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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5117-5122, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485611

ABSTRACT

In order to standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment decision-making with traditional Chinese medicine for pa-tients of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and put the latest clinical study evidence into clinical practice, the international trust-worthy traditional Chinese medicine recommendations( TCM Recs) working group started the compilation of Living Evidence-based Guideline for Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Treatment of COVID-19 on the basis of the standards and re-quirements of WHO handbook, GRADE and RIGHT. This proposal mainly introduces the formulation methods and processes of the living guidelines in details, such as the composition of the working group, the collection and identification of clinical issues and out-comes, the production of the living systematic review and the consensus of recommendations. The guidelines will continue to monitor the clinical study evidences of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, and conduct regular evidence updating, retrieval and screening. When there is new study evidence, the steering committee will evaluate the possibility of the evidence to change clinical practice or previous recommendations, so as to decide whether the recommendations for the guidelines shall be implemented or upda-ted. The main criteria considered in the guideline updating are as follows:(1) There are new high-quality randomized controlled trial(RCT) evidences for TCM uninvolved in the previous edition of the guidelines;(2) as for the TCM involved in the guidelines, living sys-tematic review shows that new evidence may change the direction or strength of the existing recommendations. The specific implementation of the living evidence-based guidelines will take this proposal as the study basis and framework, in order to ensure the standardization of the formulation process and methods. This will be the first exploration of the methodology for living guidelines in the field of TCM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , China , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Pept Res Ther ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471835

ABSTRACT

Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been evaluated as enhancers in drug delivery, their addition in medical formulations favors drug absorption allowing obtaining the pharmacological effect with lower doses. In vaccine formulations their inclusion has been also explored with interesting results. Currently mucosal vaccination constitutes a promising alternative with the main advantage of inducing both systemic and mucosal immune responses, which are crucial for control tumors and infections at mucosal tissues. In the present work the nasal immune-enhancing effect of four CPPs was evaluated in Balb/c mice. Animals were intranasally immunized with CPP and the recombinant hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) as model antigen. The antibody response in sera and mucosal tissue was measured by ELISA. The IFN-γ secretion response at spleen was also evaluated by ELISPOT and ELISA. Among the CPPs studied one novel peptide stand out by its ability to potentiate the humoral and cellular immune response against the co-administered antigen. Considering that the use of mucosal routes is a promising strategy in vaccination, which are gaining special relevance nowadays in the development of novel candidates against SARS-CoV-2 and other potential emerging respiratory virus, the searching and development of safe mucosal adjuvants constitute a current need.

3.
Complex Intell Systems ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406188

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global alarm. With the advances in artificial intelligence, the COVID-19 testing capabilities have been greatly expanded, and hospital resources are significantly alleviated. Over the past years, computer vision researches have focused on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which can significantly improve image analysis ability. However, CNN architectures are usually manually designed with rich expertise that is scarce in practice. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can automatically search for the proper CNN architectures and voluntarily optimize the related hyperparameters. The networks searched by EAs can be used to effectively process COVID-19 computed tomography images without expert knowledge and manual setup. In this paper, we propose a novel EA-based algorithm with a dynamic searching space to design the optimal CNN architectures for diagnosing COVID-19 before the pathogenic test. The experiments are performed on the COVID-CT data set against a series of state-of-the-art CNN models. The experiments demonstrate that the architecture searched by the proposed EA-based algorithm achieves the best performance yet without any preprocessing operations. Furthermore, we found through experimentation that the intensive use of batch normalization may deteriorate the performance. This contrasts with the common sense approach of manually designing CNN architectures and will help the related experts in handcrafting CNN models to achieve the best performance without any preprocessing operations.

4.
Applied Sciences ; 11(17):7784, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1403533

ABSTRACT

The multi-blade centrifugal fan is commonly used in modern building ventilation and air-conditioning system. However, it does not readily satisfy the increasing demand for energy saving, high efficiency or noise reduction. Its performance is inherently limited by the geometrical structure of single circular arc blades. Q35-type multi-blade centrifugal fan studied as an example by combining the disturbance CST function to parameterize the blades. The optimization parameter change range is confirmed, and test samples are extracted before establishing an RBF proxy model. The NSGA-II algorithm is incorporated, and multi-objective optimization is performed with flow rate and total pressure efficiency as optimization goals. The results show that the fan performance is effectively improved. At the design working point, the air volume of the multi-blade centrifugal fan increases by 1.4 m3/min;at the same time, the total pressure efficiency increases by 3.1%, and the noise is reduced by 1.12 dB, applying the proposed design. The obtained higher fan efficiency can effectively improve performance of the whole ventilation and air-conditioning system. This novel optimization method also has relatively few parameters, which makes it potentially valuable for designing multi-wing centrifugal and other types of fans, providing a new idea for energy saving and emission reduction design of fan.

