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1.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610579

ABSTRACT

Boosting and prolonging SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-elicited immunity is paramount for containing the COVID-19 pandemic, which wanes substantially within months after vaccination. Here we demonstrate that the unique strain of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum GUANKE (LPG) could promote SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in both effective and memory phases through enhancing interferon signaling and suppressing apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, oral LPG administration promoted SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies even 6 months after immunization. Furthermore, when LPG was given immediately after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation, specific neutralization antibodies could be boosted >8-fold in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and >2-fold in sera, T-cell responses were persistent and stable for a prolonged period both in BAL and the spleen. Transcriptional analyses showed that oral application of LPG mobilized immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments;in particular, gut-spleen and gut-lung immune axes were observed. These results suggest that LPG could be applied in combination with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to boost and prolong both the effective and memory immune responses in mucosal and systemic compartments, thereby improving the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

2.
Int J Hypertens ; 2021: 6594863, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582879

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence has shown an unusual relationship between hypertension and COVID-19, which may not be as simple as previously thought. The purpose of our study was to determine the association of hypertension with the onset and development of COVID-19. A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the prevalence of hypertension in COVID-19 patients, as well as the usage of ACEIs/ARBs. Metaregression analyses were used to evaluate the association of hypertension with disease severity and mortality. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant studies. A total of 42 studies including 14138 patients were enrolled in the study. The proportion of hypertension in COVID-19 patients in China was 17.7% according to the enrolled studies, while it was 6.0% in a study containing 72314 confirmed cases, which are both much lower than in the general population. All of the data from the 11 provinces in China showed the same tendency. The proportions of hypertension were higher in severe/ICU patients and nonsurvivors than in nonsevere/ICU patients and survivors. The metaregression analyses suggested that both disease severity and risk of death were associated with the incidence of hypertension. A total of 27.6% of COVID-19 patients with hypertension received ACEI/ARB therapy. The proportion of deaths in COVID-19 patients with hypertension treated with ACEIs/ARBs was significantly lower than that in nonuse patients treated with ACEIs/ARBs. In conclusion, hypertension may reduce the infection risk of COVID-19 but increase the risk of developing worse clinical outcomes. The use of ACEIs/ARBs may benefit COVID-19 patients with hypertension.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 770910, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581232

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has remained an uncontained, worldwide pandemic. Most of the infected people had mild symptoms in the early stage, and suddenly worsened or even died in the later stage which made the cytokine release syndrome (CRS) once again aroused people's attention. CRS is an excessive immunity of the body to external stimuli such as viruses, bacteria, and nanomaterials, which can cause tissue damage, local necrosis or even death. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most effective CRS inducers, which can activate macrophages to release cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL- 6 and chemokines. We used RT-PCR to detect the expression of representative cytokines in mouse and human cells at different concentrations of Trichomicin, Ebosin, and 1487B after LPS stimulation. The results showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and CXCL10 all increased after LPS stimulation. Among the various drugs, Trichomicin had the most obvious inhibitory effect on cytokine expression in vitro, and it was further verified in vivo that Trichomicin can improve the survival rate of mice stimulated with LPS. Finally, it was proved that Trichomicin inhibited the Stat3 and NF-κB pathways and reduced the phosphorylation of Stat3 and p65 after LPS stimulation, thereby inhibiting the response of macrophages to pro-inflammatory stimuli. The article clarified the inhibitory activity and mechanism of action of Trichomicin on CRS, and laid the foundation for the research on the anti-cytokine storm activity of microbial natural products.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 771621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581155

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) had caused a global pandemic and disrupted millions of lives. Cancer patients are a special group at greater risk of contracting viruses. This study aimed to evaluate the anxiety and depression status of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: 396 cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate patient anxiety and depression, respectively. 373 cancer patients completed the questionnaires. Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, the incidence of anxiety and depression in cancer patients were 34.9 and 33.8%, respectively. Approximately 31.4% of tumor radiotherapy patients had anxiety and depression. Based on univariate analysis, age, work status, education level, and clinical stage were related to anxiety and depression in cancer patients. Based on multiple regression analysis, age and clinical stage were related to anxiety, but only age was related to depression. Conclusions: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, cancer patients experienced increased psychological problems. Our results have contributed to a better understanding of these psychological problems in cancer patients and provide a basis for psychological counseling and intervention.

