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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 538-539, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323480
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 203, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify the characteristics and future directions of online medical education in the context of the novel coronavirus outbreak new through visual analytics using CiteSpace and VOSviewer bibliometric methods. METHOD: From Web of Science, we searched for articles published between 2020 and 2022 using the terms online education, medical education and COVID-19, ended up with 2555 eligible papers, and the articles published between 2010 and 2019 using the terms online education, medical education and COVID-19, and we ended up with 4313 eligible papers. RESULTS: Before the COVID-19 outbreak, Medical students and care were the most frequent keywords and the most cited author was BRENT THOMA with 18 times. The United States is the country with the greatest involvement and research impact in the field of online medical education. The most cited journal is ACAD MED with 1326 citations. After the COVID-19 outbreak, a surge in the number of research results in related fields, and ANXIETY and four secondary keywords were identified. In addition, the concentration of authors of these publications in the USA and China is a strong indication that local epidemics and communication technologies have influenced the development of online medical education research. Regarding the centrality of research institutions, the most influential co-author network is Harvard Medical School in the United States; and regarding the centrality of references, the most representative journal to which it belongs is VACCINE. CONCLUSION: This study found that hey information such as keywords, major institutions and authors, and countries differ in the papers before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. The novel coronavirus outbreak had a significant impact on the online education aspect. For non-medical and medical students, the pandemic has led to home isolation, making it difficult to offer face-to-face classes such as laboratory operations. Students have lost urgency and control over the specifics of face-to-face instruction, which has reduced the quality of teaching. Therefore, we should improve our education model according to the actual situation to ensure the quality of teaching while taking into account the physical and psychological health of students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pattern Recognition, Automated , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254689

ABSTRACT

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a member of the alphacoronavirus genus, which has caused huge threats and losses to pig husbandry with a 100% mortality in infected piglets. TGEV is observed to be recombining and evolving unstoppably in recent years, with some of these recombinant strains spreading across species, which makes the detection and prevention of TGEV more complex. This paper reviews and discusses the basic biological properties of TGEV, factors affecting virulence, viral receptors, and the latest research advances in TGEV infection-induced apoptosis and autophagy to improve understanding of the current status of TGEV and related research processes. We also highlight a possible risk of TGEV being zoonotic, which could be evidenced by the detection of CCoV-HuPn-2018 in humans.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Humans , Animals , Swine , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Receptors, Virus
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e059288, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the time required and concerns raised by various perspectives of participants regarding administering subcutaneous and intravenous trastuzumab for patients with breast cancer (BC). DESIGN: This observational time-motion study design with mixed-methods research (cross-sectional surveys and semistructured interviews) was conducted. The time spent on preparing or administering trastuzumab by different healthcare professionals (HCPs) was recorded. The data were analysed by descriptive/inferential statistical analyses, followed by thematic analyses. SETTING: Outpatient and inpatient administration units of a single medical centre in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: The study included patients with early-stage BC who received subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab (n=93), and HCPs including two attending physicians, a nurse practitioner, two pharmacists and two nurses. RESULT: Based on the perspectives of patients and HCPs, the subcutaneous form of trastuzumab was more efficient, less expensive and produced less discomfort in outpatient units than inpatient units. More participants preferred the subcutaneous form over the intravenous form in both outpatient and inpatient units. Pharmacists and nurse practitioners spent threefold more time on patients when preparing and administering the intravenous form in both outpatient and inpatient units. The concerns raised by patients and HCPs varied in certain aspects, including the injection skills, speed, mental distress (eg, needle phobia) and pain associated with the subcutaneous form. Almost all patients preferred receiving the subcutaneous form in outpatient units after the initial COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Patients with early-stage BC preferred receiving subcutaneous trastuzumab in outpatient units rather than inpatient units or the intravenous form before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Such findings may serve as real-world evidence to facilitate better quality of care regarding administration of subcutaneous or intravenous trastuzumab in medical settings, and its feasible resolutions to balance the quality, concerns and efficiency of anticancer administration during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Trastuzumab/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Injections, Subcutaneous , Administration, Intravenous , Receptor, ErbB-2
5.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 419-427, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268686