5.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 41, 2021 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is a statistical method to synthesize evidence from a number of independent studies, including those from clinical studies with binary outcomes. In practice, when there are zero events in one or both groups, it may cause statistical problems in the subsequent analysis. METHODS: In this paper, by considering the relative risk as the effect size, we conduct a comparative study that consists of four continuity correction methods and another state-of-the-art method without the continuity correction, namely the generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). To further advance the literature, we also introduce a new method of the continuity correction for estimating the relative risk. RESULTS: From the simulation studies, the new method performs well in terms of mean squared error when there are few studies. In contrast, the generalized linear mixed model performs the best when the number of studies is large. In addition, by reanalyzing recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) data, it is evident that the double-zero-event studies impact the estimate of the mean effect size. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the new method to handle the zero-event studies when there are few studies in a meta-analysis, or instead use the GLMM when the number of studies is large. The double-zero-event studies may be informative, and so we suggest not excluding them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Analysis , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design/trends , Humans , Linear Models
6.
Pers Individ Dif ; 183: 111110, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294122

ABSTRACT

Lockdown orders were issued on January 23, 2020 in Wuhan, China, for the purpose of preventing and controlling COVID-19, which led to severe psychological problems for residents. The present study aimed to investigate the recovery model of hopelessness through interpersonal pathways during the COVID-19 epidemic. An online survey was conducted in 34 provinces (those in autonomous regions and municipalities) of China. This survey investigated residents' hopelessness and the impact of three factors on it, including their perceived social support, meaning in life, and epidemic risk levels. Results showed that both perceived social support and meaning in life negatively predicted hopelessness, while meaning in life played a partial mediating role between perceived social support and hopelessness. Further, epidemic risk level played a moderating role between perceived social support and meaning in life, indicating a "marginal zone effect." Specifically, when comparing other province, perceived social support showed a stronger positive relationship with meaning in life among residents living in other regions of Hubei province. In sum, this study extends the recovery model of hopelessness through interpersonal pathways, and has important implications for public health emergency management.

7.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 238, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to analyse endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients presenting acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. METHODS: Patients with AIS-LVO of the anterior circulation who underwent EVT were enrolled. According to the times of Wuhan closure and reopening, patients were divided into a pre-pandemic group (from November 8, 2019, to January 22, 2020), pandemic group (from January 23, 2020, to April 8, 2020) and post-epidemic group (from April 9, 2020, to June 24, 2020). The primary endpoints were the time delay among symptom onset to arriving hospital door, to groining puncture and to vascular reperfusion. Secondary endpoints were the functional outcomes evaluated by 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. RESULTS: In total, the times from onset to reperfusion (OTR, median 356 min vs. 310 min, p = 0.041) and onset to door (OTD, median 238 min vs. 167 min, p = 0.017) were prolonged in the pandemic group compared to the pre-pandemic group, and the delay continue in the post-epidemic period. In the subgroup analysis, the time from door to imaging (DTI) was significantly prolonged during the pandemic period. Interestingly, the prolonged DTI was corrected in the directly admitted subgroup during post-epidemic period. In addition, the functional outcomes showed no significant differences across the three periods. CONCLUSIONS: Total time and prehospital time were prolonged during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. Urgent public education and improved in-hospital screening processes are necessary to decrease time delays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-447588

