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2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 807134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604257

ABSTRACT

ORF8 is a viral immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain protein encoded by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA genome. It tends to evolve rapidly and interfere with immune responses. However, the structural characteristics of various coronavirus ORF8 proteins and their subsequent effects on biological functions remain unclear. Herein, we determined the crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 (S84) (one of the epidemic isoforms) and the bat coronavirus RaTG13 ORF8 variant at 1.62 Å and 1.76 Å resolution, respectively. Comparison of these ORF8 proteins demonstrates that the 62-77 residues in Ig-like domain of coronavirus ORF8 adopt different conformations. Combined with mutagenesis assays, the residue Cys20 of ORF8 is responsible for forming the covalent disulfide-linked dimer in crystal packing and in vitro biochemical conditions. Furthermore, immune cell-binding assays indicate that various ORF8 (SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 (L84), ORF8 (S84), and RaTG13 ORF8) proteins have different interaction capabilities with human CD14+ monocytes in human peripheral blood. These results provide new insights into the specific characteristics of various coronavirus ORF8 and suggest that ORF8 variants may influence disease-related immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Immunoglobulin Domains/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Immunoglobulin Domains/genetics , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Mutation , Protein Binding , Species Specificity , Viral Proteins/classification , Viral Proteins/genetics
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e053068, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early spatiotemporal transmission of COVID-19 remains unclear. The community to healthcare agencies and back to community (CHC) model was tested in our study to simulate the early phase of COVID-19 transmission in Wuhan, China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study. COVID-19 case series reported to the Municipal Notifiable Disease Report System of Wuhan from December 2019 to March 2020 from 17 communities were collected. Cases from healthcare workers (HW) and from community members (CM) were distinguished by documented occupations. Overall spatial and temporal relationships between HW and CM COVID-19 cases were visualised. The CHC model was then simulated. The turning point separating phase 1 and phase 2 was determined using a quadratic model. For phases 1 and 2, linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between HW and CM COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: The spatial and temporal distributions of COVID-19 cases between HWs and CMs were closely correlated. The turning point was 36.85±18.37 (range 15-70). The linear model fitted well for phase 1 (mean R2=0.98) and phase 2 (mean R2=0.93). In phase 1, the estimated [Formula: see text]s were positive (from 18.03 to 94.99), with smaller [Formula: see text]s (from 2.98 to 15.14); in phase 2, the estimated [Formula: see text]s were negative (from -4.22 to -81.87), with larger [Formula: see text]s (from 5.37 to 78.12). CONCLUSION: Transmission of COVID-19 from the community to healthcare agencies and back to the community was confirmed in Wuhan. Prevention and control measures for COVID-19 in hospitals and among HWs are crucial and warrant further attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(23): 24931-24942, 2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573020