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate vaccine effectiveness in relieving symptoms in patients with the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 31 patients did not receive any vaccine (non-vaccination, NV), 21 patients received 1-dose of inactivated vaccine (one-dose vaccination, OV), and 60 patients received at least 2-dose inactivated vaccine (two-dose vaccination, TV). The baseline data, clinical outcomes and vaccination information were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Patients in the OV group were younger than those in the other two groups (p = 0.001), but there was no significant difference in any of the other baseline data among the three groups. The TV group showed higher IgG antibody levels and cycle threshold values of SARS-CoV-2 than the NV and OV groups (p < 0.01), and time to peak viral load was shorter in the TV group (3.5 ± 2.3 d) than in the NV (4.8 ± 2.8 d) and OV groups (4.8 ± 2.9 d, p = 0.03). The patients in the TV group (18%) showed a higher recovery rate without drug therapy (p < 0.001). Viral clearance time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the TV group than in the NV and OV groups (p < 0.01), and there were no significant differences in these parameters between the OV and NV groups, but IgG values were higher in the OV group (p = 0.025). No severe complications occurred in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 2-dose vaccination can reduce viral load and accelerate viral clearance in patients with the delta variant and enhance the protection afforded by IgG antibodies in vivo.Key MessagesIn this study, our results shows that two-dose vaccination can reduce viral loads and accelerate viral clearance, and two-dose vaccination enhance the protection of IgG antibodies in vivo; however, one-dose vaccination did not confer protective effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G
6.
Res Aging ; : 1640275221100949, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Globally, the oldest-old population is growing rapidly. Little is known about the perceived well-being of the community-dwelling oldest-old, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the oldest-old's perceptions of aging well and the COVID-related impacts on them. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 22 adults aged 85 or above were conducted with purposive sampling methods. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: 1) sustaining functional ability; 2) staying active with a positive attitude; 3) feeling grateful for support from society and family; 4) COVID-19-related anxieties and policies destabilizing their well-being. DISCUSSION: This study provides direct evidence from the oldest-old on how they maintained their well-being. While they valued support from society and family, COVID-19-related measures disturbed their routines and prevented them from self-attaining well-being. The findings should be considered when developing interventions for this vulnerable group.

7.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2879035.v1

ABSTRACT

The Tistrella genus can produce the cyclic depsipeptide didemnin B, but the biosynthetic origin of its analogue, plitidepsin, remains unknown. Plitidepsin is an approved anticancer drug and an anti-COVID-19 agent in phase III clinical trials. Here, we employed a novel approach that combined microbial and chemical synthesis to produce plitidepsin. We first investigated the global distribution of Tistrella, which inspired us to retrieve and screen a library of Tistrella. Using a genetic approach and heterologous expression, we, for the first time, experimentally confirmed the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) for didemnins. After duplication of the BGC, we obtained a yield of didemnin B reached to 70 mg/L in the engineered strain. We then developed two chemical strategies to convert didemnin B to plitidepsin, one of which resulted in over 90% overall yield in a one-step synthetic route. Additionally, we synthesized two new didemnin analogues and assessed their anticancer and antiviral activities. Our study provides a practical and sustainable solution for producing plitidepsin and its derivatives, which may expedite didemnin drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
8.
Archives of medical science : AMS ; 18(6):1678-1682, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2125368

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and vaccine effectiveness of patients with the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain and the Delta variant. Methods We retrospectively evaluated patients with the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain and the Delta variant. Results The Delta-variant group showed a higher infection rate in minors, who had higher incidence of anosmia or dysgeusia and shorter incubation period. Unvaccinated patients had a 15.59-fold higher risk of severe classification than vaccinated patients. The viral clearance time was significantly shorter in the Delta-variant group. Conclusions The Delta-variant group show higher transmissibility, and vaccination reduces the incidence of severe classification and promotes viral clearance.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947724, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141980

