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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585887

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 351, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) is a current worldwide threat for which the immunological features after infection need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to establish a highly sensitive and quantitative detection method for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody and to compare the antibody reaction difference in patients with different disease severity. RESULTS: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to establish an indirect IgG ELISA detection system. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% with a specificity of 96.8% and a 98.3% concordance when compared to a colloidal gold kit, in addition, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% with a specificity of 98.9% and a 99.4% concordance when compared to a SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein IgG antibody ELISA kit. The increased sensitivity resulted in a higher rate of IgG antibody detection for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the quantitative detection can be conducted with a much higher serum dilution (1:400 vs 1:10, 1:400 vs 1:100). The antibody titers of 88 patients with differing COVID-19 severity at their early convalescence ranged from 800 to 102,400, and the geometric mean titer for severe and critical cases, moderate cases, asymptomatic and mild cases was 51,203, 20,912, and 9590 respectively. CONCLUSION: The development of a highly sensitive ELISA system for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies is described herein. This system enabled a quantitative study of rSARS-CoV-2-N IgG antibody titers in COVID-19 patients, the occurrence of higher IgG antibody titers were found to be correlated with more severe cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 805223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581269

ABSTRACT

Deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) are proteases that crack the ubiquitin code from ubiquitylated substrates to reverse the fate of substrate proteins. Recently, DUBs have been found to mediate various cellular biological functions, including antiviral innate immune response mediated by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and NLR Family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. So far, many DUBs have been identified to exert a distinct function in fine-tuning antiviral innate immunity and are utilized by viruses for immune evasion. Here, the recent advances in the regulation of antiviral responses by DUBs are reviewed. We also discussed the DUBs-mediated interaction between the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and antiviral innate immunity. The understanding of the mechanisms on antiviral innate immunity regulated by DUBs may provide therapeutic opportunities for viral infection.

4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580004

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a huge threat to human health and social stability. Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC), a patented herbal drug composed of eight medicinal plants, is used to treat different viral respiratory tract infectious diseases. Based on its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities in acute lung injury, SFJDC can be effectively used as a treatment for COVID-19 patients according to the diagnosis and treatment plan issued in China and existing clinical data. SFJDC has been recommended in 15 therapeutic regimens for COVID-19 in China. This review summarizes current data on the ingredients, chemical composition, pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, and potential therapeutic effect of SFJDC on COVID-19, to provide a theoretical basis for its anti-viral mechanism and the clinical treatment of COVID-19.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296434

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of various kidney diseases have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. However, detailed clinical and pathological examination of kidney injury in patients receiving inactivated vaccines are lacking.<br><br>Methods: We screened and analyzed patients with newly diagnosed kidney diseases after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Peking University First Hospital from January 2021 to August 2021. We obtained samples of blood, urine, and renal biopsy tissues. Clinical and laboratory information, as well as light microscopy, immunostaining and ultrastructural observation were described. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein and Nucleoprotein were stained using immune-fluorescence technique in the kidney biopsy samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were tested using magnetic particle chemiluminescence immunoassay.<br><br>Findings: The study group included 17 patients, including immune complex mediated kidney diseases (IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis), podocytopathy (minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and others (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, anti-GBM nephritis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy). Seven patients (41.18%) developed renal disease after the first dose and 10 (58.82%) after the second dose. We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleoprotein deposition in the kidney biopsy samples. Serological markers implicated abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. Treatment and follow-up (median = 86 days) showed that biopsy diagnosis informed treatment and prognosis in all patients.<br><br>Interpretation: We observed various kidney diseases following inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. Our findings provide an evidence against direct vaccine protein deposition as the major pathomechanism, but implicate abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. These findings expand our understanding of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine renal safety.<br><br>Funding: This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91742205, 82170711, 81800636, 82070733, 81625004), Clinical Medicine Plus X—Young Scholars Project of Peking University (PKU2021LCXQ017), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-5-046), Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), and Beijing Young Scientist Program (BJJWZYJH01201910001006).<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional review board of Peking University First Hospital (2021-352) and the Committee on Human Subject Research and Ethics of Yunnan University (CHSRE2021020). Written Informed Consent Form was obtained from each participant.

6.
Journal of Advanced Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1536631

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 global epidemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a great public health emergency. Discovering antiviral drug candidates is urgent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Objectives This work aims to discover natural SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine licorice. Methods We screened 125 small molecules from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (licorice, Gan-Cao) by virtual ligand screening targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Potential hit compounds were further evaluated by ELISA, SPR, luciferase assay, antiviral assay and pharmacokinetic study. Results The triterpenoids licorice-saponin A3 (A3) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, with EC50 of 75 nM and 3.17 µM, respectively. Moreover, we revealed that A3 mainly targets the nsp7 protein, and GA binds to the spike protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion In this work, we found GA and A3 from licorice potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection by affecting the entry and replication of the virus. Our findings indicate that these triterpenoids may contribute to the clinical efficacy of licorice for COVID-19 and could be promising candidates for antiviral drug development.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22796, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532104

ABSTRACT

The current severe situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been reversed and posed great threats to global health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find out effective antiviral drugs. The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) in SARS-CoV-2 serve as a promising anti-virus target due to its essential role in the regulation of virus reproduction. Here, we report an improved integrated approach to identify effective 3CLpro inhibitors from effective Chinese herbal formulas. With this approach, we identified the 5 natural products (NPs) including narcissoside, kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside, rutin, vicenin-2 and isoschaftoside as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulation additionally revealed that these molecules can be tightly bound to 3CLpro and confirmed effectiveness against COVID-19. Moreover, kaempferol-3-o-gentiobioside, vicenin-2 and isoschaftoside were first reported to have SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitory activity. In summary, this optimized integrated strategy for drug screening can be utilized in the discovery of antiviral drugs to achieve rapid acquisition of drugs with specific effects on antiviral targets.

8.
Phytomedicine ; : 153784, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has caused a high number of deaths worldwide. Inflammatory factors may play important roles in COVID-19 progression. Yindan Jiedu granules (YDJDG) can inhibit the progression of COVID-19, but the associated mechanism is unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of YDJDG on COVID-19 and explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: We recruited 262 participants and randomly assigned 97 patients each to the YDJDG and control groups using one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). Clinical effects were observed and serum inflammatory and immune indicators were measured. The target network model of YDJDG was established by predicting and determining the targets of identified compounds. The main constituents of the YDJDG extracts were identified and evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and molecular docking. Besides, the anti-inflammatory effects of YDJDG and its specific biological mechanism of action were studied. RESULTS: After PSM, the results showed that compared with the control group, the YDJDG group had a shorter time of dissipation of acute pulmonary exudative lesions (p < 0.0001), shorter time to negative conversion of viral nucleic acid (p < 0.01), more rapid decrease in serum amyloid A level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.0001), and a higher rate of increase in CD4+T cell count (p = 0.0155). By overlapping the genes of YDJDG and COVID-19, 213 co-targeted genes were identified. Metascape enrichment analysis showed that 25 genes were significantly enriched in the NF-κB pathway, which were mainly targets of luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol as confirmed by MS analysis. Molecular docking revealed that the ligands of three compounds had strong interaction with NF-κB p65 and IκBα. In vivo, YDJDG significantly protected animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), decreasing the lung wet/dry weight ratio, ALI score, and lung histological damage. In LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, YDJDG suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In vivo and in vitro, YDJDG exerted anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α). These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of NF-ĸB activation and IκBα phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: YDJDG may shorten the COVID-19 course and delay its progression by suppressing inflammation via targeting the NF-κB pathway.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 681255, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518564

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 virus has devastated lives and economies worldwide. The responses of nursing teams to large-scale COVID-19 screening have rarely been addressed or described. The aim of this study is to introduce an efficient response strategy for nurses in large-scale COVID-19 screening. A new COVID-19 case was confirmed on Jan 14, 2021 in Nanning, China. Immediately, a large-scale COVID-19 screening was launched and ran from Jan 14 to Jan 17, 2021. Our nurse team responding to the screening included three major components: (1) establishing a leadership group and a nucleic acid sampling emergency team; (2) defining, conducting, and evaluating nurse training; (3) implementing efficient sampling schemes (10 in 1 mixed sample technique). A total of 500 nurse volunteers were recruited and divided into three echelons. A total of 353 trained nurses were sent to 65 sampling stand stations. In cooperation with nurses from other health institutions, samples were collected from a total of 854,215 people in only 4 days for 2019-nCOV nucleic acid screening. The preparation and efficient response strategies used to conduct this screening may provide a baseline reference for future large-scale COVID-19 screening worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Humans , Leadership , Nursing, Team , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-468537