ABSTRACT

Since the Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (SARS-CoV-2 VOC) have been reported. The B.1.1.7 variant has been associated with increased mortality and transmission risk. Furthermore, cluster and possible co-infection cases could occur in the next influenza season or COVID-19 pandemic wave, warranting efficient diagnosis and treatment decision making. Here, we aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses using multiplex RT-PCR developed on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open system. We performed a multicenter study to evaluate the performance and analytical sensitivity of the LabTurbo AIO 48 system for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using 652 nasopharyngeal swab clinical samples from patients. The LabTurbo AIO 48 system demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.4 copies/per PCR for N2 of SARS-CoV-2; 24 copies/per PCR for M of influenza A and B; and 24 copies/per PCR for N of RSV. The assay presented consistent performance in the multicenter study. The multiplex RT-PCR applied on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open platform provided highly sensitive, robust, and accurate results and enabled high-throughput detection of B.1.1.7, influenza A/B, and RSV with short turnaround times. Therefore, this automated molecular diagnostic assay could enable streamlined testing if COVID-19 becomes a seasonal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Influenzavirus B/genetics , Influenzavirus B/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 525: 46-53, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has caused a global pandemic beginning in 2020, can be detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, owing to the urgent need for a large number of detection kits, the time spent researching and developing these kits has been shortened during the pandemic, and the kits that are being used commercially have not undergone full and independent evaluation. To ensure the accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 test results, performance verification of commercial Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) kits is required. METHODS: The performance of five commercial RT-qPCR diagnostic kits for SARS-CoV-2 used in China was evaluated using a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) RNA liquid performance verification reference product-manufactured by Guangzhou Bondson (BDS) Biotechnology Co., Ltd.,Guangzhou, China-that uses droplet digital RT-PCR technology combined with fluorescence quantitative PCR. The five kits of Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV nucleic acid detection kit (RT-qPCR method) evaluated were Da An (Da An Gene Co., Ltd. of Sun Yat-sen University), Liferiver (Shanghai ZJ Bio-Tech Co., Ltd.), Kinghawk (Beijing Kinghawk Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.), eDiagnosis (Wuhan Easy Diagnosis Biomedicine Co., Ltd.), and Maccura (Maccura Biotechnology Co., Ltd.). Performance verification criteria included the coincidence rate, limit of detection (LoD), cross-reactivity, precision, and anti-interference. Finally, through the BDS performance verification reference product kit, clinical samples are used to verify its clinical diagnostic efficacy. RESULTS: The coincidence rate was 100% for all kits except for Kinghawk, which was 95%. The LoD for Da An, eDiagnosis and Maccura was 250copies/mL, and it was 1000 copies/ml for Liferiver. Kinghawk was not able to detect its advertised LoD of 500 copies/ml. The cross-reactivity test results were all negative. Moreover, all kits had a coefficient of variation less than 5%; however, Liferiver showed the best precision. Da An, Liferiver, and eDiagnosis showed higher sensitivity to the nucleocapsid (N) gene than they did to the open reading frame (ORF) 1ab genes. Anti-interference results for all five kits were positive. The results of clinical diagnostic efficacy were that the specificity of the four kits was 1.000 (0.877-1.000), the sensitivity of Da An was 1.000 (0.850-1.000), Liferiver was 0.964 (0.798-0.998), Maccura was 0.893 (0.706-0.972), and eDiagnosis was 0.857 (0.664-0.953). CONCLUSIONS: All commercial RT-qPCR diagnostic kits for SARS-CoV-2 passed the BDS performance verification, except for Kinghawk (batch No:20200608113) which failed to detect the LoD of 500 copies/mL. Da An and Liferiver have excellent clinical diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. This study can provide guidance for the selection or optimization of RT-qPCR diagnostic test kits for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1877(1): 188665, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559178

ABSTRACT

Psychological distress, such as chronic depression and anxiety, is a topical problem. In the context of cancer patients, prevalence rates of psychological distress are four-times higher than in the general population and often confer worse outcomes. In addition to evidence from epidemiological studies confirming the links between psychological distress and cancer progression, a growing body of cellular and molecular studies have also revealed the complex signaling networks which are modulated by psychological distress-derived chronic stress during cancer progression. In this review, aiming to uncover the intertwined networks of chronic stress-driven oncogenesis and progression, we summarize physiological stress response pathways, like the HPA, SNS, and MGB axes, that modulate the release of stress hormones with potential carcinogenic properties. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the mechanisms behind these chronic stimulations contributing to the initiation and progression of cancer through direct regulation of cancer hallmarks-related signaling or indirect promotion of cancer risk factors (including obesity, disordered circadian rhythms, and premature senescence), suggesting a novel research direction into cancer prevention and therapy on the basis of psychological interventions.

7.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542797

ABSTRACT

To overcome the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, transmission routes, such as healthcare worker infection, must be effectively prevented. Ultraviolet C (UVC) (254 nm) has recently been demonstrated to prevent environmental contamination by infected patients; however, studies on its application in contaminated hospital settings are limited. Herein, we explored the clinical application of UVC and determined its optimal dose. Environmental samples (n = 267) collected in 2021 were analyzed by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subjected to UVC irradiation for different durations (minutes). We found that washbasins had a high contamination rate (45.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated after 15 min (estimated dose: 126 mJ/cm2) of UVC irradiation, and the contamination decreased from 41.7% before irradiation to 16.7%, 8.3%, and 0% after 5, 10, and 15 min of irradiation, respectively (p = 0.005). However, SARS-CoV-2 was still detected in washbasins after irradiation for 20 min but not after 30 min (252 mJ/cm2). Thus, 15 min of 254-nm UVC irradiation was effective in cleaning plastic, steel, and wood surfaces in the isolation ward. For silicon items, such as washbasins, 30 min was suggested; however, further studies using hospital environmental samples are needed to confirm the effective UVC inactivation of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0135221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526454