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma patients potentially have impaired adaptive immunity to virus infection. The levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immunity between COVID-19 survivors with and without asthma are presently unclear. Methods: COVID-19 survivors (patients with asthma n=11, with allergies n=8, and COVID-19 only n=17) and non-COVID-19 individuals (asthmatic patients n=10 and healthy controls n=9) were included. The COVID-19 patients were followed up at about 8 months and 16 months after discharge. The clinical characteristics, lymphocyte subsets, memory T cells, and humoral immunity including SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus neutralization assay, and memory B cells were analyzed in these subjects. Results: The strength of virus-specific T cell response in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of blood eosinophils and Treg cells (r=0.4007, p=0.0188; and r=0.4435, p=0.0086 respectively) at 8-month follow-up. There were no statistical differences in the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response between the COVID-19 survivors with, and without, asthma. Compared to those without asthma, the COVID-19 with asthma survivors had higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) at the 8-month follow-up (p<0.05). Moreover, the level of NAbs in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of Treg and cTfh2 cells (r=0.5037, p=0.002; and r=0.4846, p=0.0141), and negatively correlated with the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells (r=-0.5701, p=0.0003; and r=-0.3656, p=0.0308), the ratio of Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg, and cTfh1/cTfh2 cell (r=-0.5356, r=-0.5947, r=-0.4485; all p<0.05). The decay rate of NAbs in the COVID-19 survivors with asthma was not significantly different from that of those without asthma at 16-month follow-up. Conclusion: The level of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs in COVID-19 survivors with asthma was higher than that of those without asthma at 8-month follow-up. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity was associated with blood eosinophils and Treg percentages. The SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity was closely associated with cTfh2/cTfh1 imbalance and Treg/Th17 ratio. According to the findings, asthmatic patients in COVID-19 convalescent period may benefit from an enhanced specific humoral immunity, which associates with skewed Th2/Th1 and Treg/Th17 immune.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123861

ABSTRACT

The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a member of the coronavirus family, causing deadly watery diarrhea in newborn piglets. The global pandemic of PEDV, with significant morbidity and mortality, poses a huge threat to the swine industry. The currently developed vaccines and drugs are only effective against the classic GI strains that were prevalent before 2010, while there is no effective control against the GII variant strains that are currently a global pandemic. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in the biology of PEDV, including its transmission and origin, structure and function, evolution, and virus-host interaction, in an attempt to find the potential virulence factors influencing PEDV pathogenesis. We conclude with the mechanism by which PEDV components antagonize the immune responses of the virus, and the role of host factors in virus infection. Essentially, this review serves as a valuable reference for the development of attenuated virus vaccines and the potential of host factors as antiviral targets for the prevention and control of PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Virulence , Host Microbial Interactions , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated
11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 944602, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123434

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine the pattern of delay and its effect on the short-term outcomes of total gastrectomy before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Overlaid line graphs were used to visualize the dynamic changes in the severity of the pandemic, number of gastric cancer patients, and waiting time for a total gastrectomy. We observed a slightly longer waiting time during the pandemic (median: 28.00 days, interquartile range: 22.00-34.75) than before the pandemic (median: 25.00 days, interquartile range: 18.00-34.00; p = 0.0071). Moreover, we study the effect of delayed surgery (waiting time > 30 days) on short-term outcomes using postoperative complications, extreme value of laboratory results, and postoperative stay. In patients who had longer waiting times, we did not observe worse short-term complication rates (grade II-IV: 15% vs. 19%, p = 0.27; grade III-IV: 7.3% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.51, the short waiting group vs. the prolonged waiting group) or a higher risk of a longer POD (univariable: OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.80-1.49, p = 0.59; multivariable: OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.78-1.55, p = 0.59). Patients in the short waiting group, rather than in the delayed surgery group, had an increased risk of bleeding in analyses of laboratory results (plasma prothrombin activity, hemoglobin, and hematocrit). A slightly prolonged preoperative waiting time during COVID-19 pandemic might not influence the short-term outcomes of patients who underwent total gastrectomy.