5.
Brain Sci ; 11(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572367

ABSTRACT

Nasal breathing is a dynamic cortical organizer involved in various behaviors and states, such as locomotion, exploration, memory, emotion, introspection. However, the effect of sensory deprivation of nasal respiratory breath (NRD) on behavior remain poorly understood. Herein, general locomotor activity, emotion, learning and memory, social interaction, and mechanical pain were evaluated using a zinc sulfate nasal irrigation induced nasal respiratory sensory deprivation animal model (ZnSO4-induced mouse model). In the open field test, the elevated O-maze test, and forced swim test, NRD mice exhibited depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. In memory-associated tests, NRD mice showed cognitive impairments in the hippocampal-dependent memory (Y maze, object recognition task, and contextual fear conditioning (CFC)) and amygdala-dependent memory (the tone-cued fear conditioning test (TFC)). Surprisingly, NRD mice did not display deficits in the acquisition of conditional fear in both CFC and TFC tests. Still, they showed significant memory retrieval impairment in TFC and enhanced memory retrieval in CFC. At the same time, in the social novelty test using a three-chamber setting, NRD mice showed impaired social and social novelty behavior. Lastly, in the von Frey filaments test, we found that the pain sensitivity of NRD mice was reduced. In conclusion, this NRD mouse model showed a variety of behavioral phenotypic changes, which could offer an important insight into the behavioral impacts of patients with anosmia or those with an impaired olfactory bulb (OB) (e.g., in COVID-19, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc.).

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292742

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as a major public health issue of high complexity, multifactorial causes and great socioeconomic and family impact, affects China now especially after COVID-19. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical and psychological characteristic in adolescent psychiatric patients with or without NSSI.Methods:: Adolescent psychiatric patients were recruited from psychiatric outpatient and inpatient unit in Guangdong mental Health Center between October and December 2020. NSSI was evaluated by the modified version of Adolescents Self-Harm Scale. Childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF). Peer bullying experience was evaluated by The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire(BVQ-R). Depression was assessed by the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Clinical data were collected from electronic medical record system.Results:: The sample included 157 adolescent psychiatric patients (72.6% female), aged 13-18 years (M=15.39, SD=0.145). NSSI group experienced more peer bullying (t=4.08, P <0.001), more likely to get into romantic relationship currently(χ2=5.38, P =0.02), more times of hospitalization (t=0.36, P <0.001), receiving more antipsychotic treatment (t=3.58, P <0.001), benzodiazepine treatment (t=3.46, P <0.001), and mood-stabilizer treatment (χ2 =8.53, P <0.001). The significant predictor of NSSI for the last one year included being in romantic relationship currently (OR =4.27, 95% CI=[1.53,11.93]), outpatient (OR=0.38, 95%CI=[0.16,0.88]), BVQ-R total (OR=1.10, 95% CI=[1.02,1.18]),MARDS total (OR= 1.05, 95% CI=[1.01,1.09]), and benzodiazepine PDD/DDD (OR=5.79, 95% CI=[0.99,33.72]).Conclusions:: Adolescent psychiatric patients with NSSI have significantly higher incidences of life event such as peer bulling, childhood trauma experience, and they were more likely to get into a romantic relationship. Meanwhile, patients with NSSI had significantly severe level of depression, being more on benzodiazepine and mood-stabilizer use. This provides a valuable basis for our clinical treatment of adolescent mental patients with NSSI.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522121

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: DeepKG is an end-to-end deep learning-based workflow that helps researchers automatically mine valuable knowledge in biomedical literature. Users can utilize it to establish customized knowledge graphs in specified domains, thus facilitating in-depth understanding on disease mechanisms and applications on drug repurposing and clinical research, etc. To improve the performance of DeepKG, a cascaded hybrid information extraction framework (CHIEF) is developed for training model of 3-tuple extraction, and a novel AutoML-based knowledge representation algorithm (AutoTransX) is proposed for knowledge representation and inference. The system has been deployed in dozens of hospitals and extensive experiments strongly evidence the effectiveness. In the context of 144,900 COVID-19 scholarly full-text literature, DeepKG generates a high-quality knowledge graph with 7,980 entities and 43,760 3-tuples, a candidate drug list, and relevant animal experimental studies are being carried out. To accelerate more studies, we make DeepKG publicly available and provide an online tool including the data of 3-tuples, potential drug list, question answering system, visualization platform. AVAILABILITY: Free to all users: http://covidkg.ai/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 755599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482024

ABSTRACT

Although plateau pikas are the keystone species in the plateau ecosystem of the Qinghai Province of China, little is known about their role in the evolution and transmission of viral pathogens, especially coronaviruses. Here, we describe the characterization and evolution of a novel alphacoronavirus, termed plateau pika coronavirus (PPCoV) P83, which has a prevalence of 4.5% in plateau pika fecal samples. In addition to classical gene order, the complete viral genome contains a unique nonstructural protein (NS2), several variable transcription regulatory sequences and a highly divergent spike protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the newly discovered PPCoV falls into the genus Alphacoronavirus and is most closely related to rodent alphacoronaviruses. The co-speciation analysis shows that the phylogenetic trees of the alphacoronaviruses and their hosts are not always matched, suggesting inter-species transmission is common in alphacoronaviruses. And, PPCoV origin was estimated by molecular clock based on membrane and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase encoding genes, respectively, which revealed an apparent discrepancy with that of co-speciation analysis. PPCoV was detected mainly in intestinal samples, indicating a potential enteric tropism for the virus. Overall, this study extends the host range of alphacoronaviruses to a new order (Lagomorpha), indicating that plateau pikas may be the natural reservoir of PPCoV and play an important and long-term role in alphacoronavirus evolution.

10.
J Integr Med ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a serious impact on health all over the world. Cancer patient, whose immunity is often compromised, faces a huge challenge. Currently, some COVID-19 vaccines are being developed and applied on general population; however, whether cancer patients should take COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude, acceptance, and predictors of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among cancer patients in Eastern China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Eastern China from June 17th to September 3rd, 2021. Patients were selected using a convenience sampling method. A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, attitude towards the vaccine and acceptance of the vaccine; following a review of similar studies previously published in the scientific literature, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: A total of 2158 cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The rate of vaccine hesitancy was 24.05% (519/2158); further, among the participants of vaccine acceptance, 767 had taken COVID-19 vaccine (35.54%), and 872 were willing to get vaccinated (40.01%). A total of 24 variables including demographic characteristics, clinical status of cancer, impact of COVID-19 pandemic on study participants, patients' knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, and attitude towards the vaccine, had significant differences between the "vaccine hesitancy" population and "vaccine acceptance" population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that parameters including alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 1.849; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.375-2.488; P-reference [P-Ref] < 0.001 vs non-drinkers), income impacted by COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.930, 2.037 and 2.688 for mild, moderate, and severe impact, respectively; all P-Ref < 0.01 vs no impact), knowledge of how the vaccine was developed (OR = 1.616; 95% CI: 1.126-2.318; P-Ref = 0.009 vs unknown), believing in the safety of the vaccine (OR = 1.502; 95% CI: 1.024-2.203; P-Ref = 0.038 vs denying the safety of vaccine), willingness to pay for the vaccine (OR = 3.042; 95% CI: 2.376-3.894; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unwilling), and willingness to recommend families and friends to get vaccinated (OR = 2.744; 95% CI: 1.759-4.280; P-Ref < 0.001 vs do not recommend) were contributors to vaccine acceptance. While such as being retired (OR = 0.586; 95% CI: 0.438-0.784; P-Ref < 0.001 vs unemployed), undergoing multiple therapies of cancer (OR = 0.408; 95% CI: 0.221-0.753; P-Ref = 0.004 vs no ongoing treatment), and worrying that the vaccine might deteriorate the prognosis of cancer (OR = 0.393; 95% CI: 0.307-0.504; P-Ref < 0.001 vs might not) were contributors to vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer patients in Eastern China. The intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was impacted by factors such as patient occupation, alcohol consumption, and some parts of knowledge about and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine. It is recommended to develop individualized vaccination plans that meet the healthcare needs of cancer patients.

