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Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105182, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588025


BACKGROUND: Chest computed tomography (CT) is crucial in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the persistent pandemic and similar CT manifestations between COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) raise methodological requirements. METHODS: A fully automatic pipeline of deep learning is proposed for distinguishing COVID-19 from CAP using CT images. Inspired by the diagnostic process of radiologists, the pipeline comprises four connected modules for lung segmentation, selection of slices with lesions, slice-level prediction, and patient-level prediction. The roles of the first and second modules and the effectiveness of the capsule network for slice-level prediction were investigated. A dataset of 326 CT scans was collected to train and test the pipeline. Another public dataset of 110 patients was used to evaluate the generalization capability. RESULTS: LinkNet exhibited the largest intersection over union (0.967) and Dice coefficient (0.983) for lung segmentation. For the selection of slices with lesions, the capsule network with the ResNet50 block achieved an accuracy of 92.5% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.933. The capsule network using the DenseNet121 block demonstrated better performance for slice-level prediction, with an accuracy of 97.1% and AUC of 0.992. For both datasets, the prediction accuracy of our pipeline was 100% at the patient level. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed fully automatic deep learning pipeline of deep learning can distinguish COVID-19 from CAP via CT images rapidly and accurately, thereby accelerating diagnosis and augmenting the performance of radiologists. This pipeline is convenient for use by radiologists and provides explainable predictions.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 211: 106406, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401346


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Given that the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, a method to accurately distinguish COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is urgently needed. However, the spatial uncertainty and morphological diversity of COVID-19 lesions in the lungs, and subtle differences with respect to CAP, make differential diagnosis non-trivial. METHODS: We propose a deep represented multiple instance learning (DR-MIL) method to fulfill this task. A 3D volumetric CT scan of one patient is treated as one bag and ten CT slices are selected as the initial instances. For each instance, deep features are extracted from the pre-trained ResNet-50 with fine-tuning and represented as one deep represented instance score (DRIS). Each bag with a DRIS for each initial instance is then input into a citation k-nearest neighbor search to generate the final prediction. A total of 141 COVID-19 and 100 CAP CT scans were used. The performance of DR-MIL is compared with other potential strategies and state-of-the-art models. RESULTS: DR-MIL displayed an accuracy of 95% and an area under curve of 0.943, which were superior to those observed for comparable methods. COVID-19 and CAP exhibited significant differences in both the DRIS and the spatial pattern of lesions (p<0.001). As a means of content-based image retrieval, DR-MIL can identify images used as key instances, references, and citers for visual interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: DR-MIL can effectively represent the deep characteristics of COVID-19 lesions in CT images and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP in a weakly supervised manner. The resulting DRIS is a useful supplement to visual interpretation of the spatial pattern of lesions when screening for COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Pneumonia , Humans , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364739


The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide. Despite many efforts, the development of effective drugs and vaccines for this novel virus will take considerable time. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) offer promising solutions that could accelerate the discovery and optimization of new antivirals. Motivated by this, in this paper, we present an extensive survey on the application of AI and ML for combating COVID-19 based on the rapidly emerging literature. Particularly, we point out the challenges and future directions associated with state-of-the-art solutions to effectively control the COVID-19 pandemic. We hope that this review provides researchers with new insights into the ways AI and ML fight and have fought the COVID-19 outbreak.

COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Drug Design , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity