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1.
Agronomy ; 12(4):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1818037

ABSTRACT

Summer maize crop development, yield, and water use characteristics under water deficit conditions at different growth stages were investigated in this study using different irrigation regime treatments at the seedling (S), jointing (J), tasseling (T), and grain filling stages (F) in 2018 and 2019 in China. Ten different irrigation treatments were set, including three-irrigation application intervals (JTFi, STFi, SJFi, SJTi), two-irrigation applications (STi, JTi, JFi), and single-irrigation applications (Ti, Ji). These were compared to the control treatment (CK), which had sufficient irrigation provided at four intervals (SJTFi). The results showed that compared to CK, a water deficit at the seedling and jointing stages had a greater effect on plant height, whereas a water deficit at the tasseling and filling stages had a greater effect on the leaf area index, and a continuous water deficit had an effect on the stem diameter of summer maize. Limitations in terms of the growth and development of summer maize increased with less frequent irrigation. As irrigation decreased, the grain yield decreased, and the water use efficiency increased, and a water deficit at the tasseling stage had the greatest effect on the yield and water use efficiency. The JTFi treatment was the optimal irrigation regime with a yield decline, and its water consumption was reduced by 16.9% (p < 0.05) on average. However, compared to CK, the water use efficiency of the JTFi treatment increased by 17.3% (p < 0.05). Moreover, the JTFi treatment had the smallest maize yield response factor value (Ky) of 0.16, and its comprehensive score was the second highest after CK. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Agronomy is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Cell Reports ; : 110829, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814236

ABSTRACT

Summary We report that SARS-CoV-2 Delta spike mutation P681R plays a key role in the Alpha-to-Delta variant replacement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Delta SARS-CoV-2 efficiently outcompetes the Alpha variant in human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues. The Delta spike mutation P681R is located at a furin cleavage site that separates the spike 1 (S1) and S2 subunits. Reverting the P681R mutation to wild-type P681 significantly reduces the replication of Delta variant, to a level lower than the Alpha variant. Mechanistically, the Delta P681R mutation enhances the cleavage of the full-length spike to S1 and S2, which could improve cell surface-mediated virus entry. In contrast, the Alpha spike also has a mutation at the same amino acid (P681H), but the cleavage of Alpha spike is reduced compared to the Delta spike. Our results suggest P681R as a key mutation in enhancing Delta variant replication via increased S1/S2 cleavage.

3.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):36-39, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1813120

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analysis the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 10 children with coronavirus disease(COVID-19) in Jinan City.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274846

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 vaccine supply shortage in 2021 constrained rollout efforts in Africa while populations experienced waves of epidemics. As supply picks up, a key question becomes if vaccination remains an impactful and cost-effective strategy given changes in the timing of implementation. MethodsWe assessed the impact of timing using an epidemiological and economic model. We fitted our mathematical epidemiological model to reported COVID-19 deaths in 27 African countries to estimate the existing immunity (resulting from infection) before substantial vaccine rollout. We then projected health outcomes for different programme start dates (2021-01-01 to 2021-12-01, n = 12) and roll-out rates (slow, medium, fast; 275, 826, and 2066 doses/ million population-day, respectively) for viral vector and mRNA vaccines. Rollout rates used were derived from observed uptake trajectories. We collected data on vaccine delivery costs by country income group. Lastly, we calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and relative affordability. FindingsVaccination programmes with early start dates incur the most health benefits and are most cost-effective. While incurring the most health benefits, fast vaccine roll-outs are not always the most cost-effective. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of 0.5xGDP per capita, vaccine programmes starting in August 2021 using mRNA and viral vector vaccines were cost-effective in 6-10 and 17-18 of 27 countries, respectively. InterpretationAfrican countries with large proportions of their populations unvaccinated by late 2021 may find vaccination programmes less cost-effective than they could have been earlier in 2021. Lower vaccine purchasing costs and/or the emergence of new variants may improve cost-effectiveness. FundingBill and Melinda Gates Foundation, World Health Organization, National Institute of Health Research (UK), Health Data Research (UK)