11.
J Control Release ; 340: 114-124, 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474707

ABSTRACT

The messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy, especially mRNA vaccines, has shown its superiorities in versatile design, rapid development and scale production, since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 mRNA vaccines had been approved for application, unexpected adverse events were reported to be most likely associated with the mRNA delivery systems. Thus, the development of mRNA delivery system with good efficacy and safety remains a challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that the neutral cytidinyl lipid, 2-(4-amino-2-oxopyrimidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dioleoyl-oxypropyl) acetamide (DNCA), and the cationic lipid, dioleoyl-3,3'-disulfanediylbis-[2-(2,6-diaminohexanamido)] propanoate (CLD), could encapsulate and deliver the COVID-19 mRNA-1096 into the cytoplasm to induce robust adaptive immune response. In the formulation, the molar ratio of DNCA/CLD to a single nucleotide of COVID-19 mRNA-1096 was about 0.9: 0.5: 1 (the N/P ratio was about 7: 1). The DNCA/CLD-mRNA-1096 lipoplexes were rationally prepared by the combination of the lipids DNCA/CLD with the aqueous mRNA solution under mild sonication to stimulate multiple interactions, including H-bonding, π-stacking and electrostatic force between the lipids and the mRNA. After intramuscular applications of the DNCA/CLD-mRNA-1096 lipoplexes, robust neutralizing antibodies and long-lived Th1-biased SARS-CoV-2-specific cell immunity were detected in the immunized mice, thus suggesting the DNCA/CLD a promising mRNA delivery system. Moreover, our study might also inspire better ideas for developing mRNA delivery systems.

13.
Hum Cell ; 34(6): 1744-1754, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437343

ABSTRACT

Positive retests of COVID-19 represent a public health concern because of the increased risk of transmission. This study explored whether factors other than the nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) contribute to positive retest results. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Guanggu district of the Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital between February 17 and March 28, 2020, were retrospectively included. The patients were grouped into the negative (n = 133) and positive (n = 51) retest groups. The results showed that the proportion of patients presenting with cough was higher (P < 0.001) and the proportion of patients with dyspnea was lower (P = 0.018) in the positive than in the negative retest group. The positive retest group showed shorter durations between symptom onset and hospitalization (P < 0.001) and symptom onset and the first positive NAAT (P = 0.033). The positive retest group had higher basophil counts (P = 0.023) and direct bilirubin (P = 0.032) and chlorine concentrations (P = 0.023) but lower potassium concentrations (P = 0.001) than the negative retest group. Multivariable regression analysis showed that coughing (OR = 7.59, 95% CI 2.28-25.32, P = 0.001) and serum chloride concentrations (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.08-1.77, P = 0.010) were independently associated with a positive retest result. Coughing and serum chloride concentrations were independent risk factors for positive NAAT retest results. Patients with a hospital stay of < 2 weeks or a short incubation period should stay in isolation and be monitored to reduce transmission. These results could help identify patients who require closer surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorides/blood , Cough , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430274

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Alteration of human respiratory microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. How the microbiota is associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the feature and dynamics of the respiratory microbiota and its associations with clinical features in COVID-19 patients. Methods:We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Meanwhile, the concentration of 27 cytokines and chemokines in plasma was measured for COVID-19 patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota, both on admission and before discharge/death. The alteration of URT microbiota showed a significant correlation with the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and mortality. Specifically, Streptococcus-dominated microbiota was enriched in recovered patients, and show high temporal stability and resistance against pathogens. In contrast, the microbiota in deceased patients was more susceptible to secondary infections, and became more deviated from the normality after admission. Moreover, the abundance of S. parasanguinis on admission was significantly correlated with prognosis in non-severe patients (lower vs. higher abundance, odds ratio=7.80, [95% CI 1.70-42.05]). Conclusions:URT microbiota dysbiosis is a remarkable manifestation of COVID-19; its association with mortality suggests it may reflect the interplay between pathogens, symbionts, and the host immune status. Whether URT microbiota could be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases merits further investigation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 343, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415924

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 recognizes, via its spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD), human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate infection. Ecto-domain protein of ACE2 can therefore function as a decoy. Here we show that mutations of S19W, T27W, and N330Y in ACE2 could individually enhance SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD binding. Y330 could be synergistically combined with either W19 or W27, whereas W19 and W27 are mutually unbeneficial. The structures of SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD bound to the ACE2 mutants reveal that the enhanced binding is mainly contributed by the van der Waals interactions mediated by the aromatic side-chains from W19, W27, and Y330. While Y330 and W19/W27 are distantly located and devoid of any steric interference, W19 and W27 are shown to orient their side-chains toward each other and to cause steric conflicts, explaining their incompatibility. Finally, using pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses, we demonstrate that these residue substitutions are associated with dramatically improved entry-inhibition efficacy toward both wild-type and antibody-resistant viruses. Taken together, our biochemical and structural data have delineated the basis for the elevated S-RBD binding associated with S19W, T27W, and N330Y mutations in ACE2, paving the way for potential application of these mutants in clinical treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 94:91-95, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409678

