacological validation. Especially, we proposed a scoring method to measure the confidence of targets identified by prediction and text mining, while a novel scheme was used to identify important targets from 4 aspects. RESULTS: 623 high-confidence targets of QFPDD's 12 active compounds were identified, 88 of which were overlapped with genes affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. These targets were found to be involved in biological processes related with the development of COVID-19, such as pattern recognition receptor signaling, interleukin signaling, cell growth and death, hemostasis, and injuries of the nervous, sensory, circulatory, and digestive systems. Comprehensive network and pathway analysis were used to identify 55 important targets, which regulated 5 functional modules corresponding to QFPDD's effects in immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation, and multi-organ protection, respectively. Four compounds (baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid, hesperidin, and hyperoside) and 7 targets (AKT1, TNF-α, IL6, PTGS2, HMOX1, IL10, and TP53) were key molecules related to QFPDD's effects. Molecular docking verified that QFPDD's compounds may bind to 6 host proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, further supported the anti-virus effect of QFPDD. At last, in intro experiments validated QFPDD's important effects, including the inhibition of IL6, CCL2, TNF-α, NF-κB, PTGS1/2, CYP1A1, CYP3A4 activity, the up-regulation of IL10 expression, and repressing platelet aggregation. CONCLUSION: This work illustrated that QFPDD could exhibit immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation, and multi-organ protection. It may strengthen the understanding of QFPDD and facilitate more application of this formula in the campaign to SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745023

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoprevention/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
15.
Clinics ; 75: e1910, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-742964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the concordance between CT and nucleic acid testing in diagnosing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outside its district of origin (Wuhan, China). METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients with COVID-19, confirmed by nucleic acid testing, were enrolled from two designated hospitals outside the district of disease origin. We collected clinical, laboratory, and CT data and assessed the concordance between CT manifestations and nucleic acid test results by comparing the percentage of patients with and without abnormal CT findings. Furthermore, using Chi-square tests, we analyzed the differences in CT manifestations between patients with and without an exposure history or symptoms. RESULTS: Multiple ground-glass opacities (GGOs), with or without consolidation, were observed on the initial CT scans of 19 patients (82.6%), whereas the remaining 4 (17.4%) showed no CT abnormalities, indicating that the initial chest CT findings were not entirely concordant with the nucleic acid test results in diagnosing COVID-19. Among the latter 4 patients, we observed multiple GGOs with and without consolidation in 2 patients on the follow-up chest CT scans taken on days 7 and 14 after admission, respectively. The remaining 2 patients showed no abnormalities on the follow-up CT scans. Furthermore, abnormal CT findings were found more frequently in patients who had been exposed to COVID-19 in its district of origin than in those who had not been exposed and in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive results on nucleic acid testing may or may not have the abnormal CT manifestations that are frequently found in symptomatic patients with a history of exposure to the district of COVID-19 origin.

16.
Chin. J. Evid.-Based Med. ; 6(20): 723-736, 20200601.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-739130

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop the questionnaire and test its reliability for investigating route, prevention, and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in medical staffs. Methods This questionnaire was development based on the COVID-19 relevant guidelines, official documents issued by the National Health Committee of the People's Republic of China, and published studies. The development group performed repeated discussions and drafted the first questionnaire, then performed expert consultation and revised the draft according to their suggestions. Eventually, some frontline medical staffs were invited to carry out pre-test investigation of the questionnaire and test its reliability. Results The first draft included 48 items; 18 experts were invited in the first round questionnaire and 10 experts in the second round questionnaire. The positive coefficient of experts in these two rounds was both greater than 75%, and the authority coefficient of experts' opinions was greater than 0.70. The variation coefficient of these items was between 0.00 and 0.35, the coordination coefficient of experts was 0.193 (P<0.05). The experts of above two rounds put forward 14 suggestions for text modification or adjustment options of some items; after the development group held repeatedly discussions, a total of 8 items were performed secondary consultation and finally reached consensus. The final questionnaire included two domains of questionnaire before and after confirmed diagnosis. The domain "before confirmed diagnosis" covered 4 sections and 29 items involving infectious cause, plan and knowledge of prevention and control, and psychological symptoms. The domain "after confirmed diagnosis" covered 5 sections and 21 items, included symptoms, treatment, and psychological status after diagnosis; impact on the surrounding environment and people, and awareness of protection after infection. The pre-test results showed that the total items were considerably numerous, some items were difficult to understand, some laboratory results and treatment conditions were ambiguous, etc. After modification and re-testing, the test-re-test reliability of each domain was between 0.74 and 0.93, and the overall re-test reliability of the questionnaire content was 0.82. Conclusions This research has developed a questionnaire for investigating infection process, prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 infection in medical staff, and the items considered two domains prior to and after confirmed diagnosis. The reliability and practicability of the questionnaire are acceptable.