5.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 348:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1783464

ABSTRACT

Managing ecosystems is considered a "wicked problem" without clear solutions due to the limited understanding of complex ecosystems and social dynamics. In this study, a method based on the Driving forces–Pressures–State–Impacts–Responses (DPSIR) framework was developed to reveal the Ecological Civilization Construction (ECC) together with structural equation modeling (SEM), panel data model (PDM), coupling and coordination degree (CCD) model, and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The SEM reveals that component Responses as exogenous variables can better explain the DPSIR framework nexuses than Driving forces, indicating that environmental protection measures taken by Chinese government played a dominant role in ECC. ECC indexes (ECCI) of 30 Chinese provinces were 18–87% higher in 2019 than 2012, and the PDM demonstrates that temperature, precipitation, and GDP can explain about 87.2% of ECCI variation among 30 provinces. About 12–40% increase in CCD within the DPSIR framework were detected in 30 Chinese provinces in 2019 compared to 2012. The DEA suggests that China's ECC's average comprehensive and technical efficiencies were only 0.62 and 0.77 in 2019, respectively. Meanwhile, these results show that ECC remains to be strengthened and coordinated. Implications on ECC were proposed for some provinces. Overall, this study proposes a Response-driven pathway named RDPSI can explain the achievements and limitation factors in China's ECC. Also, our results emphasize the importance of integrating science and technology, policy formulation, and precise implementation to achieve sustainable development. • A new method for studying the dynamic relationship of the SES is developed. • A sustainable development pathway named RDPSI is proposed. • China has formed a SES of positive feedback cycle, but the system is unstable. • There are increasingly significant spatial correlation issues in 30 Chinese provinces. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Cleaner Production is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):569, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776116

ABSTRACT

Background: Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are substances with oxidizing ability in the atmosphere. Only considering the impact of a single substance is not comprehensive. However, people's understanding of 'total oxidation capacity';(Ox) and 'weighted average oxidation';(Oxwt) is limited. Objectives: This investigation aims to assess the impact of Ox and Oxwt on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We also compared the relationship between the different calculation methods of Ox and Oxwt and the COVID-19 infection rate. Method: We recorded confirmed COVID-19 cases and daily pollutant concentrations (O3 and NO2) in 34 provincial capital cities in China. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the nonlinear relationship between confirmed COVID-19 cases and Ox and Oxwt. Result: Our results indicated that the correlation between Ox and COVID-19 was more sensitive than Oxwt. The hysteresis effect of Ox and Oxwt decreased with time. The most obvious statistical data was observed in Central China and South China. A 10 µg m−3 increase in mean Ox concentrations were related to a 23.1% (95%CI: 11.4%, 36.2%) increase, and a 10 µg m−3 increase in average Oxwt concentration was related to 10.7% (95%CI: 5.2%, 16.8%) increase in COVID-19. In conclusion, our research results show that Ox and Oxwt can better replace the single pollutant research on O3 and NO2, which is used as a new idea for future epidemiological research.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774343

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues globally with a growing number of infections, but there are currently no effective antibody drugs against the virus. In addition, 90% amino acid sequence identity between the S2 subunit of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV S proteins attracts us to examine S2-targeted cross-neutralizing antibodies that are not yet well defined. We therefore immunized RenMab mice with the full-length S protein and constructed a high-throughput antibody discovery method based on single-cell sequencing technology to isolate SARS-CoV-2 S-targeted neutralizing antibodies and cross-neutralizing antibodies against the S2 region of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV S. Diversity of antibody sequences in RenMab mice and consistency in B-cell immune responses between RenMab mice and humans enabled screening of fully human virus-neutralizing antibodies. From all the frequency >1 paired clonotypes obtained from single-cell V(D)J sequencing, 215 antibodies with binding affinities were identified and primarily bound S2. However, only two receptor-binding domain-targeted clonotypes had neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, 5' single-cell RNA sequencing indicated that these sorted splenic B cells are mainly plasmablasts, germinal center (GC)-dependent memory B-cells and GC B-cells. Among them, plasmablasts and GC-dependent memory B-cells were considered the most significant possibility of producing virus-specific antibodies. Altogether, using a high-throughput single cell-based antibody discovery approach, our study highlighted the challenges of developing S2-binding neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and provided a novel direction for the enrichment of antigen-specific B-cells.