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China;the epidemic is more widespread than initially estimated, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. Aims The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of comorbidities in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients and the risk of underlying diseases in severe patients compared to non-severe patients. Methods A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science through February 25, 2020. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 1 576 infected patients. The results showed the most prevalent clinical symptom was fever (91.3%, 95% CI: 86-97%), followed by cough (67.7%, 95% CI: 59-76%), fatigue (51.0%, 95% CI: 34-68%) and dyspnea (30.4%, 95% CI: 21-40%). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (21.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-27.2%) and diabetes (9.7%, 95% CI: 7.2-12.2%), followed by cardiovascular disease (8.4%, 95% CI: 3.8-13.8%) and respiratory system disease (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1%). When compared between severe and non-severe patients, the pooled OR of hypertension, respiratory system disease, and cardiovascular disease were 2.36 (95% CI: 1.46-3.83), 2.46 (95% CI: 1.76-3.44) and 3.42 (95% CI: 1.88-6.22) respectively. Conclusion We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities in the COVID-19 patients and found that underlying disease, including hypertension, respiratory system disease and cardiovascular disease, may be risk factors for severe patients compared with non-severe patients.

17.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(11), 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1409606

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has become one of the most serious global epidemics in the 21st Century. This study aims to explore the distribution of research capabilities of countries, institutions, and researchers, and the hotspots and frontiers of coronavirus research in the past two decades. In it, references for funding support of urgent projects and international cooperation among research institutions are provided. Method: the Web of Science core collection database was used to retrieve the documents related to coronavirus published from 2003 to 2020. Citespace.5.6.R2, VOSviewer1.6.12, and Excel 2016 were used for bibliometric analysis.

18.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 36(4):549-553, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1408665

ABSTRACT

To investigate the recurrence rate of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) after discharge and type of SARS-CoV-Z nucleic acid-positive samples from patients with recurrence of SARS-CoV-Z in Dazu District, Chongqing, China, all patients were kept in isolation for 14 days, then quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharge, during which time nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, feces, saliva, and urine were collected to test for SARS-CoV-Z nucleic acids by RT-PCR, and symptoms and signs were documented. Results showed that there were no symptoms or signs during isolation for any patient. However, specimens from three patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-Z nucleic acids 3 to 14 days after discharge. SARS- CoV-Z nucleic acids were detected in saliva samples from two patients with recurrence of SARS-CoV-Z. The present study suggested that there is a relatively high incidence of positive tests for SARS-CoV-Z nucleic acids in patients after discharge. This is the first time that SARS-CoV-Z nucleic acids were detected in saliva samples. Whether the virus is infectious in these patients requires further study.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 654709, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394785

ABSTRACT

The accessory proteins of coronaviruses are essential for virus-host interactions and the modulation of host immune responses. It has been reported that accessory protein ORF3a encoded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can induce apoptosis, and accessory protein ORF6 and ORF8 could be inhibitors of the type-I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. However, the function of accessory protein ORF7b is largely unknown. We investigated the apoptosis-inducing activity of ORF7b in cells. Cytokine levels and host innate immune responses, including expression of interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, interferon (IFN)-ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, were also investigated. We found that ORF7b promoted expression of IFN-ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, activated type-I IFN signaling through IRF3 phosphorylation, and activated TNFα-induced apoptosis in HEK293T cells and Vero E6 cells. These results could provide deeper understanding about the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the interaction between the accessory protein ORF7b with host immune responses.

20.
J Control Release ; 338: 537-547, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385845

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based therapy has been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of a wide variety of disease such as cancer immunotherapies and infectious disease vaccines. However, it remains challenging to development safe and efficient delivery system. Here, we have designed a novel self-assembled polymeric micelle based on vitamin E succinate modified polyethyleneimine copolymer (PVES) to delivery mRNA. In vitro, PVES could transfect mRNA into multiple cell lines such as HEK-293T, HeLa and Vero and the transfection efficiencies were much higher than PEI 25 k. In addition, the cytotoxicity of PVES was much lower than PEI 25 k. Furthermore, mice administered intramuscularly with PVES/SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine induced potent antibody response and show no obvious toxicity. These results demonstrated the potential of PVES as a safe and effective delivery carrier for mRNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micelles , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Polyethyleneimine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfection
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