ABSTRACT

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects
9.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, its terrible infectiousness has caused great panic, anxiety and poor sleep quality to the vulnerable adolescent populations. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey recruited 10 569 Chinese junior and senior high school adolescents during 31 January to 9 February 2020. Basic socio-demographic information, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Fear of negative evaluation (FNE) were included in the survey. The χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with poor sleep quality. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 18.6% in the Chinese adolescent population. The average score of PSQI was 3.39 (SD = 2.64), which was significantly correlated with scores for anxiety (r = 0.50, p < 0.01), and FNE (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). Adjusted logistic regression indicated that gender (females) and education (senior high school) were associated with poor sleep quality, while living in Hubei Province and time spent on the COVID-19 information were inversely associated with poor sleep quality. Having a family member or friend infected/suspected and spending time on electronics were associated with higher odds of having poor sleep quality. Adolescents with anxiety were 8 times, and those with FNE were three times more likely than ones without anxiety or FNE to have poor sleep quality. In addition, the number of meals, exercise time and diet quality were also significantly associated with sleep quality. (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality was common during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese adolescents. Understanding several factors associated with the poor sleep quality will offer some important insights into determining potential interventions to improve sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Journal of Jiangsu University Medicine Edition ; 30(5):451-454, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395340

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the drug of Bacillus licheniformis Capsule (BLC) to improve the high levels of cytokines and clinical prognosis in COVID-19 patients, and to provide the clinical evidence for gut microflora therapy in COVID-19.

11.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Mass screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pooling samples can increase the number of tests processed. LabTurbo AIO 48 is an automated platform that allows ribonucleic acid extraction and sample analysis on the same instrument. We created a novel pooling assay on this platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection and demonstrated that the pooling strategy increases testing capacity without affecting accuracy and sensitivity. METHODS: Comparative limit of detection (LoD) assessment was performed on the LabTurbo AIO 48 platform and the current standard detection system based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) using 55 clinically positive samples. An additional 330 primary clinical samples were assessed. RESULTS: Six samples pooled into one reaction tube were detected in approximately 2.5 h using the World Health Organization rRT-PCR protocol. LabTurbo AIO 48 also demonstrated a higher throughput than our reference rRT-PCR assay, with an LoD of 1000 copies/mL. The overall percentage agreement between the methods for the 330 samples was 100%. CONCLUSION: We created a novel multi-specimen pooling assay using LabTurbo AIO 48 for the robust detection of SARS-CoV-2, allowing high-throughput results; this assay will aid in better control and prevention of COVID-19. The diagnostic assay was cost-effective and time-efficient; thus, the pooling strategy is a practical and effective method for diagnosing large quantities of specimens without compromising precision.

13.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(28): 5636-5644, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291040

ABSTRACT

DNA polymerization is of high specificity in vivo. However, its specificity is much lower in vitro, which limits advanced applications of DNA polymerization in ultrasensitive nucleic acid detection. Herein, we report a unique mechanism of single selenium-atom modified dNTP (dNTPαSe) to enhance polymerization specificity. We have found that both dNTPαSe (approximately 660 fold) and Se-DNA (approximately 2.8 fold) have lower binding affinity to DNA polymerase than canonical ones, and the Se-DNA duplex has much lower melting-temperature (Tm) than the corresponding canonical DNA duplex. The reduced affinity and Tm can destabilize the substrate-primer-template-enzyme assembly, thereby largely slowing down the mismatch of DNA polymerization and enhancing the amplification specificity and in turn detection sensitivity. Furthermore, the Se-strategy enables us to develop the selenium enhanced specific isothermal amplification (SEA) for nucleic acid detection with high specificity and sensitivity (up to detection of single-digit copies), allowing convenient detection of clinical HPV and COVID-19 viruses in the low-copy number. Clearly, we have discovered the exciting mechanism for enhancing DNA polymerization accuracy, amplification specificity and detection sensitivity by SEA, up to two orders of magnitude higher.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Human papillomavirus 16/isolation & purification , Phosphates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/chemistry , DNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Human papillomavirus 16/metabolism , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Polymerization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Temperature
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252841, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) for fear of transmission while breaking social distancing rules. The latest guidelines recommend hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and facemask use. However, public willingness in this setup remains unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional, unrestricted volunteer Internet survey was conducted to assess individuals' attitudes and behaviors toward performing BCPR, pre-existing CPR training, occupational identity, age group, and gender. The raking method for weights and a regression analysis for the predictors of willingness were performed. RESULTS: Among 1,347 eligible respondents, 822 (61%) had negative attitudes toward performing BCPR. Healthcare providers (HCPs) and those with pre-existing CPR training had fewer negative attitudes (p < 0.001); HCPs and those with pre-existing CPR training and unchanged attitude showed more positive behaviors toward BCPR (p < 0.001). Further, 9.7% of the respondents would absolutely refuse to perform BCPR. In contrast, 16.9% would perform BCPR directly despite the outbreak. Approximately 9.9% would perform it if they were instructed, 23.5%, if they wore facemasks, and 40.1%, if they were to perform hands-only CPR. Interestingly, among the 822 respondents with negative attitudes, over 85% still tended to perform BCPR in the abovementioned situations. The weighted analysis showed similar results. The adjusted predictors for lower negative attitudes toward BCPR were younger age, being a man, and being an HCP; those for more positive behaviors were younger age and being an HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on attitudes and behaviors toward BCPR. Younger individuals, men, HCPs, and those with pre-existing CPR training tended to show fewer negative attitudes and behaviors. Meanwhile, most individuals with negative attitudes still expressed positive behaviors under safer measures such as facemask protection, hands-only CPR, and available dispatch instructions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/psychology , Public Opinion , Adult , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/education , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Taiwan , Young Adult
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(15): 3487-3497, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244995