8.
Infect Dis Model ; 7(2): 83-93, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763748

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2021, with the rapid escalation of COVID19 cases due to the Omicron variant, testing centers in Canada were overwhelmed. To alleviate the pressure on the PCR testing capacity, many provinces implemented new strategies that promote self testing and adjust the eligibility for PCR tests, making the count of new cases underreported. We designed a novel compartmental model which captures the new testing guidelines, social behaviours, booster vaccines campaign and features of the newest variant Omicron. To better describe the testing eligibility, we considered the population divided into high risk and non-high-risk settings. The model is calibrated using data from January 1 to February 9, 2022, on cases and severe outcomes in Canada, the province of Ontario and City of Toronto. We conduct analyses on the impact of PCR testing capacity, self testing, different levels of reopening and vaccination coverage on cases and severe outcomes. Our results show that the total number of cases in Canada, Ontario and Toronto are 2.34 (95%CI: 1.22-3.38), 2.20 (95%CI: 1.15-3.72), and 1.97(95%CI: 1.13-3.41), times larger than reported cases, respectively. The current testing strategy is efficient if partial restrictions, such as limited capacity in public spaces, are implemented. Allowing more people to have access to PCR reduces the daily cases and severe outcomes; however, if PCR test capacity is insufficient, then it is important to promote self testing. Also, we found that reopening to a pre-pandemic level will lead to a resurgence of the infections, peaking in late March or April 2022. Vaccination and adherence to isolation protocols are important supports to the testing policies to mitigate any possible spread of the virus.

9.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486788

ABSTRACT

We present spatial-CITE-seq for high-plex protein and whole transcriptome co-mapping, which was firstly demonstrated for profiling 189 proteins and transcriptome in multiple mouse tissue types. It was then applied to human tissues to measure 273 proteins and transcriptome that revealed spatially distinct germinal center reaction in tonsil and early immune activation in skin at the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine injection site. Spatial-CITE-seq may find a range of applications in biomedical research.

10.
Transactions in GIS ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1752747

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to reveal hidden patterns and confounders associated with policy implementation and adherence by investigating the home-dwelling stages from a data-driven perspective via Bayesian inference with weakly informative priors and by examining how home-dwelling stages in the USA varied geographically, using fine-grained, spatial-explicit home-dwelling time records from a multi-scale perspective. At the U.S. national level, two changepoints are identified, with the former corresponding to March 22, 2020 (9 days after the White House declared the National Emergency on March 13) and the latter corresponding to May 17, 2020. Inspections at U.S. state and county level reveal notable spatial disparity in home-dwelling stage-related variables. A pilot study in the Atlanta Metropolitan area at the Census Tract level reveals that the self-quarantine duration and increase in home-dwelling time are strongly correlated with the median household income, echoing existing efforts that document the economic inequity exposed by the U.S. stay-at-home orders. To our best knowledge, our work marks a pioneering effort to explore multi-scale home-dwelling patterns in the USA from a purely data-driven perspective and in a statistically robust manner.

11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 46, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the influences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on semen parameters and investigate the impact of the infection on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled couples undergoing IVF cycles between May 2020 and February 2021 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Baseline characteristics were matched using propensity score matching. Participants were categorized into an unexposed group (SARS-COV-2 negative) and exposed group (SARS-COV-2 positive) based on a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the populations were 148 and 50 after matching, respectively. IVF data were compared between the matched cohorts. Moreover, semen parameters were compared before and after infection among the infected males. The main measures were semen parameters and IVF outcomes, including laboratory and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Generally, the concentration and motility of sperm did not significantly differ before and after infection. Infected males seemed to have fewer sperm with normal morphology, while all values were above the limits. Notably, the blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate in the exposed group were lower than those in the control group, despite similar mature oocytes rates, normal fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and high-quality embryo rates. Moreover, no significant differences were exhibited between the matched cohorts regarding the implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, or early miscarriage rate. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective cohort study suggested that the semen quality and the chance of pregnancy in terms of IVF outcomes were comparable between the males with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and controls, although a decreased blastocyst formation rate and available blastocyst rate was observed in the exposed group, which needs to be reinforced by a multicenter long-term investigation with a larger sample size.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Semen/physiology , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Sperm Motility/physiology , Adult , Blastocyst/cytology , Blastocyst/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Embryo Implantation , Embryo Transfer , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Rate , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Semen/cytology , Sperm Count , Treatment Outcome
12.
Prog Plann ; : 100657, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730035

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for decision-support tools to help cities become more resilient to infectious diseases. Through urban design and planning, non-pharmaceutical interventions can be enabled, nudging behaviour change and facilitating lower risk buildings and public spaces. Computational tools, including computer simulation, statistical models, and artificial intelligence, were used to support responses in the current pandemic as well as to the previous infectious diseases. Our multidisciplinary research group systematically reviewed state-of-the-art literature to propose a toolkit that employs computational modelling for various interventions and urban design processes. From 8,737 records returned from databases, 109 records were selected and analysed based on the pathogen type, transmission mode and phase, design intervention and process, as well as modelling methodology (method, goal, motivation, focus, and indication to urban design). We also explored the relationship between infectious disease and urban design as well as computational modelling supports, including specific models and parameters. The proposed toolkit will help designers, planners, and computer modellers to select relevant approaches to evaluate and consider design decisions depending on the disease, geographic context, design stages, and spatial and temporal scales. The findings herein can be regarded as stand-alone tools, particularly for COVID-19 or be incorporated into broader frameworks to help cities become more resilient to future disasters.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305021

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) may present with slight liver damage. In the global outbreak, the number of pregnant women infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increasing. For the pregnant patients with ICP, COVID-19 may cause severe liver damage. Case presentation: A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted with fever and respiratory symptoms to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan amid the outbreak of COVID-19. Her chest CT scan showed an infection with viral pneumonia as multiple ground glass opacities in both lungs were spotted. Laboratory tests revealed increased white blood cell (WBC) count and decreased lymphocyte count. The levels of serum total bile acid (TBA) were highly elvated. So were the indices of liver function, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (?-GT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The patient was later diagnosed of COVID-19 with comorbid ICP, presenting severe liver damage. Through timely termination of pregnancy and effective treatments, the prognoses of the patient and the fetus were well improved. Conclusions: : This case highlights that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of severe liver damage for patients with ICP.Timely termination of pregnancy and effective symptomatic treatments are helpful to improve the progonosis.

14.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326523

ABSTRACT

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essentials for many biological processes where two or more proteins physically bind together to achieve their functions. Modeling PPIs is useful for many biomedical applications, such as vaccine design, antibody therapeutics, and peptide drug discovery. Pre-training a protein model to learn effective representation is critical for PPIs. Most pre-training models for PPIs are sequence-based, which naively adopt the language models used in natural language processing to amino acid sequences. More advanced works utilize the structure-aware pre-training technique, taking advantage of the contact maps of known protein structures. However, neither sequences nor contact maps can fully characterize structures and functions of the proteins, which are closely related to the PPI problem. Inspired by this insight, we propose a multimodal protein pre-training model with three modalities: sequence, structure, and function (S2F). Notably, instead of using contact maps to learn the amino acid-level rigid structures, we encode the structure feature with the topology complex of point clouds of heavy atoms. It allows our model to learn structural information about not only the backbones but also the side chains. Moreover, our model incorporates the knowledge from the functional description of proteins extracted from literature or manual annotations. Our experiments show that the S2F learns protein embeddings that achieve good performances on a variety of PPIs tasks, including cross-species PPI, antibody-antigen affinity prediction, antibody neutralization prediction for SARS-CoV-2, and mutation-driven binding affinity change prediction.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325449