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses constitute a global threat to human population since three highly pathogenic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) have crossed species to cause severe human respiratory disease. Considering the worldwide emergency status due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, effective pan-coronavirus antiviral drugs are required to tackle the ongoing as well as future (re)emerging virus outbreaks. Protein kinase CK2 has been deemed a promising therapeutic target in COVID-19 supported by its in vitro pharmacologic inhibition and molecular studies on SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. CIGB-325 is a first-in-class synthetic peptide impairing the CK2-mediated signaling whose safety and clinical benefit have been evidenced in Covid-19 and cancer patients after intravenous administration. Here, we explored the putative antiviral effect of CIGB-325 over MDBK cells infected by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) Mebus. Importantly, CIGB-325 inhibited both the cytopathic effect and the number of plaques forming units with a half-inhibitory concentrations IC50 = 3.5 M and 17.7 M, respectively. Accordingly, viral protein accumulation at the cytoplasm was clearly reduced by treating BCoV-infected cells with CIGB-325 over time, as determined by immunocytochemistry. Of note, data from pull-down assay followed by western blot and/or mass spectrometry identification revealed physical interaction of CIGB-325 with nucleocapsid (N) protein and a bona fide cellular CK2 substrates. Functional enrichment and network analysis from the CIGB-325 interacting proteins indicated cytoskeleton reorganization and protein folding as the most represented biological processes disturbed by this anti-CK2 peptide. Altogether, our findings not only unveil the direct antiviral activity of CIGB-325 on coronavirus infection but also provide molecular clues underlying such effect. Also, our data reinforce the scientific rationality behind the pharmacologic inhibition of CK2 to treat coronavirus infections.

9.
Cell Rep ; 34(7): 108761, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062276

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global health threat caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 elicits a dysregulated immune response and a delayed interferon (IFN) expression in patients, which contribute largely to the viral pathogenesis and development of COVID-19. However, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the activation and repression of the innate immune response by SARS-CoV-2. We show that SARS-CoV-2 RNA activates the RIG-I-MAVS-dependent IFN signaling pathway. We further uncover that ORF9b immediately accumulates and antagonizes the antiviral type I IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection on primary human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. ORF9b targets the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator NEMO and interrupts its K63-linked polyubiquitination upon viral stimulation, thereby inhibiting the canonical IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)/ß/γ-NF-κB signaling and subsequent IFN production. Our findings thus unveil the innate immunosuppression by ORF9b and provide insights into the host-virus interplay during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitination
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3001-3006, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679287

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is a newly emerged and highly contagious respiratory disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has both systematism theory knowledge and clinical practical value in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, it was particularly important to examine the effect of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The patents of TCM might reflect the latest progression of scientific research. We aimed to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by extracting and analyzing the TCM patents from the Patent Information Sharing Platform of COVID-19. The antiviral TCM patents were screened and exported from the Patent Information Sharing Platform. VOSviewer 1.6.14 was used to visualize and analyze the network of TCM in these patents. There were total 292 TCM patents, including 52 patents for etiological treatment and 240 patents for symptomatic treatment. Thirty-two provinces and 1 076 inventors were involved, mainly from Beijing, Guangdong and Jiangsu. Overall, there were 356 TCMs, 71 single prescriptions, and 221 compound prescriptions. The patents for treatment of coronavirus mainly focused on the treatment of coronavirus, while the patents for symptomatic treatment mainly focuses on the improvement of respiratory symptoms, such as fever and cough. There were 14 highly frequently used TCMs, including Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Forsythiae Fructus, Isatidis Radix, Astragali Radix, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, Gypsum Fibrosum, Houttuyniae Herba, Isatidis Folium, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Gardeniae Fructus, Platycodonis Radix, Armeniacae Semen Amarum. The analyzed results of the TCM patents from the patent information sharing platform of COVID-19 were consistent with the Guideline of Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19(7th edition), and the combination of TCM in each cluster may also provide future directions for drug compatibility.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Beijing , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Information Dissemination , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Integr Med Res ; 9(3): 100490, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680147

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide pandemic, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an important role in response. We aimed to analyze the published literature on TCM for COVID-19, and provide reference for later research. Methods: This study searched the CBM, CNKI, PubMed, and EMBASE from its establishment to March 11, 2020. VOSviewer 1.6.11 and gCLUTO 2.0 software were used to visually analyze the included studies. Results: A total of 309 studies were included, including 61 journals, 1441 authors, 277 institutions, and 27 provinces. Research collaborations among regions were among those close in geographical distance. The collaborations of institutions and authors were more likely to be restricted to the same region. Among the authors with frequency greater than two (65 authors), only 19 authors had connection with others. More than 70% (358/491) of keywords were only presented once, and 20 keywords were shown more than 10 times. Five research topics were identified: Data mining method based analysis on the medication law of Chinese medicine in prevention and management of COVID-19; exploration of active compounds of Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment based on network pharmacology and molecular docking; expert consensus and interpretation of COVID-19 treatment; research on the etiology and pathogenesis of COVID-19; and clinical research of TCM for COVID-19 treatment. Conclusion: The research hotspots were scattered, and the collaboration between authors and institutions needed to be further strengthened. To improve the quality and efficiency of research output, the integration of scientific research and resources, as well as scientific collaboration are needed.