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) combined with liver injury has become a very prominent clinical problem. Due to the lack of a clear definition of liver injury in patients with COVID-19, the different selection of evaluation parameters and statistical time points, there are the conflicting conclusions about the incidence rate in different studies. The mechanism of COVID-19 combined with liver injury is complicated, including the direct injury of liver cells caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 replication and liver injury caused by cytokines, ischemia and hypoxia, and drugs. In addition, underlying diseases, especially chronic liver disease, can aggravate COVID-19 liver injury. In the treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, the primary and basic treatment is to treat the etiology and pathogenesis, followed by support, liver protection, and symptomatic treatment according to the clinical classification and severity of liver injury. This article evaluates the incidence, pathogenesis and prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury, and aims to provide countermeasures for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 combined with liver injury.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2697, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225508

ABSTRACT

Although human antibodies elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein are profoundly boosted upon infection, little is known about the function of N-reactive antibodies. Herein, we isolate and profile a panel of 32 N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a quick recovery coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescent patient who has dominant antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 N protein rather than to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The complex structure of the N protein RNA binding domain with the highest binding affinity mAb (nCoV396) reveals changes in the epitopes and antigen's allosteric regulation. Functionally, a virus-free complement hyperactivation analysis demonstrates that nCoV396 specifically compromises the N protein-induced complement hyperactivation, which is a risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, thus laying the foundation for the identification of functional anti-N protein mAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Allosteric Regulation , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Conformation
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 58, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Shanghai had a local outbreak of COVID-19 from January 21 to 24. Timely and precise strategies were taken to prevent further spread of the disease. We discussed and shared the experience of COVID-19 containment in Shanghai. PROCESS: The first two patients worked at two hospitals but no staff from the two hospitals were infected. The suspected case and his two close contacts were confirmed to be infected within 12 h. The testing rate of individuals was low. The scope of screening was minimized to two related districts and the close contact tracing was completed within 12 h, which were precise and cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Active monitoring, precise epidemiological investigation and timely nucleic acid testing help discover new cases, minimize the scope of screening, and interrupt the transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Diabetes Complications , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Quarantine/standards
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24843, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been over 2 million deaths globally. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may be the main cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, outcomes, and ARDS characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Chongqing, China. METHODS: The epidemiology of COVID-19 from January 21, 2020, to March 15, 2020, in Chongqing, China, was analyzed retrospectively, and 75 ICU patients from two hospitals were included in this study. On day 1, 56 patients with ARDS were selected for subgroup analysis, and a modified Poisson regression was performed to identify predictors for the early improvement of ARDS (eiARDS). RESULTS: Chongqing reported a 5.3% case fatality rate for the 75 ICU patients. The median age of these patients was 57 (IQR 25-75) years, and no bias was present in the sex ratio. A total of 93% (n=70) of patients developed ARDS during ICU stay, and more than half had moderate ARDS. However, most patients (n=41, 55%) underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, but not mechanical ventilation. Nearly one-third of patients with ARDS improved (arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/oxygen concentration >300 mm Hg) in 1 week, which was defined as eiARDS. Patients with eiARDS had a higher survival rate and a shorter length of ICU stay than those without eiARDS. Age (<55 years) was the only variable independently associated with eiARDS, with a risk ratio of 2.67 (95% CI 1.17-6.08). CONCLUSIONS: A new subphenotype of ARDS-eiARDS-in patients with COVID-19 was identified. As clinical outcomes differ, the stratified management of patients based on eiARDS or age is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Front Psychol ; 12: 600810, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106046

ABSTRACT

This study points out that families' support of perseverance in creative efforts will increase children's originality of creative drawing through children's persistence in information searching. Data analysis based on 134 Chinese young children's creative drawings and survey supports the above hypothesis. Moreover, children's exposure to COVID-19 pandemic positively moderates the relationship between supporting perseverance and children's search persistence, such that high exposure to COVID-19 pandemic will increase the positive relationship between support of perseverance and search persistence. And children's prosocial motivation inhibits the influence of search persistence on originality. Contributions to the theory of children's creativity are discussed.

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