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has outbreaked in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China since December 30 th 2019, and spread nationwide and widely spilled over to other countries around the world that has been declared a public health emergency. However, there is no specific drug for the treatment of the disease. Therefore, identifying effective antiviral drugs to combat the disease is urgently needed. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has become the promising target to discovery new antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19, we have attempted to discover novel ACE2 inhibitors through ligand-based virtual screening. Finally, eight compounds were selected and tested ACE2 kinase inhibitory assay using fluorescence assays method. The results showed that four compounds (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, glycyrrhizic acid methyl ester, ginsenoside Rg6 and ginsenoside F1) from 101 kinds of Chinese medicinal and edible plants which could inhibit ACE2 activity in vitro. Further efforts on chemical modification of these lead compounds are undergoing can lead to discover better agents against COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325094

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, there is an urgency to find effective treatment. Tocilizumab, an inhibitor of IL-6, has been widely proposed as a treatment of severely ill patients without robust evidence supporting its use. Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, we included 5,235 adult patients who were admitted to 3 hospitals in Wuhan, China with confirmed COVID-19 from January 20 to March 18, 2020 . 65 patients in tocilizumab group and 130 patients in non-tocilizumab group were propensity score matched at a ratio of 2:1 based on age, sex, and comorbidities. Detailed demographic data, comorbidities, radiological and laboratory parameters, complications and treatments were compared between tocilizumab group and non-tocilizumab group. Furthermore, univariable and multivariable Logistic and Cox regression models were used to explore the risk of complications and in-hospital death associated with tocilizumab. Findings: During the follow-up, patients in non-tocilizumab group were more likely to develop into death (42 [32·31%] vs 14 [21·54%]). After adjusting for confounding, the detected risk for in-hospital death was lower in the tocilizumab group versus the non-tocilizumab group (HR=0·47;95% CI=0·25-0·90;p=0·023). In the multivariable logistic regression model, use of tocilizumab was associated with a lower risk of ARDS (OR=0 · 23;95% CI=0·11-0·45;p<0·0001). Before treatment the patients had heightened inflammation and more dysregulated immune cells, which might aggravate disease progression. However, abnormally elevated IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen and APTT decreased in COVID-19 patients after treatment. And the counts of lymphocytes and immune cells subset in peripheral blood, which decreased in patients, returned to normal after treatment. No obvious complications were observed. Interpretation: Tocilizumab may be of value in improving outcomes in severe patients of COVID-19, which provided a novel strategy for COVID-19-induced cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Our preliminary data could inform bedside decisions until more data from randomized, controlled clinical trials becomes available.Funding Statement: SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Emergency Technology Public Relations Project of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (No. 2020kfyXGYJ043) and National Key Research and Development Plan for the Emergency Management of Novel Coronavi rus Pneumonia, China (No. 2020YFC0845100).Declaration of Interests: The authors report no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (TJ-C20200108) and granted a waiver of informed consent from study participants.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324770

ABSTRACT

Given the existing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, it is critical to systematically study the interactions between hosts and coronaviruses including SARS-Cov, MERS-Cov, and SARS-CoV-2 (cause of COVID-19). We first created four host-pathogen interaction (HPI)-Outcome postulates, and generated a HPI-Outcome model as the basis for understanding host-coronavirus interactions (HCI) and their relations with the disease outcomes. We hypothesized that ontology can be used as an integrative platform to classify and analyze HCI and disease outcomes. Accordingly, we annotated and categorized different coronaviruses, hosts, and phenotypes using ontologies and identified their relations. Various COVID-19 phenotypes are hypothesized to be caused by the backend HCI mechanisms. To further identify the causal HCI-outcome relations, we collected 35 experimentally-verified HCI protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and applied literature mining to identify additional host PPIs in response to coronavirus infections. The results were formulated in a logical ontology representation for integrative HCI-outcome understanding. Using known PPIs as baits, we also developed and applied a domain-inferred prediction method to predict new PPIs and identified their pathological targets on multiple organs. Overall, our proposed ontology-based integrative framework combined with computational predictions can be used to support fundamental understanding of the intricate interactions between human patients and coronaviruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and their association with various disease outcomes.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324319