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of Bromodomain and Extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins are possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactics as they downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we show that BET proteins should not be inactivated therapeutically as they are critical antiviral factors at the post-entry level. Knockouts of BRD3 or BRD4 in cells overexpressing ACE2 exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 infection; the same is observed when cells with endogenous ACE2 expression are treated with BET inhibitors during infection, and not before. Viral replication and mortality are also enhanced in BET inhibitor-treated mice overexpressing ACE2. BET inactivation suppresses interferon production induced by SARS-CoV-2, a process phenocopied by the envelope (E) protein previously identified as a possible "histone mimetic." E protein, in an acetylated form, directly binds the second bromodomain of BRD4. Our data support a model where SARS-CoV-2 E protein evolved to antagonize interferon responses via BET protein inhibition; this neutralization should not be further enhanced with BET inhibitor treatment.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502551

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 vaccination behavior of people living with HIV (PLWH) was examined via a cross-sectional web-based survey of PLWH aged 18 years and older. The survey was conducted from l May to 20 June 2021. The survey included social demographic information; vaccination behavior (B); and questions related to perceived usefulness (PU), perceived risk (PR), subjective norms (SNs), perceived behavior control (PBC), and behavior intention (BI). The associations between the questionnaire variables and COVID-19 vaccination behavior were assessed by calculating the descriptive data, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. In total, 43.71% of the 350 eligible respondents had received a COVID-19 vaccine. The differences in COVID-19 vaccination behavior according to age, gender, religious belief, marital status, income, education level, and occupation were not obvious (p > 0.05). PU had a significantly negative effect on PR (p < 0.05). PR had a significantly negative effect on BI (p < 0.05). SNs had a significantly positive effect on BI (p < 0.05). BI had a significantly positive effect on B (p < 0.05). PR fully mediated the effects of PU on BI, BI fully mediated the effects of PR on B, and BI fully mediated the effects of SNs on B (p < 0.05). Health policymakers and medical workers should provide more information about the risks of vaccine application to improve the vaccination behavior of PLWH.

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 372, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493075

ABSTRACT

Varying differentiation of myeloid cells is common in tumors, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic diseases. The release of cytokines from myeloid cells is an important driving factor that leads to severe COVID-19 cases and subsequent death. This review briefly summarizes the results of single-cell sequencing of peripheral blood, lung tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients and describes the differentiation trajectory of myeloid cells in patients. Moreover, we describe the function and mechanism of abnormal differentiation of myeloid cells to promote disease progression. Targeting myeloid cell-derived cytokines or checkpoints is essential in developing a combined therapeutic strategy for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Myeloid Cells/virology , Single-Cell Analysis
13.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-467458

ABSTRACT

The systemic immune response to viral infection is shaped by master transcription factors such as NF{kappa}B or PU.1. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested as important regulators of transcription factor activity, their contributions to the systemic immunopathologies observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection have remained unknown. Here, we employed a targeted single-cell RNA-seq approach to reveal lncRNAs differentially expressed in blood leukocytes during severe COVID-19. Our results uncover the lncRNA PIRAT as a major PU.1 feedback-regulator in monocytes, governing the production of the alarmins S100A8/A9 - key drivers of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Knockout and transgene expression, combined with chromatin-occupancy profiling characterized PIRAT as a nuclear decoy RNA, diverting the PU.1 transcription factor from alarmin promoters to dead-end pseudogenes in naive monocytes. NF{kappa}B-dependent PIRAT down-regulation during COVID-19 consequently releases a transcriptional brake, fueling alarmin production. Our results suggest a major role of nuclear noncoding RNA circuits in systemic antiviral responses to SARS-CoV-2 in humans.