15.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(9): 2083-2089, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245125

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To quantify the severity of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on chest CT and to determine its relationship with laboratory parameters. METHODS: Patients with real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 between January 01 and February 18, 2020, were included in this study. Laboratory parameters were retrospectively collected from medical records. Severity of lung changes on chest CT of early, progressive, peak, and absorption stages was scored according to the percentage of lung involvement (5 lobes, scores 1-5 for each lobe, range 0-20). Relationship between CT scores and laboratory parameters was evaluated by the Spearman rank correlation. The Bonferroni correction adjusted significance level was at 0.05/4 = 0.0125. RESULTS: A total of 84 patients (mean age, 47.8 ± 12.0 years [standard deviation]; age range, 24-80 years) were evaluated. The patients underwent a total of 339 chest CT scans with a median interval of 4 days (interquartile range, 3-5 days). Median chest CT scores peaked at 4 days after the beginning of treatment and then declined. CT score of the early stage was correlated with neutrophil count (r = 0.531, P = 0.011). CT score of the progressive stage was correlated with neutrophil count (r = 0.502, P < 0.001), white blood cell count (r = 0.414, P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.511, P < 0.001), procalcitonin (r = 0.423, P = 0.004), and lactose dehydrogenase (r = 0.369, P = 0.010). However, CT scores of the peak and absorption stages were not correlated with any parameter (P > 0.0125). No sex difference occurred regarding CT score (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Severity of lung abnormalities quantified on chest CT might correlate with laboratory parameters in the early and progressive stages. However, larger cohort studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Laboratories , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 11(1): 169, 2020 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165146

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) worldwide is becoming rapidly a major concern. The number of severe cases has increased dramatically worldwide, while specific treatment options are scarce. The main pathologic features of severe or critical COVID-19 were consistent with acute lung injure (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by cellular fibromyxoid exudates, extensive pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, and hyaline membrane formation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can balance the inflammatory response and has been mentioned to be effective on ALI/ARDS from both infectious and noninfectious causes previously, presenting an important opportunity to be applied to COVID-19. In this commentary, we summarize the clinical trials of MSCs treatments on ALI/ARDS and raise MSCs as a hopefully alternative therapy for severe or critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
18.
19.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 23(4): 247-254, 2020 04 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-109651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the rapid spread of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) worldwide and the escalation of prevention and control efforts, the routine medical needs of patients have been restricted. The aims were to investigate medical needs of lung cancer patients and their mental health status during the epidemic periods, so as to provide rational recommendations for subsequent diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: The questionnaire was sent in the form of an electronic questionnaire at 7am on 4th, March, 2020, until 7am 6th, March, 2020, 368 questionnaires were recollected from 25 provinces (autonomous regions/municipalities) in 48 h. RESULTS: Of the 368 patients, 18 patients were excluded as they didn't receive anti-tumor treatment, and 350 patients were included in the final analysis. 229 cases were treated with oral targeted drugs, and 121 cases were treated with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. 41.3% of patients treated with intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy experienced treatment discontinuation, and the proportion of treatment discontinuation in chemotherapy or immunotherapy was higher than those treated with oral targeted drugs (21.0%). Whether oral targeted drugs or intravenous chemotherapy or immunotherapy, more than 60% of patients experienced delays in imaging examinations. Nearly one third of patients developed new symptoms or exacerbation of existing symptoms. 26.6%-28.9% of patients have changed their treatment plans through online consultation. During novel coronavirus pneumonia, 40%-75% of lung cancer patients have mental health problems, and more than 95% of patients support government's prevention and control measures. CONCLUSIONS: During the emergence of NCP, the medical needs of patients with lung cancer have not been enough, especially those who discontinued chemotherapy or immunotherapy. When medical institution resumes work, priority should be given to them. At the same time, mental health problems of patients should be valued and resolved timely.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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