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the increased risk of viral infection and the severe shortage of medical resources during the pandemic of COVID-19, most hospitals in the epidemic areas significantly reduced non-emergency admissions and services, if not closed. As a result, it has been difficult to treat cancer patients on time, which adversely affects their prognosis. To address this problem, cancer centers must develop a strategic plan to manage both inpatients and outpatients during the pandemic, provide them with the necessary treatment, and at the same time prevent the spread of the virus among patients, visitors and medical staff. Methods: : Based upon the epidemic situation in Zhejiang Province, China, the number of running non-emergency medical wards in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital was gradually increased in a controlled manner. All staff of the hospital received COVID-19 preventive training and was provided with three different levels of protection according to the risks of their services. Only patients without a known history of SARS-CoV-2 contact were eligible to schedule an appointment. Body temperature was measured on all patients upon their arrival at the hospital. Chest CT image, blood cell counting and travel/contact history were investigated in patients with fever. Respiratory tract samples, such as sputum and throat swabs, from all patients, including those clinically suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection, were collected for nucleic acid detection of SARS-CoV-2 before treatment. Results: : A total of 3697 inpatients and 416 outpatients seeking cancer treatment were enrolled from February 1 to April 3, 2020, in compliance with the hospital’s infection-control interventions. The clinicopathological parameters of the patients were summarized herein. 4237 samples from 4101 patients produced negative RNA testing results. Four clinically suspected patients all presented negative RNA test results and were excluded from the SARS-CoV-2 infection through follow-up retesting and monitoring. Seven patients with only N-gene positive results were retested, followed by CT scan and SARS-CoV-2 contact history investigation. All of them were finally diagnosed as non-infected patients. There was one outpatient who was confirmed positive by virus RNA test and then followed up. She might be an asymptomatic laboratory-confirmed case. During the study period, there was no SARS-CoV-2 infection among staff, patients and escorts of patients in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. Conclusion: This study suggested our infection-control interventions, including viral nucleic acid test, could be used as a reliable method to screen cancer patients in the area with moderate COVID-19 prevalence. Cancer may not be a high-risk factor of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324128

ABSTRACT

In this study, cooccurring mutations R203K/G204R in the nucleocapsid protein are demonstrated adaptive and associated with the emergence of a high-transmissibility SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7. Through comparing a R203K/G204R mutant virus, created based on the USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 strain, with the native virus in competition experiments, we found that the 203K/204R variants possess a replication advantage over the preceding R203/G204 variants, possibly related to ribonucleocapsid (RNP) assembly during virus replication. Moreover, the 203K/204R virus showed increased infectivity in a human lung cell line and induced increased damage to blood vessels in infected hamster lungs. Accordingly, we observed a positive association between increased COVID-19 severity and the incidence frequency of 203K/204R. Our work suggested a contribution of the 203K/204R mutations to the increased transmission and virulence of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to mutations in the spike protein, the mutations in the nucleocapsid protein are important for viral spreading during the pandemic.Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, SGC's Rapid Response Funding for COVID-19 (C-0002), the National Key Research and Development Program (2019YFC1604600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81970008 and 31200941), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2021CDJYGRH-009), the Youth Innovative Talents Training Project of Chongqing (CY210102) and the National Natural Science Foundation of HeBei province (19226631D).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323612

ABSTRACT

The analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of great importance to deeply understand the dynamics of this coronavirus spread. Based on the complexity of it, a modified susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model is applied to analyze the time dependence of active and hospitalized cases in China. The time evolution of the virus spread in different provinces was adequately modeled. Changeable parameters among them have been obtained and turned to be not naively independent with each other. The non-extensive parameter was found to be strongly connected with the freedom of systems. Taken into the prevention and treatment of disease, more measures by the government lead to higher values of it.

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