14.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291172

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the COVID-19 infection broke out in many parts of the world with confirmed and death cases rapidly increasing, which posed a great threat to human life and health. Current nucleic acid detection and antibody testing for the SARS-CoV-2 were the main methods for diagnosis of COVID-19, but not so sensitive, with high false negative rate and missed diagnosis rate. Imaging changes of COVID-19 not only precede symptomatic changes, but also have different imaging characteristics in different periods. We conducted 74 days of dynamic chest CT imaging observation on COVID-19 patients in Hebei province, aiming to understand the dynamic characteristics of the chest CT changes of COVID-19, so as to find the source of infection early, take early intervention measures, and judge the prognosis. Methods: Chest CT examinations at intervals 1 to 4 days were conducted for 11 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19. On the 74th day after onset, chest CT was reexamined to analyze the characteristics of chest CT in each stage. Results: Of the 11 cases, 1 case was imported from Wuhan, 10 cases were infected for family clustering after close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases. There were 3 ordinary cases, 3 severe cases and 5 critical cases. Among them, 2 critical cases died for old age and complications of underlying diseases, while 9 cases were cured by April 7, 2020. The changes of chest CT imaging in 1 child appeared prior to the clinical symptoms. 1–4 days after onset of the initial symptom were the early stages: Chest CT was mainly characterized by single lung quasi-circular ground glass shadow and fine mesh shadow. 5–10 days were the progressive stages: The lesion spread along the axial interstitium of the bronchi and gradually diffused to the whole lung, and reach the peak on day 6 to 9, which was characterized by consolidation, paving stone sign, halo sign, reversed halo sign, and even ‘white lung’ for the critical patients. The recovery stages began on day 11 after onset: The fiber cord, ground glass and consolidation shadow were gradually absorbed. After 74 days of follow-up, no serious permanent lung injury was found. Conclusion: Chest CT could determine the different stages of COVID-19. Dynamic follow-up chest CT showed a good prognosis of COVID-19 in Hebei Province, China

15.
Sustainability ; 13(19):10791, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1468470

ABSTRACT

Energy consumption, and its impact on the environment, has become an increased focal point in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country, following population growth and rapid urbanization. Ghana has high potential for renewable energy generation;nevertheless, low acceptance and usage have been found. An extensive study is required to understand the causes driving poor acceptability and the intentions to use renewable energy. This study aims to empirically investigate the acceptance of renewable energy using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted, from 1 February 2021 to 30 June 2021, using a self-administered questionnaire. The survey was carried out on Ghanaian adults of the age 18 years and above. Data was collected from 1068 respondents from Ghana’s northern and southern parts and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) with SmartPLS software. The results of the data analysis reveal that environmental awareness is the biggest predictor of the intention to use renewable energy in Ghana. Perceived affordability was also found to be the most significant predictor of attitudes towards the use of renewable energy in Ghana. The findings of this research will give policymakers, manufacturers, and the providers of renewable energy appliances a better understanding of the factors that determine the intention to use renewable energy.

16.
mBio ; 12(5): e0137221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462899

ABSTRACT

Interleukin6 (IL-6) is a key driver of hyperinflammation in COVID-19, and its level strongly correlates with disease progression. To investigate whether variability in COVID-19 severity partially results from differential IL-6 expression, functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 were determined in Chinese COVID-19 patients with mild or severe illness. An Asian-common IL-6 haplotype defined by promoter SNP rs1800796 and intronic SNPs rs1524107 and rs2066992 correlated with COVID-19 severity. Homozygote carriers of C-T-T variant haplotype were at lower risk of developing severe symptoms (odds ratio, 0.256; 95% confidence interval, 0.088 to 0.739; P = 0.007). This protective haplotype was associated with lower levels of IL-6 and its antisense long noncoding RNA IL-6-AS1 by cis-expression quantitative trait loci analysis. The differences in expression resulted from the disturbance of stimulus-dependent bidirectional transcription of the IL-6/IL-6-AS1 locus by the polymorphisms. The protective rs2066992-T allele disrupted a conserved CTCF-binding locus at the enhancer elements of IL-6-AS1, which transcribed antisense to IL-6 and induces IL-6 expression in inflammatory responses. As a result, carriers of the protective allele had significantly reduced IL-6-AS1 expression and attenuated IL-6 induction in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and viral infection. Intriguingly, this low-producing variant that is endemic to present-day Asia was found in early humans who had inhabited mainland Asia since ∼40,000 years ago but not in other ancient humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. The present study suggests that an individual's IL-6 genotype underlies COVID-19 outcome and may be used to guide IL-6 blockade therapy in Asian patients. IMPORTANCE Overproduction of cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and is believed to play a critical role in exacerbating the excessive inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in IL-6 account for the variability of IL-6 expression and disparities in infectious diseases, but its contribution to the clinical presentation of COVID-19 has not been reported. Here, we investigated IL-6 polymorphisms in severe and mild cases of COVID-19 in a Chinese population. The variant haplotype C-T-T, represented by rs1800796, rs1524107, and rs2066992 at the IL-6 locus, was reduced in patients with severe illness; in contrast, carriers of the wild-type haplotype G-C-G had higher risk of severe illness. Mechanistically, the protective variant haplotype lost CTCF binding at the IL-6 intron and responded poorly to inflammatory stimuli, which may protect the carriers from hyperinflammation in response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results point out the possibility that IL-6 genotypes underlie the differential viral virulence during the outbreak of COVID-19. The risk loci we identified may serve as a genetic marker to screen high-risk COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Interleukin-6/metabolism , A549 Cells , Genotype , Haplotypes/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Software
17.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(20): 5462-5469, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization reported that 28637952 people worldwide had been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by September 13. AIM: The aim was to investigate whether long-term use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension aggravates the performance of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) data and laboratory values of COVID-19 patients with hypertension who were admitted to Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei Province, between February 18 and March 31, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 19 people who were long-term users of RAAS inhibitors for hypertension; and group B included 28 people who were randomly selected from the database and matched with group A by age, sex, basic diseases, and long-term use of other antihypertensive drugs. All patients underwent a series of CT and laboratory tests. We compared the most severe CT images of the two groups and the laboratory examination results within 2 d of the corresponding CT images. RESULTS: The time until the most severe CT images from the onset of COVID-19 was 30.37 ± 14.25 d group A and 26.50 ± 11.97 d in group B. The difference between the two groups was not significant (t = 1.01, P = 0.32). There were no significant differences in blood laboratory values, C-reactive protein, markers of cardiac injury, liver function, or kidney function between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the appearance of the CT images between the two groups. The semiquantitative scores of each involved lobe were 11.84 ± 5.88 in group A and 10.36 ± 6.04 group B. The difference was not significantly different (t = 0.84, P = 0.41). CONCLUSION: Chest CT is an important imaging tool to monitor the characteristics of COVID-19 and the degree of lung injury. Chronic use of RAAS inhibitors is not related to the severity of COVID-19, and it does not worsen the clinical process.