17.
Infection ; 48(5): 715-722, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) in the patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The medical data of 89 COVID-19 patients admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 3, 2020 to February 26, 2020 were collected. Eighty-nine cases were divided into survival group (53 cases) and non-survival group (36 cases) according to the results of 28-day follow-up. The SAA levels of all patients were recorded and compared on 1 day after admission (before treatment) and 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment. The ROC curve was drawn to analyze the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 by SAA. RESULTS: The difference of comparison of SAA between survival group and non-survival group before treatment was not statistically significant, Z1 = - 1.426, P = 0.154. The Z1 values (Z1 is the Z value of the rank sum test) of the two groups of patients at 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment were - 5.569, - 6.967, and - 7.542, respectively. The P values were all less than 0.001, and the difference was statistically significant. The ROC curve results showed that SAA has higher sensitivity to the prognostic value of 1 day (before treatment), 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after treatment, with values of 0.806, 0.972, 0.861, and 0.961, respectively. Compared with SAA on the 7th day and C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, and hemoglobin on the 7th day, the sensitivities were: 96.1%, 83.3%, 88.3%, 83.3%, 67.9%, and 83.0%, respectively, of which SAA has the highest sensitivity. CONCLUSION: SAA can be used as a predictor of the prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , China , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/blood , Cough/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/mortality , Fever/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/blood , Pharyngitis/mortality , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 2993-3000, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679286

ABSTRACT

To scientifically evaluate the intervention effect of Chinese medicine preventive administration(combined use of Huo-xiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) on community population in the case of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), a large cohort, prospective, randomized, and parallel-controlled clinical study was conducted. Total 22 065 subjects were included and randomly divided into 2 groups. The non-intervention group was given health guidance only, while the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) intervention group was given two coordinated TCM in addition to health guidance. The medical instructions were as follows. Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid: oral before meals, 10 mL/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days. Jinhao Jiere Granules: dissolve in boiling water and take after meals, 8 g/time, 2 times/day, a course of 5 days, followed up for 14 days, respectively. The study found that with the intake of medication, the incidence rate of TCM intervention group was basically maintained at a low and continuous stable level(0.01%-0.02%), while the non-intervention group showed an overall trend of continuous growth(0.02%-0.18%) from 3 to 14 days. No suspected or confirmed COVID-19 case occurred in either group. There were 2 cases of colds in the TCM intervention group and 26 cases in the non-intervention group. The incidence of colds in the TCM intervention group was significantly lower(P<0.05) than that in the non-intervention group. In the population of 16-60 years old, the incidence rate of non-intervention and intervention groups were 0.01% and 0.25%, respectively. The difference of colds incidence between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05). In the population older than 60 years old, they were 0.04% and 0.21%, respectively. The incidence of colds in the non-intervention group was higher than that in the intervention group, but not reaching statistical difference. The protection rate of TCM for the whole population was 91.8%, especially for the population of age 16-60(95.0%). It was suggested that TCM intervention(combined use of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid and Jinhao Jiere Granules) could effectively protect community residents against respiratory diseases, such as colds, which was worthy of promotion in the community. In addition, in terms of safety, the incidence of adverse events and adverse reactions in the TCM intervention group was relatively low, which was basically consistent with the drug instructions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
Aging Med (Milton) ; 3(2): 82-94, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648186

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world and the numbers of patients and deaths are increasing. According to the epidemiology, virology, and clinical practice, there are varying degrees of changes in patients, involving the human body structure and function and the activity and participation. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its biopsychosocial model of functioning, we use the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FICs) framework to form an expert consensus on the COVID-19 rehabilitation program, focusing on the diagnosis and evaluation of disease and functioning, and service delivery of rehabilitation, and to establish a standard rehabilitation framework, terminology system, and evaluation and intervention systems based the WHO-FICs.

20.
Transfusion ; 60(11): 2597-2610, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic affected blood collection in Guangzhou, China. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This paper includes three studies. The observational study reported the trends of blood collection during the epidemic in Guangzhou, China. The cross-sectional survey investigated factors influencing blood donation during the COVID-19 epidemic, and a self-administered questionnaire was given to 1584 street whole blood donors (SWBDs) who donated during the epidemic. The randomized controlled trial involved 19 491 SWBDs who donated in 2019 but did not donate during the epidemic. Trial participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups: Group 1 completed Questionnaire 1, which contained precautionary measures in response to COVID-19 and other messages about blood donation during the epidemic; Group 2 completed Questionnaire 2, which did not include this information. A control group did not receive any questionnaire. RESULTS: As measures were implemented, the number of blood donors increased accordingly. Both first-time and repeat SWBDs perceived the same level of blood need and donated blood because it would save lives. SWBDs who completed Questionnaire 1 expressed a greater intention to donate during the epidemic. Enabling blood donors to perceive a higher level of blood need and a lower level of COVID-19 infection risk related to blood donation mobilized experienced SWBDs to donate within 3 weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses and average-treatment-effect-on-the-treated estimations confirmed that Questionnaire 1 could motivate SWBDs to actually donate blood. CONCLUSION: Various measures could ease blood shortage during the COVID-19 epidemic. Administration of Questionnaire 1 could increase blood donations during the epidemic.

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