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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047789

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused more than 6.3 million deaths worldwide. Recent evidence has indicated that elderly people with dementia are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 and severe disease outcomes. However, its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we retrieved frontal cortex samples of COVID-19 patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and performed a systematic transcriptomic analysis to compare COVID-19 patients and controls with or without dementia. In nondemented patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection obviously activated T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated humoral immunity and reduced the pathogenesis of dementia-related Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In demented patients, conversely, SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly increased T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated cellular immunity and exacerbated the progression of dementia-related diseases. We further analyzed the molecular characteristics of COVID-19 patients with and without dementia. Compared with nondemented COVID-19 patients, demented COVID-19 patients showed decreased enrichment scores of Calcium signaling pathway, Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, ABC transporters, and Peroxisome, and increased enrichment scores of Olfactory transduction and Regulation of autophagy. The ratio of Th1/Th2 cells was significantly increased from 1.17 in nondemented COVID-19 patients to 33.32 in demented COVID-19 patients. Taken together, our findings provide transcriptomic evidence that COVID-19 has distinct influences on cognitive function and immune response in patients with and without dementia.

2.
Annals of Translational Medicine ; 10(9), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1971008

ABSTRACT

Background New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), and British Medical Journal (BMJ) are collectively known as “the Top Four Medical Journals (TFMJ)” in China. Through the analysis of Chinese scholars’ publications in the TFMJ in the recent 10 years, this study aimed to clarify the current situation of high-quality medical research conducted by Chinese scholars and institutions. Methods Data were retrieved and downloaded manually from PubMed (2011–2020). Information on the publication year, journal, author, affiliation, and citation, etc. were extracted and analyzed using R software. Results A total of 761 articles were involved in the final analysis. The number of articles published by Chinese scholars in the TFMJ was 135/29,942 (0.45%) in BMJ, 124/14,033 (0.88%) in JAMA, 314/16,117 (1.94%) in Lancet, and 188/15,242 (1.23%) in NEJM (P<0.001). Besides, the letter was the main research type, which was up to 44.54%, and the original research only accounted for 17.47%. The most popular subspecialty and subject were infectious diseases and COVID-19, respectively. The most productive researcher was Chen Wang, and Bin Cao was the most cited Chinese scholar. The most productive institute was Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College. The most cited study was “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. Conclusions The presence of Chinese scholars in the TFMJ has grown, but there is still much room to improve. A Matthew effect in China's high-level scientific research was demonstrated.

3.
Geohealth ; 5(12): e2021GH000494, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599369

ABSTRACT

In 2020, people's health suffered a great crisis under the dual effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the extensive, severe wildfires in the western and central United States. Parks, including city, national, and cultural parks, offer a unique opportunity for people to maintain their recreation behaviors following the social distancing protocols during the pandemic. However, massive forest wildfires in western and central US, producing harmful toxic gases and smoke, pose significant threats to human health and affect their recreation behaviors and mobility to parks. In this study, we employed the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) Models to investigate how COVID-19 and wildfires jointly shaped human mobility to parks, regarding the number of visits per capita, dwell time, and travel distance to parks, during June - September 2020. We detected strong correlations between visitations and COVID-19 incidence in southern Montana, western Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah before August. However, the pattern was weakened over time, indicating the decreasing trend of the degree of concern regarding the pandemic. Moreover, more park visits and lower dwell time were found in parks further away from wildfires and less air pollution in Washington, Oregon, California, Colorado, and New Mexico, during the wildfire season, suggesting the potential avoidance of wildfires when visiting parks. This study provides important insights on people's responses in recreation and social behaviors when facing multiple severe crises that impact their health and wellbeing, which could support the preparation and mitigation of the health impacts from future pandemics and natural hazards.

4.
GeoHealth ; 5(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1543600

ABSTRACT

In 2020, people's health suffered a great crisis under the dual effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic and the extensive, severe wildfires in the western and central United States. Parks, including city, national, and cultural parks, offer a unique opportunity for people to maintain their recreation behaviors following the social distancing protocols during the pandemic. However, massive forest wildfires in western and central US, producing harmful toxic gases and smoke, pose significant threats to human health and affect their recreation behaviors and mobility to parks. In this study, we employed the geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) Models to investigate how COVID‐19 and wildfires jointly shaped human mobility to parks, regarding the number of visits per capita, dwell time, and travel distance to parks, during June ‐ September 2020. We detected strong correlations between visitations and COVID‐19 incidence in southern Montana, western Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah before August. However, the pattern was weakened over time, indicating the decreasing trend of the degree of concern regarding the pandemic. Moreover, more park visits and lower dwell time were found in parks further away from wildfires and less air pollution in Washington, Oregon, California, Colorado, and New Mexico, during the wildfire season, suggesting the potential avoidance of wildfires when visiting parks. This study provides important insights on people's responses in recreation and social behaviors when facing multiple severe crises that impact their health and wellbeing, which could support the preparation and mitigation of the health impacts from future pandemics and natural hazards. Key Points We investigated human mobility patterns to parks under COVID‐19 pandemic and wildfire season in western and central United States We found a general trend of avoidance to the parks with fewer visits and dwell time in the places with high COVID‐19 cases With special demand of physical activities in pandemic, people travel further and spend longer time at the parks away from the wildfires

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