12.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(46): 1039-1042, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113793

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariant has a stronger transmission capacity and faster transmission speed than the previous strain. What is added by this report?: The first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant BA.2.76 who caused local transmission was reported in Chongqing Municipality on August 16, 2022. For 35 minutes, the Patient Zero jogged along a lake at a local park without wearing a mask. Among the 2,836 people potentially exposed at the time, 39 tested positive. Overall, 38 out of 39 cases did not wear a mask on the morning of August 16. All 39 cases lacked any previous exposure to the variant before testing positive on their nucleic acid test. What are the implications for public health practice?: It is essential to maintain personal wellbeing by ensuring one maintains personal protection and follows regulated guidelines such as maintaining safe distances from others both indoors and outdoors.

13.
Computers & Education ; : 104678, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104655

ABSTRACT

School closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a major impact on teaching activities. Adopting a mixed-methods design, this study aims to categorize daily instructional practices in the early stages of school closure using two-cycle content analysis, present the transition of the categories over days, and test the differences between categories using ANOVA. A total of 48 high school teachers with varying levels of teaching readiness (measured by online professional development experience and distance teaching TPCK) kept teaching logs where they recorded daily teaching practices and assessed teaching satisfaction and perceived student engagement. They also submitted diary entries to report episodic optimal experience. Four salient emergency online teaching patterns emerged, which were further interpreted based on the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison et al., 1999) as four orientations: 1) low social low cognitive, 2) low social high cognitive, 3) high social low cognitive, and 4) high social high cognitive. Daily transition of these orientations revealed slight to medium changes. Teachers adopting different orientations were found to differ in terms of teaching readiness, teaching satisfaction, and perceived student engagement. No difference was shown in optimal experience. The results inform future professional development programs how to prepare high school teachers for the next emergency crisis.

14.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099401

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 global epidemic, it is particularly important to use limited medical resources to improve the systemic control of infectious diseases. There is a situation where a shortage of medical resources and an uneven distribution of resources in China exist. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate understanding of the current status of the healthcare system in China and to improve the efficiency of their infectious disease control methods. In this study, the MP-SBM-Shannon entropy model (modified panel slacks-based measure Shannon entropy model) was proposed and applied to measure the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies (disposal efficiency) in China from 2012 to 2018. First, a P-SBM (panel slacks-based measure) model, with undesirable outputs based on panel data, is given in this paper. This model measures the efficiency of all DMUs based on the same technical frontier and can be used for the dynamic efficiency analysis of panel data. Then, the MP-SBM model is applied to solve the specific efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model caused by the objective data structure. Finally, based on the MP-SBM model, undesirable outputs are considered in the original efficiency matrix alignment combination for the deficiencies of the existing Shannon entropy-DEA model. The comparative analysis shows that the MP-SBM-Shannon model not only solves the problem of the efficiency paradox of the P-SBM model but also improves the MP-SBM model identification ability and provides a complete ranking with certain advantages. The results of the study show that the disposal efficiency of the medical institutions responding to public health emergencies in China shows an upward trend, but the average combined efficiency is less than 0.47. Therefore, there is still much room for improvement in the efficiency of infectious disease prevention and control in China. It is found that the staffing problem within the Center for Disease Control and the health supervision office are two stumbling blocks.