18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 727419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444039

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood parameters, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been identified as reliable inflammatory markers with diagnostic and predictive value for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, novel hematological parameters derived from high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have rarely been studied as indicators for the risk of poor outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of these novel biomarkers in COVID-19 patients and the diabetes subgroup. Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study involving all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from January to March 2020 in five hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, and outcomes were recorded. Neutrophil to HDL-C ratio (NHR), monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR), lymphocyte to HDL-C ratio (LHR), and platelet to HDL-C ratio (PHR) were investigated and compared in both the overall population and the subgroup with diabetes. The associations between blood parameters at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the utility of different blood parameters. Results: Of 440 patients with COVID-19, 67 (15.2%) were critically ill. On admission, HDL-C concentration was decreased while NHR was high in patients with critical compared with non-critical COVID-19, and were independently associated with poor outcome as continuous variables in the overall population (HR: 0.213, 95% CI 0.090-0.507; HR: 1.066, 95% CI 1.030-1.103, respectively) after adjusting for confounding factors. Additionally, when HDL-C and NHR were examined as categorical variables, the HRs and 95% CIs for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 were 0.280 (0.128-0.612) and 4.458 (1.817-10.938), respectively. Similar results were observed in the diabetes subgroup. ROC curves showed that the NHR had good performance in predicting worse outcomes. The cutoff point of the NHR was 5.50. However, the data in our present study could not confirm the possible predictive effect of LHR, MHR, and PHR on COVID-19 severity. Conclusion: Lower HDL-C concentrations and higher NHR at admission were observed in patients with critical COVID-19 than in those with noncritical COVID-19, and were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients as well as in the diabetes subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438690

ABSTRACT

Host cell invasion by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike protein (S) with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In this work, computational and experimental techniques were combined to screen antimalarial compounds from different chemical classes, with the aim of identifying small molecules interfering with the RBD-ACE2 interaction and, consequently, with cell invasion. Docking studies showed that the compounds interfere with the same region of the RBD, but different interaction patterns were noted for ACE2. Virtual screening indicated pyronaridine as the most promising RBD and ACE2 ligand, and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the stability of the predicted complex with the RBD. Bio-layer interferometry showed that artemisone and methylene blue have a strong binding affinity for RBD (KD = 0.363 and 0.226 µM). Pyronaridine also binds RBD and ACE2 in vitro (KD = 56.8 and 51.3 µM). Overall, these three compounds inhibit the binding of RBD to ACE2 in the µM range, supporting the in silico data.

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