17.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092494

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic introduced unprecedented challenges to both the physical and psychological health of postpartum women. The aim of this study was to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the diet, physical activity and mental health of women 6 months following a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Methods Mixed methods sub-study of the Blood Pressure Postpartum trial, which recruited women following a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy from six Sydney metropolitan hospitals. Cross sectional analysis of baseline quantitative data, collected at 6-months postpartum from March 2019-February 2022, and qualitative data analysis from semi-structured telephone interviews, was performed. Dates of COVID-19 lockdowns for Sydney, Australia were collected from government websites. Diet (vegetable, fruit, alcohol, take away intake) and physical activity (walking, vigorous activity, strength training frequency and duration) were assessed using the self-report NSW Population Health Survey. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and GAD-7 scale, respectively. Outcome data were compared between women who completed surveys “In Lockdown” vs. “Not in Lockdown” as well as “Prior to any Lockdown” vs. “During or Following any Lockdown”. Results Of 506 participants, 84 women completed the study surveys “In Lockdown,” and 149 completed the surveys “Prior to any Lockdown.” Thirty-four participants were interviewed. There were no statistically significant differences in diet, physical activity, depression and anxiety among women who completed the survey “In Lockdown” vs. “Not in Lockdown.” “Prior to any Lockdown,” participants were more likely to do any walking (95% vs. 89%, p = 0.017), any vigorous activity (43% vs. 30%, p = 0.006) or any strength training (44% vs. 33%, p = 0.024), spent more time doing vigorous activity (p = 0.003) and strength training (p = 0.047) and were more likely to drink alcohol at least monthly (54% vs. 38%, p < 0.001) compared with “During or Following any Lockdown.” Conclusions Our findings suggest that the confinements of lockdown did not markedly influence the mental health, diet and physical activity behaviors of women 6 months following hypertensive pregnancy. However, physical activity levels were reduced following the emergence of COVID-19, suggesting targeted efforts may be necessary to re-engage postpartum women with exercise. Trial registration https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376286&isReview=true, identifier: ACTRN12618002004246.

18.
IJID Reg ; 5: 177-179, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086301

ABSTRACT

There was heterogeneity in the median age of all-cause deaths in Peru during different waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Before predominance of the Omicron variant, the median age of deaths was lower than normal during the peaks of daily all-cause mortality. However, this increased above normal when the Omicron variant was predominant. The daily patterns of cause-specific deaths related directly and indirectly to COVID-19 in Peru were also investigated. Most excess deaths indirectly related to COVID-19 were caused primarily by diseases of the circulatory system, possibly due to disruption of medical services, and the majority of excess deaths directly related to COVID-19 were caused primarily by COVID-19 and diseases of the respiratory system.

19.
iScience ; 25(11): 105319, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061302

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces imbalanced immune response such as hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we studied the immunometabolic regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of COVID-19. We depicted the metabolic landscape of immune cells, especially macrophages, from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COVID-19 at single-cell level. We found that most metabolic processes were upregulated in macrophages from lungs of patients with mild COVID-19 compared to cells from healthy controls, whereas macrophages from severe COVID-19 showed downregulation of most of the core metabolic pathways including glutamate metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, citrate cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, and upregulation of a few pathways such as glycolysis. Rewiring cellular metabolism by amino acid supplementation, glycolysis inhibition, or PPARγ stimulation reduces inflammation in macrophages stimulated with SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, this study demonstrates that metabolic imbalance of bronchoalveolar macrophages may contribute to hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19 and provides insights into treating COVID-19 by immunometabolic modulation.

20.
Advanced materials technologies ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058093

ABSTRACT

The fomite transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has drawn attention because of its highly contagious nature. Therefore, surfaces that can prevent coronavirus contamination are an urgent and unmet need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. Conventional surfaces are usually based on superhydrophobic or antiviral coatings. However, these coatings may be dysfunctional because of biofouling, which is the undesired adhesion of biomolecules. A superhydrophobic surface independent of the material content and coating agents may serve the purpose of antibiofouling and preventing viral transmission. Doubly reentrant topology (DRT) is a unique structure that can meet the need. This study demonstrates that the DRT surfaces possess a striking antibiofouling effect that can prevent viral contamination. This effect still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material such as silicon oxide and copper. To the best of our knowledge, this work first demonstrates that fomite transmission of viruses may be prevented by minimizing the contact area between pathogens and surfaces even made of hydrophilic materials. Furthermore, the DRT geometry per se features excellent antibiofouling ability, which may shed light on the applications of pathogen elimination in alleviating the COVID‐19 pandemic. The findings demonstrate that a unique fabricated doubly reentrant topology (DRT) structure carries remarkable superrepellent properties against biofouling of protein, blood, bacteria, and viruses. Moreover, this characteristic results from a highly minimized contact area and still exists even if the DRT surface is made of a hydrophilic material, such as silicon oxide.

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